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He was thereby constituted Mediator betwixt God and man, as Godman in one person, 1 Tim. ii. 5. Having had the Father's call thereto, and that call being accepted by his own consent, he was thereby established the great Mediator betwixt God and man, for making and keeping the designed peace between heaven and earth ; through whom, and in whom, as a public person, God might enter into a new covenant with sinners of Adam's race. Thus also was he constituted the second Adam, and representative of all the elect, with whom the Father might treat as one answering for them. And was constituted Mediator or Midsman betwixt God and sinners in two respects.

1st, He was constituted Mediator in respect of his natures. He was a substantial Mediator, as partaking of the nature of both parties. He was God equal with the Father from all eternity, and Bo stood related to heaven: he was designed to be man from eternity, and so stood related to earth. In this divine constitution four things are to be considered.

(1.) That he should be a real man, having a true body, and a reasonable soul, and not be so in appearance only, Heb. ii. 14. that so he might be capable to suffer, since without shedding of blood . was no remission; and the divine nature could not suffer.

(3.) That that body of his should not be made of nothing, nor of any thing but what belongs to Adam's family, Psal. Ixxxix. 19. Gal. iv. 4. ; that so he might indeed be one of the family of Adam, Luke iii. ult. ; a brother of those in whose name he was to act, Heb. ii. 11. and so the same nature that sinned might suffer.

(4.) That that human nature should be united to his divine nature in the way of a personal union, John i. 4; the divine nature in the person of the Son marrying the human nature to itself, that the Son of God should become as really the Son of man, and of Adam's family, as he was the Son of God, and of the family of heaven. And this to the end that what ho might do or suffer in the name of his brethren, might be of infinite value and efficacy, as the deed of a divine person, Acts xx. 28. 1 John i. 7.

(4.) That that human nature to be thus united to the divine in the person of the Son, should be a holy thing; since sinful flesh was not capable of an immediate union with God; and that therefore, by the operation of the Holy Ghost, that substance of the body that was to be prepared for the Mediator, should be separated from all corruption and infection from the first Adam; and the soul and body should both be of a perfectly holy nature, Luke i. 35. This was necessary to qualify him to be Mediator, the last Adam; for had he himself been defiled with the least taint of sin, he could not have expiated the sins of others, Heb. vii. 26, 27.

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Adly, As by his consent to become man, he was constituted substantial Mediator; so by his consent to become last (or second) Adam, he was constituted official Mediator betwixt God and man, or Mediator in respect of office, 1 Tim. ii. 5, 6. He had his Father's call to the office, Hob. v. 4.; and having consented to and embraced the call, he was invested in the office, and treated with as such from all eternity, Prov. viii. 22, 23.

Now was there one provided to take the desperate cause of lost sinners in hand : a glorious and a mighty One, with whom the new covenant of grace might be made, with safety to the Father's honour and the case of perishing sinners: A fit hand, as partaking of both natures, and invested with that office, which he and only he was fit for. And this brings me to the second capacity wherein he acted in this matter. Then he acted,

Secondly, As the second Adam, head and representative of the election, by the Father's destination and his own consent. What he did as the Eternal Word, made way for the covenant, and was, as it were, the preliminaries of the covenant: but it was in this capacity that the covenant was formally made with him, as appears from our texts already explained.

Now Christ standing in that capacity, as second Adam, head of the election, did two things, whereby he entered actually into the covenant with his Father.

1. He accepted the gift of the particular persons elected by name, from all eternity, by his Father, made to him. Heb. ii. 13. ; and in token thereof owns them in particular as his brethren, ver. 11. Like as the first Adam, in the making of the first covenant, stood alone without actual issue ; yet had destinated for him a numerous issue, even all mankind, who should with him be comprehended in the same covenant; which Adam, virtually at least, accepted : so God having chosen a certain number of lost mankind, he, as their original proprietor, gives them to Christ, the appointed head, to be his members, and comprehended with him in the second covenant, though as yet none of them had a being; and he accepts the gift of them, is well pleased to take these in particular for his body mystical, for which he should engage in covenant to his Father, John xvii. 6. 10.

2. Christ did in the name and stead of these particular persons elected unto life, and given unto him, consent unto the conditions and terms of the covenant, proposed by the Father for life and salvation to them. And thus the covenant was concluded, Psal. xl. 6, 7. 8. Isa. liii. 10. As the first Adam, representing all his natural seed, did in their name and stead consent to the terms and condi

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tions of the first covenant, and so entered into that covenant for them; so the second Adam representing all his spiritual seed, did as a public person, in their name, consent to the terms of the second covenant. And as he had in the eternal decree taken on him their nature, so he did from all eternity put on their person, answer to their names as being in law one person with them, even as the cautioner is with the principal debtor, and the husband with the wife in case of debt, who are one in the eye of the law; and, having heard all the demands of law and justice upon them, he struck hands with the Father, to satisfy all these demands to the utmost.

For clearing of this purpose I shall shew,

1. That the second covenant was made with Christ, as the last Adam, head and representative of the elect.

2. Why it was made so with him.

First, I am to shew, that the second covenant was made with Christ, as the last Adam, head and representative of the elect. Consider,

1. Covenants typical of the covenant of grace were made with persons representing their seed. The covenant of royalty, a type of this covenant, was made with David, as representative of his seed; therefore the covenant of grace typified by it was made with Christ, as the representative of his seed. Hence in our first text the party covenanted with and sworn to is called David, which is one of the names of Christ typified by David, Hos. iii. ult. for which cause the mercies of the covenant are called “the sure mercies of David,' Isa. lv. 3. And this David is God's servant having a seed comprehended with him in the covenant, Psal. Ixxxix. 4. To the same purpose


may be observed, that Phinehas' covenant of priesthood was a type of the covenant of grace; and in it Phinehas stood as representative of his seed, typifying Jesus Christ representing his spiritual seed in the covenant of grace, Numb. xxv. 12, 13. This is evident from Psal. ex. 4. where the everlasting priesthood promised to Phinehas has had its full accomplishment in Jesus Christ. Hereto may be added, that the covenant made with Noah and his sons was made with them as the heads of the new world, and representatives of their seed, Gen. ix. 9, 11. And that this covenant was a type of the covenant of grace, and Noah therein a type of Christ, is clear from its being established on a sacrifice, Gen viii. 20, 21.; from the nature of that covenant, viz. that there should not be another deluge, chap. ix. 11.; typical of the wrath of God against the elect, Isa. liv. 9, 10. confirmed by the rainbow about the throne, Rev. iv. 3. Wherefore, since in the covenant of royalty, by which the covenant of grace is typified in our text, and in other covenants


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typical thereof, the parties with whom they were made stood as heads, public persons and representatives of their seed, it is evident, that the covenant of grace typified by these was made with Christ as the head and representative of his spiritual seed: for whatever is attributed to any person or thing as a type, hath its accomplishment really and chiefly in the person or thing typified.

2. This appears also from his being the last Adam, as he is called in the second text; the reason of which must be taken, not from the nature common to the first and last Adam, for all mankind partake of that; but from their common office of federal headship and representation, in the respective covenants touching man's eternal happiness, which is peculiar unto Adam and the man Christ. Accordingly Adam is called 'the first man,' and Christ the second man,' 1 Cor. xv. 47. But Christ is no otherwise the second man, than he is the second federal head or representative in the second covenant, as Adam was the first federal head and representative in the first. Wherefore, as the first covenant was made with Adam, as the head and representative of all mankind, the second covenant was made with Christ, as the head and representative of all the elect.

3. The promises of the covenant were made to Christ, as the second Adam, head and representative of the elect, Gal. iii. 16.

Unto Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith,And to thy seed, which is Christ.' I own that here is meant Christ mystical, the head and members : To them the promises are made, but primarily to the head, secondarily to the members in him ; even as the promise of life was made in the first covenant to Adam, and to all his natural seed in him. And so the promise plainly stands, Isa. liii. 10, 11. 'When thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin, ho shall see his seed, he shall prolong his days, and the pleasure of the Lord shall prosper in his hand. He shall see of the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied: by his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many: for ho shall bear their iniquities.' Thus the covenant is said to be made with the house of Israel, the spiritual Israel, yet is directed, not to them, but to another person, Heb. viii. 10.; the reason of which plainly appears in the promises being made to Christ, as their head and representative. Now, if the promises being made to Christ, as the head and representative of the elect, the covenant was made with him as such; for it is the covenant to which the promises belong, Eph. ii. 12.; and he to whom they were primarily made, was no doubt the party contractor.

4. This federal headship of Christ, and his representing of the elect in the covenant of grace, is evident from his suretyship in that

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covenant, whereby he became Surety for them, Heb. vii. 22. Now, he was Surety for them in the way of satisfaction for their debt, and the punishment due to them; and that as for persons utterly unable to answer for themselves, so that he took the whole upon himself. Now, such a surety is a true representative of the parties he is Surety for, one person with them in the eye of the law. Hence not only is Christ said to have been made sin for us, 2 Cor. v. 21. to have had our sins laid upon him,' Isa. liii. 6. to have died in our room and stead,' 1 Tim. ii. 6. Rom. v. 6; but also we are said to have been crucified with him,' Gal. ii. 20.; to be made the righteousness of God in him,' 2 Cor. v. 21.; yea, to'be raised up' and glorified in him,' Eph. ii. 6.; and to be made alive in him,' as we died in Adam,' 1 Cor. xv. 22. All which necessarily requires this headship and representation of his in the covenant.

5. Christ, bears the name of the elect, being called by their name, even as they are by his ; a plain evidence of their being one in the eye of the law, and God treating with Christ as their representative in the covenant. The elect are called Israel, viz. the spiritual Israel, Rom. ix. 6; and so is our Lord Jesus Christ, Isa. xlix. 3. Heb. “Thou art my servant : Israel, in whom I will glorify myself.' This is plainly meant of Christ, ver. 6; and the sense is, Thou art Israel representative, in whom I will glorify myself, as I was dishonoured by Israel, the collective body of the elect. And this may give light into that passage, Psal. xxiv. 6. compare ver. 7. &c. Thus the first man was called Adam, or man, as being the head and representative of all mankind, the person in whom God treated with the whole kind. Accordingly the elect are comprehended under the name of Christ, Gal. iii. 16. Col. i. 24; as all men are under the name of Adam, Psal. xxxi. 5. 11. Verily every man {Heb. all Adam) is vanity.'

Secondly, I come to shew why the second covenant was made with Christ as a representative, the last Adam.

1. That infinite love might have an early vent, even from eternity. God's eternal love to his elect vented itself in the covenant of grace, which is an everlasting or eternal covenant, Heb. xiii. 20. Hence we find that covenant and that love of the same eternal date, Isa. lv. 3. 'I will make with you an everlasting covenant, Heb. a covenant of eternity.' Jer. xxxi. 3. 'I have loved thee with an everlasting love, Heb. a love of eternity. But since the elect are but of yesterday, the covenant of grace behoved to be like the covenant of works, but a yesterday's coveuant, a time-covenant, if it was not made with Christ as their representative; it could not have been an eternal covenant otherwise; the promise of eternal life,

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