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yet when they appear to any body, if he be a Book II. prudent and learned Man, he asks the name of a him that appears, that he may at once acknowledg the Dignity, of him that is sent, and the Authority of him that sent him. For every Nation has its Angel, to whom the Government of that Nation is intrusted by God; who when he appears, altho he be believ'd to be, and is called God by those over whom he presides, yet will not he give himself such a Testimony. For the High God, who alone has the power of all things, has divided the Nations of the whole Earth into seventy two Parts, and has set principal Angels over them; while to one of these, who was the greatest of the Archangels, was by Lot given the Government of those who receiv'd the Worship and Knowledg of the High God above all the rest. Moreover, Holy Men are, as we said, set as Gods over the Wicked, as those that had receiv'd a power over them of Life and Death; which we have already noted was the Case of Moses and the Judges. "For which reason is it that 'tis written of them, Thou shalt not re- Exod. vile the Gods, and thou shalt not curse the Ruler of xxii. 28. thy People.

The Governors therefore of every Kation are callid Gods, but the God of these Governors is Christ, who is the Judg of all. Wherefore in reality neither can Angels, nor Men, nor any Creature be Gods; forasmuch as they are under subjection, as created and mutable Beings, that is, Angels, who once did not exist, and now are; and Men, as being mortal; and every Creature, as what can be disolv'd, I mean in case he diffolves them who made them. And therefore he alone is the True God, who not only himself lives, but does also give Life to all other Beings, which he still can take away when he will


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Book II. XLIII. Now for this reason the Scripture cries nout, in the Person of the God of the Jews, and Deut. says, See, see that I am God, and there is none oxxxii. 39. ther besides me ; I will kill, and I will make alive;

I will smite, and I will heal; and there is none that can deliver out of my Hands. You see therefore, how by some ineffable Virtue the Scripture, to prevent the future Errors of those who affirm'd, that there was another God, besides him who is

the God of the Jews, either in the Heavens or iv. 39. in the Earth; pronounces and says, The Lord thy

God is One God, in the Heavens above, and in the
Earth beneath, and besides him there is none else.
How then dare you say that there is another

God, besides him who is the God of the Jews ? x. 14. And again, the Scripture says, Lo the Heaven,

and the Heaven of Heaven, the Earth, and all things that are therein, are the Lord thy God's ; yet did I chuse thy Fathers to love them, and you after them. So that this Do&rine, that he who created the World is the True and Only God, is every way confirm'd by the Scripture.

XLIV. -But if there be others, as we said, who are call’d Gods, they are under the power

of the God of the Jews"; for so says the Scrip Ver. 17. ture to the Jews, The Lord our God he is God of

Gods, and Lord of Lords. The Scripture also ad

monishes us, that he only is to be worship’d, Mat. iv. when it says, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, Deut. vi.

and him only shalt thou serve. Besides, the Holy Beings that were full of the Spirit of God, and

bedew'd with the Drops of his Mercy, cry'd Psalm out, and said, "Who is like unto thee among the lxxxvi. 8. Gods, O Lord who is like unto thee ?. And again,

Who is God save the Lord? and who is God except our Lord ?

Moses therefore, when he saw the People make some progress in Religion, initiated them by little and little into the understanding, .



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xviii. 31.

xxiii. 13,

of the Monarchy, and into the Faith of One God; Book II. as he says in what follows, Thou shalt not make

Exod. mention of the names of other Gods: well remembring, no doubt, what was the Punihment allotted to the Serpent, who first nam'd Gods, in the Plural number. For at the conclusion, he was condemn’d to eat the Dust of the Earth, and was deem'd worthy of that Food, because he first of all introduc'd the name of Gods into the World. Now if you have a mind to introduce many Gods also, have a care left you have the fame Fate which the Serpent had.

XLV. However, be you allur'd that you shall not find us your Associates in so bold an Attempt ; nor will we suffer our selves to be deceiv’d by you: For it will not serve us for an Excuse in the Judgment, if we alledg that you deceiv'd us; since neither did it excuse the first . Woman, that she foolishly believ'd the Serpent : but because she gave such foolish Credit to him, The was condemn'd to die. For this Reason therefore did Moses also recommend the belief of One God to the People, and said, Be watchful over Deut. vi. thy self, left thou be beguiled from the Lord thy 12. God. Observe that he uses the same word which viii. 11.

xi. 16. the first woman also us’d for her Excuse, say- xiii. 5: ing, she was beguiled: But it profited her nothing. “Nay beyond all this, altho any True Prophet should arise, who should do Signs and Wonders, and withal would persuade them to worship other Gods, beside the God of the Jews, we could never believe him. For so has the Divine Law taught us, recommending a secret tion more purely by Tradition. It says then, If there arise in thee a Prophet, or a dreamer of xiii.1,6oci Dreams, and shall give thee Signs and Wonders, and Shall say unto thee, Let us go and worship other Gods

have not known ; Te shall not bearken to the



your God.


Book II. words of that Prophet, nor of that dreamer of W Dreams; because the Lord throughly proveth you,

that he may see whether ye love the Lord

XLVI. Upon this account, when our Lord wrought Signs and Wonders, and preach'd the God of the Jews, there was good reason to believe in his preaching. But for you, altho you were really a Prophet, and did Signs and Wonders, as you promis’d to do, yet while you declare other Gods, besides him who is truly God, 'tis plain that you are rais'd up for the Tryal of the People of God; and that therefore you are not to be believ'd for there is but One True God, who is the God of the Jews. And for this reason did our Lord Jesus Christ teach us, that

we must seek not God, whom they well knew Mat . vi. already, but his Kingdom and Righteousness; which

Righteousness the Scribes and Pharisees, who had receiv’d the Key of Knowledg, had not included, but excluded : For had they not known the True God, he had never certainly omitted the taking notice of this matter, which was the principal of all others, and only blam'd them

about small and trilling Things. For example: Luke xiv. That they made broad the Borders of their GarMiat. vi.s. ments, and claim'd to themselves the uppermost

Rooms at Feafts, and that they stood in the Corners of Streets when they pray'd, and other the like Faults: Which certainly may well seem small and inconsiderable in comparison of this mighty Crime, the Ignorance of God.

XLVII. To this Simon said as follows: I will convince you by your own Master's words, that he also introduces a certain God unknown to all. For whereas Adam knew God his Maker, and the Creator of the World; as did Enoch, inasmuch as he was translated by him; and Noah, inasmuch as he was bidden by him to build the

Ark; Ark; and whereas Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, Book IT. and Moses, and all the Fathers, as well as all the People, and indeed all Nations knew the Creator of the World, and own’d him to be God, your Jesus, who appear'd long after the Fathers, says, No one knoweth the Son but the Father ; neither Mat. xii knoweth any one the Father save the Son, and he to

27. whom the Son will reveal bim. So that your Jesus confefses that there is another God, incomprehensible, and unknown to all."

XLVIII. Then Peter said, You do not perceive how you contradict your self ; for if our Jesus knows this unknown God, as you call him, then is he not known to you only. Nay, indeed, if our Jesus knows him, without doubt Moses himself, who foretold that Jesus was to come, was not utterly unacquainted with him ; for he was a Prophet, and he that prophesied of the Son, without question knew the Father also. For if it be within the Pleasure of the Son to reveal the Father to whom he will ;' the Son, who from the Beginning, and continually was with the Father through every Generation, as he reveald the Father to Moses, so did he to the other Prophets : And if so, 'tis evident that he was not unknown to any of the Fathers. But how could the Father be reveal'd to you, who do not believe in the Son, when the Father is known by none, but to whom the Son will reveal him? Now the Son reveals the Father to those who do so honour the Son as they honour the Father. John v

XLIX. Then Simon said, Remember that you faid, that God has a Son; which is an Affront to him: For how can he have a Son, unless he be like Men or Animals? But this is not a proper time to confute your profound Folly; for I haften to deliver my Mind about the Immensity of the Supreme Light; and do you attend just

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