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the strangers that were at Rome, both Jews and proselytes, prior to their being admitted into church fellowship.
We find that after Peter had finished the most prolific sermon ever preached by man, 66 they came to him,” (i. e. his hearers) and said, "What shall we do?" (Acts ii. 37.) or, in other words, What do you require us to do, in order that we may become “Christians ?" First, repentance was required of them.
Then Peter said unto them, Repent: (Acts ii. 38.) and with many other words did he testify and exhort, saying, Save yourselves from this untoward generation.
Repent ye, therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord. Acts iii. 19.
But showed first unto them of Damascus, and at Jerusalem, and throughout all the coast of Judea, and then to the Gentiles, that they should repent, and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance. Acts xxvi. 20.
Secondly, they were required to believe in him, whom they had crucified and slain.
If thou shalt confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shalt believe in thine heart, that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shalt be saved. Rom. x. 9.
And said, Sirs, what must I do to be saved? And they said, Believe on the Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be saved, and thy house. Acts xvi. 30, 31.
And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. Acts viii. 37.
And this is the commandment: that we should believe on the name of his Son, Jesus Christ, and love one another. 1 John iii.
Thirdly, they were required to be baptized, both men and women. And Peter said unto them, Repent and be baptized, every one of you. Acts ii. 38.
Then they that gladly received his word were baptized. Acts
They were baptized, both men and women. Acts viii. 13. Then Simon himself believed, and he was baptized. Acts viii. 13. Can any man forbid water, that these should not be baptized, which have received the Holy Ghost, as well as we? and he commanded them to be baptized. Acts x. 47, 48.
Saul arose, and was baptized. Acts ix. 18.
Lydia and her household were baptized. Acts xvi. 15.
The gaoler was baptized. Acts xvi. 33.
And as they went on their way, they came unto a certain water, and the eunuch said, See, here is water; what doth hinder me to be baptized?
And Philip said, If thou believest with all thine heart, thou mayest. And he answered, and said, I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. He then commanded the chariot to stand still; and they went both down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch, and he baptized him. Acts viii. 36-38.
We have already had the opinions of our learned friends upon FAITH and REPENTANCE: we will now refer to them for their definition of BAPTISM. First, the meaning of the term; and secondly, the signification of the ordinance.
To baptize-to dip into water, or to plunge one into the water.
Baptizo. To dip all over, to wash, to baptize.
Young's Latin-English Dictionary. Baptism, in strictness of speech, is that kind of ablution, or washing, which consists in dipping; and when applied to the Christian institution, so called, it was used by the primitive Christians in no other sense than that of dipping, as the learned Grotius and Casaubon well observed.
Bailey's Dictionary. Dr. Scott's Edit. 1772,
The word baptize signifies to immerse, and the right of immersion was observed by the ancient Church.
Calvin's Institut. Christ. Religion.
Q. What is Christian dipping?
A. Water, in conjunction with the word and command of Christ.
Q. What is that command, which is in conjunction with water? A. "Go, teach all nations," &c. Matt. xxviii. 19. Mark xvi. 15, 16.
Q. What is implied in these words?
A. A command to the dipper and the dipped, with a promise of salvation to those that believe.
Q. How is this Christian dipping to be administered?
A. The person must be deep dipped in water, or overwhelmed with it, in the name of God the Father, and so on.
Danish Catechism. Baptism, that is, immersion, dipping, and by consequence washing. Baptistery, a vat, or large vessel of wood or stone, in which we are immersed, for the sake of washing. Baptist, one that immerses, or dips. Bucanus: Institut. Theolog.
Baptized, viz. plunged in water. In baptism, being dipped in water, is a sacred figure unto us, that sin ought to be drowned in us, by God's Spirit. Diodati's Annotations on Rom. vi. 4.
Generally people (speaking of the Jews) dipped themselves entirely under the water; and this is the most simple and natural notion of the word baptism. Calmet's Dict. Bib. art. Bapt.
Βαπτιζω. The word baptize, though derived from βαπτω, to dip, or plunge into the water, and signifieth primarily such a kind of washing as is used in bucks, where linen is plunged and dipped; is yet taken more largely for any kind of washing, rinsing, or cleansing, even where there is no dipping at all; as Matt, iii. 11, and so on. The native and proper signification of it is, to dip into water, or to plunge under water. John iii. 22, 23. Matt. iii. 16. Acts viii, 38. Leigh.-Crit. Sac.
BaTTil, to baptize; properly, indeed, it signifies to plunge, to immerse, to dip into water: but because it is common to plunge or dip a thing that it may be washed, hence also it signifies to wash, to wash away. BaTтioμos, baptism; immersion, dipping into; washing, washing away. Properly, and according to its etymology, it denotes that washing which is performed by immersion.
Bawrio, to baptize, to dip, or immerse; as we immerse any thing for the purpose of dyeing, or cleansing, in water. Also, to dip, to plunge, to overwhelm in water. Likewise, to wash away, to wash.
Scapula. 1652, To be baptized, is to be dipped in water; metaphorically, to be plunged in afflictions. I am, saith Christ, to be baptized with blood, overwhelmed with sufferings and afflictions.
Poole's Annotat. on Matt. xx. 22. 1688.
The verb Bawrio expresses the form of admitting a proselyte into the Christian Church, which tradition assures us was by a trine immersion, or plunging under water. But of late aspersion, or sprinkling, is admitted by the Church of England instead of im mersion or dipping. Dr. Dan, Scott,
To baptize, signifies to plunge, as is granted by all the world.
The verb BaπTo signifies immergo; that is, to plunge and dip in; and that was the proper use of water baptism among the Jews, and also by John and the primitive Christians, who used it. Whereas our adversaries, for the most part, only sprinkle a little water upon the forehead, which doth not at all answer to the word baptism. So that if our adversaries will stick to the word, they must alter their method of sprinkling. Robert Barclay's Apology.
John did baptize into water; and it was a baptism, a real dip. ping, or plunging into water; and so a real baptism was John's.
Baptism is the plunging of a man in cold water.
William Dell, They (the Apostles, at the feast of Pentecost) were now baptized with the Holy Ghost indeed; and that in the strict and proper sense of the word baptize, which signifies to dip, plunge, or put under. Ellwood's Sacred History of the New Testament,
There are two words, which signify suffering of affliction, and they are both applied unto Christ, Matt, xx. 22. "Are ye able to drink of the cup that I shall drink of, or be baptized with the bap◄
tism that I am baptized with?" He that drinketh, hath the water in him; he that is dipped, or plunged, hath the water about him: so it notes the universality of the wrath which Christ suffered.
It must be confessed, that in the primitive times, and in those hot countries where the Gospel was first preached, baptism, for the most part, was administered by dipping or plunging the person baptized into water. This ceremony of washing with water was the usual way among the Jews of receiving proselytes; and from thence it was introduced by our Saviour into his church.
Dr. Robert Newton.
I dare not deny my judgment to teach thus far for dipping, above the other forms of sprinkling or pouring: that, were it as orderly in our Church, and used, and no offence to weak souls, I would sooner be induced to dip one that was never before baptized, than to sprinkle one; for to me it would be more significant, and full, and pregnant with former practices.
Mr. John Rogers, in Crosby's Hist. Bapt. Baptized; that is, drown you all over, dip you into the ocean of his grace; opposite to the sprinkling which was in the law.
Leigh's Annotat. on Matt. iii. 11.
Those that are baptized with the Spirit, are as it were plunged into that heavenly flame, whose searching energy devours all their dross, tin, and base alloy. Bp. Hopkins.
Though the ceremony of immersion was anciently more common, as appears from the unanimous language of the Fathers, as often as they speak about baptism; and in a more expressive manner represents the death, burial and resurrection of our Lord, and of us; whence St. Thomas affirms, that the rite of dipping is more com mendable; yet there have been many reasons, for which it was sometimes convenient to alter immersion into some other kindred ceremony. Hence, therefore, the ceremony of pouring, as a medium between dipping and sprinkling, was much used; which custom, Bonaventure says, was in his time much observed in the French