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and you will find, where the end of one slide marks on the other, the internal length of the cask in inches. It is not necessary to make any deduction for the thickness of the stave, as we did when taking the cross diameter, the long callipers being so constructed as to allow 1 inch for the thickness of each head. The length is usually taken in three positions-directly over the bung, and then on each side thereof; and the mean of these gives the length. We will suppose the lengths to be 501, 50'3, 50-2, and by adding the fractions mentally-1+3+2=6, and dividing by 3, we get the mean length 50 2. Chalk 50.2 on the front head, leaving room between the length and bung dimensions, to chalk the head dimension, which is next to be taken.
The head diameters are taken with the head rod, and this is done by taking the rod in the left hand near the end, holding the brass cock on the slide between the finger and thumb (or fore and middle fingers) of the right hand, then place the rod across the back head of the cask at an angle of 45 degrees, inserting the crooked brass at the end of the rod into the chimb and bring the brass cock toward the opposite stave, about twothirds up the chimb, so as to be level with the groove where the head joins the staves: the lower part of the face of the rule at the point opposite the brass cock will give the head dimension. The front head is next taken in the same way, and the mean between the two is the true head, which we will say is 22.8. Chalk 22.8 on the front head, between the length and bung dimensions.
From these dimensions, length, head, and bung, we find the content* or the number of the imperial gallons the cask is capable of holding.
The calculation can be made either by the pen or the head rod. I will first shew the calculation on the head rod, and afterwards give two ways of finding the content by the pen.
CALCULATION ON THE HEAD ROD.
Place the brass cock on the slide to the head diameter 22.8 on the lower line of the rule, looking along the same line to the left for the bung 317, and exactly over on the middle, or spheroid line of the slide, you will find 6.2. Next find (without moving the slide) on the lower line of the slide 6-2, and immediately under it, on the lower line of the rule, will be found 29, the mean diameter. Now set the gauge point (18.79) on the upper line of the slide to the length 50°2 on the upper line of the rule, and opposite 29 (the mean diameter) on the upper line of the slide will be found the content 119 on the upper line of the rule.
*In gauging foreign spirits or wines in casks the content to be taken to the integral gallon. (G.O., 84. 1860.)
Upper line of rule.
Gauge point 29 mean diameter Upper line of slide. Or the content may be found by multiplying the difference be tween the bung and head diameters by 7, and adding the product to the head diameter, which in this case gives 29, the mean diameter shewn above. Then use the head rod as shewn above in 2nd setting only.
8.9 x 76.23 added to 22.8 gives 29.
CALCULATION OF CONTENT BY THE PEN.
RULE 1.-To twice the square of the bung diameter add the square of the head diameter, and multiply the sum by the length, and divide the product by 1059-1, or multiply by
In multiplying by, first multiply by or or divide by 3,
still remains which is equal to 3 of 3 or of, so that you may either take of line marked or of line marked +
RULE 2.-Multiply the difference between the bung and head diameters by 7, add the product to the head (this will give the mean diameter), and divide by 18.79. Then square
the quotient thus found, and multiply by the length for the content.
GAUGING FOR THE ULLAGE.
The content we find to be 119 gallons, and this would also be the ullage quantity if the cask was full. Should the cask not be full it is necessary to find the ullage. In doing so use the bung, or diprod, and set the end of the brass slide (the thickness of the stave being one inch) to the bung 317, and should the rod be wet from former use, wipe it dry on the inch line near to the brass and insert it perpendicularly into the cask until the brass touches the bung stave, taking care that it does not slip; then withdraw the rod, noting to the tenth of an inch where the liquor has marked, say in this case at 27.5, which will be the wet inches. In dipping for the wet inches in casks containing foreign spirits and wine it is usual to allow a tenth or two for temperature and swell of the rod-greater allowance being made in warm weather than in cold. Now from the bung and wet inches we ascertain the ullage quantity.
CALCULATION OF ULLAGE ON HEAD ROD.
Use the back of the rod and set the bung diameter, 31.7 on the line C, to 100 on the segment line (lower line of the rule), and on looking at the wet inches, 27.5 on line C, you will find it cuts 94 on the segment line. Now set 94 on line C to 100 on segment line, and on looking immediately under the content 119 on line A, you will find on line B 111, the ullage required.
111 gallons would be the quantity chargeable with duty if the cask contained wine, but if foreign spirits 111,5% would be the ullage quantity-wine in casks being charged to the integral gallon (except when measured in a racking operation), but foreign spirits, in casks above 40 gallons, are calculated to the 5 tenths
Should the difference between the bung and head be less than 6, multiply by 68 instead of 7.
of a gallon; and 40 gallons and under to the 2 tenths; but when the original or landing account has been charged to the 5 tenths, that rate be continued, even should it be found upon any subsequent examination that the ullage has fallen to 40 gallons or under. (G.O., 23. 1862.)
GAUGING BY THE VACUITY.
Foreign spirits and wines are gauged by the wet inches, but British spirits are gauged by the vacuity and the ullage calculation to the tenth of a gallon.
In taking the vacuity it is advisable to set the brass slide on the dip rod to an even inch, say 20, as in the deduction of the wet inches from the bung dimension errors are more easily avoided. Supposing the cask we have just gauged to have contained British spirits, the vacuity instead of the wet inches would have been taken in the following manner.
Having set the brass on bung rod to 20, insert the rod as in taking the inches, and on withdrawing it the vacuity, or the space not marked by the liquor, will be found to be 4.2 inches (counting from the brass downwards to where the spirits marked the rod), or the wet inches shewing 15.8; by deducting mentally 15.8 from 20 you have 4.2 the vacuity.
In taking the vacuity of any cask always set the brass according to the thickness of the stave-e.g. if the bung stave was inch, set the inch notch on the brass to the bung (or 20 as in last instance). In gauging British spirits no allowance is made for temperature or swell of the rod.
CALCULATION OF ULLAGE BY VACUITY.
In computing the vacuity by the head rod set the bung diameter 317 on line C to 100 on the segment line, and under 4.2 (the vacuity) on line C will be found 6 and half a tenth on segment line. Then set 6'05 on line C to 100 on segment line, and under 119, the content on line A, will be found on line B 7.2, the vacuity in gallons, and on deducting 7.2 from the content 119, you get 111, for the ullage quantity.
Vacuity in gallons,
A quicker method for vacuities over an inch is to use the 100 on line A, and for vacuities under an inch the 10 on the segment line.*
METHOD OF GAUGING QUARTER CASKS AND OCTAVES OF WINE BY THE DIAGONAL. +
Insert the bung rod, the side marked imperial gallons being uppermost, in a slanting direction into the cask, so that the point shall reach the inner chimb where the bottom stave joins
In computing vacuities under an inch on 100 on the segment line, the calculation gives four times the real value, and is thus apt to mislead the inexperienced officer.
Quarter casks containing spirits must be gauged all round.
the front head, observing the mark on the rod nearest the centre of the bunghole and on a level with the inner part of the A similar dimension stave, which we will say gives 29 gallons.
is then taken towards the back head, and the mean between these is the true content. Take the dimensions at 29 and 28, and the mean would be 285, but as casks are gauged to the integral gallon the content would, in this case, be 28. horizontal bung diameter, as well as the perpendicular, must be taken in all cases, whether gauged diagonally or all round. Dip in the usual way for the wet inches, and calculate the ullage to the integral gallon.
SETTING OF HEAD ROD TO FIND THE ULLAGE.
The ullage is found on left hand side (B line) of the content; and the vacuity on right hand side, unless in either case the quantity is shewn underneath the content.