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Let these three ancients be preferr'd to own plays, that were of the satirical nature. all the moderns, as first arriving at the goal; That the Romans had farces before this, 't is let them all be crown'd, as victors, with true; but then they had no communication the wreath that properly belongs to satire; with Greece; so that Andronicus was the but, after that, with this distinction amongst first who wrote after the manner of the Old themselves:

Comedy in his plays: he was imitated by Primus equum phaleris insignem victor habeto :

Ennius, about thirty years afterwards. Tho'

the former writ fables, the latter, speaking let Juvenal ride first in triumph:

properly, began the Roman satire; accordAlter Amazoniam pharetram, plenamque sagittis

ing to that description which Juvenal gives

of it in his First : Threiciis, lato quam circumplectitur auro Balteus, et tereti subnectit fibula gemma :

Quicquid agunt homines, votui, timor, ira, volet Horace, who is the second, and but just


Gaudia, discursus, nostri est farrago libelli. the second, carry off the quivers and the arrows, as the badges of his satire, and the This is that in which I have made bold to golden belt, and the diamond button: differ from Casaubon, Rigaltius, Dacier, and

indeed from all the modern critics, that not Tertius Argolico hoc clypeo contentus abito ::

Ennius, but Andronicus was the first; who, and let Persius, the last of the first three by the Archæa Comedia of the Greeks, worthies, be contented with this Grecian added many beauties to the first rude and shield, and with victory, not only over all

barbarous Roman satire: which sort of the Grecians, who were ignorant of the Ro- poem, tho' we had not deriv'd from Rome, man satire, but over all the moderns in suc- yet nature teaches it mankind in all ages, ceeding ages, excepting Boileau and your and in every country. Lordship

'T is but necessary, that after so much bas And thus I have given the history of sat

been said of satire, some definition of it ire, and deriv'd it as far as from Ennius to should be given. Heinsius, in his Dissertayour Lordship; that is, from its first rudi- tions on Horace, makes it for me, in these ments of barbarity to its last polishing and words: “Satire is a kind of poetry, without perfection; which is, with Virgil, in his ad- la series of action, invented for the purging dress to Augustus:

of our minds; in which human vices, igno

rance, and errors, and all things besides, nomen fama tot ferre per annos,

which are produc'd from them in every Tithoni prima quot abest ab origine Cæsar.

man, are severely reprehended; partly draI said only from Ennius; but I may matically, partly simply, and sometimes in safely carry it higher, as far as Livius An- both kinds of speaking; but, for the most dronicus; who, as I have said formerly, part, figuratively, and occultly; consisting taught the first play at Rome, in the year

ab in a low familiar way, chiefly in a sharp and urbe condita 514. I have since desir'd my pungent manner of speech; but partly, also, learn'd friend, Mr. Maidwell, to compute the in a facetious and civil way of jesting; by difference of times betwixt Aristophanes which either hatred, or laughter, or indigand Livius Andronicus; and he assures me, nation is mov'd.”. Where I cannot but from the best chronologers, that Plutus, the observe, that this obscure and perplex'd last of Aristophanes his plays, was repre- definition, or rather description, of satire, sented at Athens, in the year of the 97th is wholly accommodated to the Horatian Olympiad, which agrees with the year urbis way; and excluding the works of Juvenal conditæ 364. So that the difference of years and Persius, as foreign from that kind of betwixt Aristophanes and Andronicus is poem. The clause in the beginning of it, 150; from whence I have probably deduc'd, without a series of action, distinguishes satthat Livius Andronicus, who was a Grecian, ire properly from stageplays, which are all had read the plays of the Old Comedy, which of one action, and one continued series of were satirical, and also of the New; for action. The end or scope of satire is to Menander was fifty years before him, which purge the passions; so far it is common to must needs be a great light to him in his the satires of Juvenal and Persius. The rest


which follows is also generally belonging to a thoughts, how a modern satire should be all three; till he comes upon us, with the

made. I will not deviate in the least from excluding clause, consisting in a low familiar - the precepts and examples of the ancients, way of speech, which is the proper character who were always our best masters. I will of Horace; and from which the other two,' only illustrate them, and discover some of for their honor be it spoken, are far distant. the hidden beauties in their designs, that we But how come lowness of style, and the thereby may form our own in imitation of familiarity of words, to be so much the them. Will you please but to observe, that propriety of satire, that without them a poet Persius, the least in dignity of all the three, can be no more a satirist, than without has notwithstanding been the first who has risibility he can be a man? Is the fault of discover'd to us this important secret in the Horace to be made the virtue and standing designing of a perfect satire that it ought rule of this poem? Is the grande sophos only to treat of one subject; to be confin'd of Persius, and the sublimity of Juvenal, to one particular theme; or at least, to one to be circumscrib'd with the meanness of principally. If other vices occur in the words and vulgarity of expression ? If management of the chief, they should only Horace refus'd the pains of numbers, and be transiently lash'd, and not be insisted on, the loftiness of figures, are they bound to so as to make the design double. As in a follow so ill a precedent ? Let him walk play of the English fashion, which we call a afoot, with his pad in his hand, for his own tragi-comedy, there is to be but one main pleasure; but let not them be acco

design; and tho' there be an underplot, or poets, who choose to mount, and shew their second walk of comical characters and adhorsemanship. Holyday is not afraid to say, ventures, yet they are subservient to the that there was never such a fall, as from chief fable, carried along under it, and help his Odes to his Satires, and that he, inju- ing to it; so that the drama may not seem a riously to himself, untun'd his harp. The monster with two heads. Thus, the Copernimajestic way of Persius and Juvenal was can system of the planets makes the moon to new when they began it, but 't is old to be mov'd by the motion of the earth, and us; and what poems have not, with time, carried about her orb, as a dependent of hers. receiv'd an alteration in their fashion ? Mascardi, in his discourse of the Doppia fa" Which alteration,” says Holyday, “is to vola, or double tale in plays, gives an inaftertimes as good a warrant as the first." stance of it in the famous pastoral of Guarini, Has not Virgil chang’d the manners of callid 1 Pastor Fido; where Corisca and Homer's heroes in his Æneis ? Certainly the Satyr are the under parts; yet we may he bas, and for the better: for Virgil's observe that Corisca is brought into the age was more civiliz’d, and better bred; body of the plot, and made subservient to it. and he writ according to the politeness of 'Tis certain that the divine wit of Horace Rome, under the reign of Augustus Cæsar, was not ignorant of this rule — that a play, not to the rudeness of Agamemnon's age, tho' it consists of many parts, must yet be or the times of Homer. Why should we one in the action, and must drive on the offer to confine free spirits to one form, accomplishment of one design; for he gives when we cannot so much as confine our this very precept, sit quodvis simplex duntaxat bodies to one fashion of apparel ? Would et unum; yet he seems not much to mind it not Donne's Satires, which abound with so in his Satires, many of them consisting of much wit, appear more charming, if he had more arguments than one; and the second taken care of his words, and of his num- without dependence on the first. Casaubon bers ? But he follow'd Horace so very close, has observ'd this before me, in his preferthat of necessity he must fall with him; ence of Persius to Horace; and will have and I may safely say it of this present age, his own belov'd author to be the first who that if we are not so great wits as Donne, found out and introduc'd this method of yet certainly we are better poets.

confining himself to one subject. I know But I have said enough, and it may be it may be urg'd in defense of Horace, that too much, on this subject. Will your Lord- this unity is not necessary; because the very ship be pleas'd to prolong my audience, word satura signifies a dish plentifully stord only so far, till I tell you my own trivial with all variety of fruits and grains. Yet

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Juvenal, who calls his poems a farrago, where to be prais'd and recommended to which is a word of the same signification practice; and all vices to be reprehended, with satura, has chosen to follow the same and made either odious or ridiculous; or method of Persius, and not of Horace; and else there is a fundamental error in the Boileau, whose example alone is a sufficient whole design. authority, has wholly confin'd himself, in all I have already declar'd who are the only his Satires, to this unity of design. That persons that are the adequate object of variety, which is not to be found in any one private satire, and who they are that may satire, is at least in many, written on sev- properly be expos'd by name for public eral occasions. And if variety be of absolute examples of vices and follies; and therenecessity in every one of them, according fore I will trouble your Lordship no farther to the etymology of the word, yet it may

with them. Of the best and finest manner arise naturally from one subject, as it is of satire, I have said enough in the compardiversely treated, in the several subordinate ison betwixt Juvenal and Horace: 't is that branches of it, all relating to the chief. sharp, well-manner'd way of laughing a It may be illustrated accordingly with folly out of countenance, of which your variety of examples in the subdivisions of Eordship is the best master in this age.

I it, and with as many precepts as there will proceed to the versification which is are members of it; which, altogether, may most proper for it, and add somewhat to complete that olla, or hotchpotch, which is what I have said already on that subject. properly a satire.

The sort of verse which is call'd burlesque, Under this unity of theme, or subject, is consisting of eight syllables, or four feet, comprehended another rule for perfecting is that which our excellent Hudibras has the design of true satire. The poet is bound, chosen. I ought to have mention’d him and that ex officio, to give his reader some before, when I spoke of Donne; but by a one precept of moral virtue, and to caution slip of an old man's memory he was forgothim against some one particular vice or ten. The worth of his poem is too well folly. Other virtues, subordinate to the known to need my commendation, and he first, may be recommended under that chief is above my censure. His satire is of the head; and other vices or follies may be Varronian kind, tho' unmix'd with prose. scourg'd, besides that which he principally The choice of his numbers is suitable enough intends. But he is chiefly to inculcate one to his design, as he has manag'd it; but in virtue, and insist on that. Thus Juvenal, in any other hand, the shortness of his verse, every satire excepting the First, ties bim- and the quick returns of rhyme, had de bas'd self to one principal instructive point, or to the dignity of style. And besides, the douthe shunning of moral evil. Even in the ble rhyme (a necessary companion of burSixth, which seems only an arraignment of lesque writing) is not so proper for manly the whole sex of womankind, there is a satire; for it turns earnest too much to latent admonition to avoid ill women, by jest, and gives us a boyish kind of pleasure. shewing how very few who are virtuous Ît tickles awkwardly with a kind of pain, and good are to be found amongst them. to the best sort of readers: we are pleas'd But this, tho’ the wittiest of all his satires, ungratefully, and, if I may say so, against has yet the least of truth or instruction in our liking. We thank him not for giving us it. He has run himself into his old declam- that unseasonable delight, when we know atory way, and almost forgotten that he he could have given us a better, and more was now setting in for a moral poet. solid. He might have left that task to

Persius is never wanting to us in some others, who, not being able to put in profitable doctrine, and in exposing the thought, can only make us grin with the opposite vices to it. His kind of philosophy excrescence of a word of two or three sylis one, which is the Stoic; and every satire lables in the close. T is, indeed, below so is a comment on one particular dogma of great a master to make use of such a little that sect, unless we will except the First, instrument. But his good sense is perpetuwhich is against bad writers; and yet ev'n ally shining thro' all he writes; it affords there he forgets not the precepts of the us not the time of finding faults. We pass Porch. In general, all virtues are every- thro' the levity of his rhyme, and are immany

mediately carried into some admirable use- odies; as particularly this passage in the ful thought. After all, he has chosen this fourth of the Æneids : kind of verse, and has written the best in it; and had he taken another, he would always

Nec tibi diva parens, generis nec Dardanus auctor,

Perfide; sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens have excell’d: as we say of a court favorite,

Caucasus; Hyrcanæque admorunt ubera tigres : that whatsoever his office be, he still makes it uppermost, and most beneficial to him- which he thus translates, keeping to the self.

words, but altering the sense: The quickness of your imagination, my Lord, has already prevented me; and you

Non, ton père à Paris ne fut point boulanger;

Et tu n'es point du sang de Gervais, horloger : know beforehand, that I would prefer the

Ta mère ne fut point la maîtresse d'un coche ; verse of ten syllables, which we call the

Caucase dans ses flancs te forma d'une roche : English heroic, to that of eight. This is

Une tigresse affreuse, en quelque antre écarté, truly my opinion; for this sort of number

Te fit, avec son lait, sucer sa cruauté. is more roomy: the thought can turn itself with greater ease in a larger compass. And, as Virgil in his Fourth Georgic, of the When the rhyme comes too thick upon us, Bees, perpetually raises the lowness of his it straitens the expression; we are thinking subject by the loftiness of his words, and of the close, when we should be employ'd ennobles it by comparisons drawn from emin adorning the thought. It makes a poet pires, and from monarchs: giddy with turning in a space too narrow

Admiranda tibi levium spectacula rerum, for his imagination; he loses beauties, without gaining one advantage. For a bur

Magnanimosque duces, totiusque ordine gentis

Mores et studia, et populos, et prælia dicam ; lesque Thyme I have already concluded to be none; or, if it were, 't is more easily

and again: purchas'd in ten syllables than in eight. In both occasions 't is as in a tennis court,

Sed genus immortale manet ; multosque per annos

Stat fortuna domus, et avi numerantur avorum; wben the strokes of greater force are given, when we strike out and play at length. we see Boileau pursuing him in the same Tassoni and Boileau have left us the best flights, and scarcely yielding to his master. examples of this way, in the Secchia Rapita, This, I think, my Lord, to be the most and the Lutrin; and next them Merlin Coc- beautiful and most noble kind satire. caius in his Baldus. I will speak only of Here is the majesty of the heroic, finely the two former, because the last is written mix'd with the venom of the other; and in Latin verse. The Secchia Rapita is an raising the delight which otherwise would Italian

poem, a satire of the Varronian kind. be flat and vulgar, by the sublimity of the 'T is written in the stanza of eight, which expression. I could say somewhat more of is their measure for heroic verse. The the delicacy of this and some other of his words are stately, the numbers smooth, the satires; but it might turn to his prejudice, turn both of thoughts and words is happy. if 't were carried back to France. The first six lines of the stanza seem majes- I have given your Lordship but this bare tical and severe; but the two last turn them hint, in what verse and in what manner all into a pleasant ridicule. Boileau, if I am this sort of satire may best be manag'd. not much deceiv'd, has modeld from hence Had I time, I could enlarge on the beautihis famous Lutrin. He had read the bur- ful turns of words and thoughts, which are lesque poetry of Scarron with some kind as requisite in this, as in heroic poetry itself, of indignation, as witty as it was, and found of which this satire is undoubtedly a species. nothing in France that was worthy of his With these beautiful turns, I confess myself imitation; but he copied the Italian so well, to have been unacquainted, till about twenty that his own may pass for an original. He years ago, in a conversation which I had writes it in the French heroic verse, and with that noble wit of Scotland, Sir George calls it an heroic poem; his subject is triv- Mackenzie, he ask'd me why I did not imiial, but his verse is noble. I doubt not but tate in my verses the turns of Mr. Waller he had Virgil in his eye,

for we find many and Sir John Denham, of which he repeated admirable imitations of him, and some par- many to me. I had often read with pleasure, and with some profit, those two fathers of An example on the turn both of thoughts our English poetry, but had not seriously and words is to be found in Catullus, in enough consider'd those beauties which give the complaint of Ariadne, when she was left the last perfection to their works. Some by Theseus: sprinklings of this kind I had also formerly

Tum jam nulla viro juranti fæmina credat ; in my plays; but they were casual, and

Nulla viri speret sermones esse fideles ; not design'd. But this hint, thus seasonably

Qui, dum aliquid cupiens animus prægestit given me, first made me sensible of my own apisci, wants, and brought me afterwards to seek Nil metuunt jurare, nihil promittere parcunt : for the supply of them in other English Sed simul ac cupidæ mentis satiata libido est, authors. I look'd over the darling of my

Dicta nihil metuere, nihil perjuria curant. youth, the famous Cowley; there I found, instead of them, the points of wit, and quirks that in Ovid's Epistolæ Heroidum, of Sap

An extraordinary turn upon the words is of epigram, even in the Davideis, a heroic

pho to Phaon: poem, which is of an opposite nature to those puerilities; but no elegant turns either on Si, nisi quæ forma poterit te digna videri, The word or on the thought. Then I con

Nulla futura tua est, nulla futura tua est. sulted a greater genius, (without offense to Lastly, a turn, which I cannot say is abthe manes of that noble author,) I mean solutely on words,

for the thought turns with Milton; but as he endeavors everywhere them, is in the Fourth Georgic of Virgil; to express Homer, whose age had not ar- where Orpheus is to receive his wife from riv'd to that fineness, I found in him a true hell, on express condition not to look on sublimity, lofty thoughts, which were cloth'd her till she was come on earth: with admirable Grecisms, and ancient words,

Cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem ; which he had been digging from the mines

Ignoscenda quidem, scirent si ignoscere manes. of Chaucer and of Spenser, and which, with all their rusticity, had somewhat of vener- I will not burthen your Lordship with izble in them. But I found not there neither more of them, for I write to a master who that for which I look'd. At last I had re- understands them better than myself. But course to his master, Spenser, the author I may safely conclude them to be great of that immortal poem call’d The Fairy beauties. I might descend also to the meQueen, and there I met with that which I chanic beauties of heroic verse; but we have had been looking for so long in vain. Spen- yet no English prosodia, not so much as a ber had studied Virgil to as much advantage tolerable dictionary, or a grammar; so that as Milton had done Homer, and amongst our language is in a manner barbarous; and the rest of his excellencies had copied that. what government will encourage any one, Looking farther into the Italian, I found or more, who are capable of refining it, I Tasso had done the same; nay more, that know not: but nothing under a public exall the sonnets in that language are on the pense can go thro’ with it. And I rather fear turn of the first thought; which Mr. Walsh, a declination of the language, than hope an in his late ingenious preface to his poems, advancement of it in the present age. has observ'd. In short, Virgil and Ovid I am still speaking to you, my Lord, tho', are the two principal fountains of them in in all probability, you are already out of Latin poetry. And the French at this day hearing. Nothing which my meanness can are so fond of them, that they judge them produce is worthy of this long attention. to be the first beauties: délicat et bien tourné But I am come to the last petition of Abraare the highest commendations which they ham; if there be ten righteous lines in this bestow on somewhat which they think a vast preface, spare it for their sake; and masterpiece.

also spare the next city, because it is but a An example of the turn on words, amongst a thousand others, is that in the I would excuse the performance of this last book of Ovid's Metamorphoses :

translation, if it were all my own; but the Heu! quantum scelus est, in viscera, viscera condi ! better, tho' not the greater part, being the Congestoque avidum pinguescere corpore corpus ;

work of some gentlemen who have sucAlteriusque animantem animantis vivere leto. ceeded very happily in their undertaking,

little one.

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