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mit adultery, thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt not bear false witness, thou shalt not covet; and if there be any other commandment, it is briefly comprehended in this saying, Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself. Love worketh no ill to his neighbor : therefore love is the fulfilling of the law.” We have now found, that the law requires love ; and that love is the fulfilling of the law, or all that the law requires. But in order to determine the true meaning and import of the law, we must still further inquire what kind of love the law requires. There are two kinds of love ; selfish love and benevolent love. Selfish love is interested love ; but true benevolent love is disinterested love. It is most reasonable to suppose, that our Savior means by love to God, supreme love to him ; and by love to man, disinterested love to him. For no man can love God supremely from selfishness, nor his neighbor as himself from selfishness. Besides, we cannot suppose, that Christ meant to say, that the divine law requires selfish love to God and man; for he had before expressly condemned all selfish love to God and man. He said in his sermon on the mount, " Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbor, and hate thine enemy; But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you and pray for them which despitefully use you and persecute you ; that ye may be the children of your Father, who is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. For if

ye love them, who love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others ? do

not even the publicans so ? Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father, who is in heaven, is perfect.” Here it is evident, that the love, which God requires in his law, is the same kind of love, that he feels and expresses towards all mankind, which is a love of disinterested benevolence towards his enemies, as well as his friends. Selfishness disposes men to hate and not to love their enemies. And if God were not possessed of pure, disinterested benevolence, he would not love those who hate him. No man's conscience approves of any

love in himself, or in others, but what is disinterested. All holy, virtuous love is disinterested, whether it be holy benevolence, or holy complaisance. Holy benevo lence embraces all mankind, whether they are holy, or unholy; but holy complaisance embraces none but those, who appear to be holy. There are but two things really valuable and desirable in their own nature. One is happiness and the other is holiness. Happiness is valuable and desirable in its own nature, or for what it is in itself. And holiness is valuable and desirable in its own nature, or for what it is in itself. The moral law, therefore, which is founded in the nature of things, requires men to love and seek holiness and happiness for themselves and others. It requires them to love and seek the holiness and blessedness of God supremely; because he is supremely great and good. And it requires men to love and seek one anothers' holiness and happiness as their own. And when they exercise such disinterested love to God and man, they fulfil the law, or do all that the law requires them to do. For while they feel disinterested love to God and man, they will spontaneously perform all those external actions, which are a proper expression of love to God and man. That love to God, which the divine law requires, will dispose those, who possess it, to read his word, call upon his name, remember his sabbath, attend his ordinances and employ their time, their talents, their property and influence in his service. And that love, which the divine law requires, will dispose those, who possess it, to perform every external duty, that they owe to their fellow-men. The divine law, which requires true love to God and man, virtually and necessarily requires all those external actions, which are a proper expression of true love to God and man. For the law of God does not require any external actions, but such as naturally flow from love to God and man.

Christ severely and pointedly condemned those, who performed external acts of religion, without love to God. “Wo unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites : for ye pay tithe of mint and annise and cummin and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy and faith : these ought ye to have done and not to leave the other undone. Wo unto you, scribes and pharisees, hypocrites : for ye make clean the outside of the cup and the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess. Thou blind pharisee, cleanse first that which is within the cup and the platter, that the outside of them may be clean also.” God approves of no external conduct towards him, but what flows from pure disinterested love to him ; and he approves of no external conduct towards men, but what flows from pure disinterested love to them. So that all, that the divine law requires, may be summarily comprehended in pure, disinterested love to God and man. Having ascertained what the divine law requires, it remains to consider,

III. What it forbids. Every law has both a precept and prohibition. It forbids whatever is directly contrary to what it requires ; and requires whatever is directly contrary to what it forbids. The law, which requires men to remember the sabbath day and keep it holy, forbids whatever is directly contrary to remembering and keeping the sabbath properly. The law, which says, “ Thou shalt not kill,” requires men to preserve their own lives and the lives of others. After we have ascertained what any law forbids, it is pretty easy to ascertain what it requires ; and after we have ascertained what any law requires, it is pretty easy to ascertain what it forbids. It must forbid what is directly contrary to what it requires. It appears from what has been said under the last head, that the divine law requires disinterested love to God and man; and from this we may justly conclude, that it forbids whatever is directly contrary to disinterested love to God and man. And what can be more directly contrary to disinterested love, than interested love ? or what can be more directly contrary to disinterested benevolence, than selfishness; The divine law, therefore, necessarily forbids all internal selfishness and all external expressions of it. Seffishness and nothing but selfishness is a transgression of the law of love. For selfishness and nothing but selfishness is sin ; and nothing but sin is a transgression of the law. As disinter

ested love is the fulfilling of the law ; so interested I love is a transgression of the law. Selfishness is the

only thing, that the law forbids; and therefore the transgression of the law wholly consists in selfishness. This

appears not only from the nature of the law and the nature of selfishness, but from the general representation of scripture. Paul says, “ I had not known sin ---except the law had said, Thou shalt not covet.”... He did not know what sin was, until he knew what was a transgression of the law; and he did not know what was a transgression of the law, until he knew that covetousness, which is selfishness, is a transgression of the law. As the law forbids selfishness, so selfishness · must be a transgression of it. Again the apostle says, “ the carnal mind is enmity against God : for it is not subject to the law of God, neither indeed can be.” But why cannot the carnal mind be subject to the law of God? No other reason can be given for it, but that the carnal mind consists in selfishness; which is a solid reason why it cannot be subject to the law of God; for it is impossible, that selfishness should be obedience, or submission to the law that forbids it, as the divine law does. Again the apostle represents selfishness as the source of all sin and iniquity. 6 This know, that in the last days, perilous times shall come. For men shall be lovers of their ownselves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, high-minded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God.” The love of self is here represented as the fruitful source of every species of disobedience to the divine law; and it must be so, because disobedience to it cannot spring from any other source. It must be here observed, that as the law requires no external actions but what flow from disinterested love ; so the law forbids no external actions, but what flow from selfishness. As love therefore, is said to be the fulfilling of the law, so selfish

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