Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components
This SpringerBrief presents strategies for fire mitigation based on combustible assembly systems of exterior walls. Providing background information on common exterior wall systems, the mechanisms of fire spread, and case studies, it examines the difficulties in controlling a fire with several materials and assembly methods. The brief compiles information on typical fire scenarios which involve the exterior wall, along with further exploration into test methods, approval and regulatory requirements for the various assembly systems. Offering testing approaches for possible mitigation strategies, the brief takes into account that current commercial wall assembly systems are constructed to improve energy performance, reduce water and air infiltration, and allow for aesthetic design flexibility. Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, metal composite claddings, high-pressure laminates, and weather-resistive barrier systems all have components which directly impact the fire hazard. Recommendations for future exterior wall construction are based on identified knowledge gaps.
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area of origin ASTM International cavity Civilian deaths Civilian cladding combustible exterior wall cone calorimeter construction curtain wall Dalmarnock deaths Civilian injuries EIFS exterior wall assemblies exterior wall fires exterior wall systems external fire external wall fire compartment fire exposure fire incidents fire performance Fire Protection Engineering fire resistance Fire Safety fire source fire spread Fire Test Fires Civilian deaths Flame spread index flame tests flashover floor full-scale façade tests full-scale test heat flux ignited or item incident type 111 installed insulation internal International Building Code item contributing item first ignited kW/m Laboratory and Data metal composite NFIRS incident type NFPA non-combustible Nordic countries Property use Fires reaction to fire Reported—Criteria not specified residential sandwich panels scale façade test Selected storage occupancies small scale tests smoke developed index soffit sprinkler protected stories temperature test methods test wall thermal insulation thermocouples typically University of Ulster vertical channel test window