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Page 14.-9th line, for "calculation " read "calculated."

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14.-17th line, for "inches" read

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wet inches." 27.-11th for "suspicien " read "suspicion." 41.-34th for "363" read "26.3."

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Casks read "Cask."

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48.-Lines 8 to 11 to be erased.

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55.-36th line, for "2" read "121."

vi.-(Addenda),-Practical Questions-time allowed two

hours.

The Port Class-Number for Bradford and Leeds should be (8) instead of (9).

GAU GING.

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GAUGING is a process of mensuration for ascertaining the quantity of liquid any vessel is capable of holding, and what it actually contains when partially full.

For the purpose of gauging casks four instruments, or rods, are used by the Officers of Customs, viz. :-Bung Rod, Head Rod, Long Callipers, and Short or Cross Callipers.

The Bung, or Dip Rod, is used for taking the perpendicular bung diameter and the wet and dry inches. It is also used for gauging cylinders and for finding the contents of quarter casks and octaves of wine by the diagonal.

The Head Rod for taking the head diameters, and casting the content and ullage. It can also be used to ascertain the proof quantity, and is of much service in reducing, fortifying, and other operations carried on in bond.

The Long Callipers for taking the length, and the Cross Callipers for ascertaining the horizontal bung diameter.

As there are several varieties of form of casks, it has been found necessary to class them under four heads, viz. :

1st variety (or figure)—the middle frustum of a spheroid ;
2nd -the middle frustum of a parabolic spindle ;
3rd -two equal frustums of a paraboloid joined at

their bases.
4th -two equal frustums of a cone joined at their

bases. The 1st, or spheroidal variety, is considered the best figure, and in using the gauging rods the officer will find it best to keep this figure in view, making the necessary allowances, as the casks may differ from that form.

In order that a correct idea may be formed of the shape of a cask of the spheroidal variety, and to assist in making the necessary allowance for bad figure, a Port hogshead, or a Charente Brandy puncheon, may be taken as a guide, as these casks are of a good figure and frequently of this variety, and require little, if any, allowance.

We will proceed to gauge a cask of the first variety, and afterwards one of an irregular shape, giving the reasons for any deductions or allowances that may be found necessary.

In the first example we will assume that the head and bilge staves are of a uniform thickness of one inch ; all that is, there

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fore, necessary is to take the dimensions as we find them, and make the calculations to ascertain the content and ullage.

The content of a cask is the quantity contained in the cask when full-the ullage being the quantity when only partially full.

EXAMPLES IN GAUGING.

The cask being in a proper position for gauging, bung up and perfectly level, the first dimension to be taken is the hori zontal bung diameter,* and this is done with the cross callipers This instrument being very springy, if not cautiously used, is apt to be pressed with too much force against the sides of the casks, causing the dimensions to be less than they should be. In taking the horizontal bung dimensions, hold the callipers in the left hand, so that they balance easily, and with the right hand take hold of the arm on the right side. Stand opposite the front head of the cask and open the callipers so as to clear the sides of the cask; then close the slide until both arms touch the cask lightly, and on looking on the line of inches on the top of the slide you will find the external horizontal dimension. But the cross bung dimension is usually taken in three different positions directly over the bung; then by alternately raising the right and the left hand, and the mean of these will be the true external horizontal bung.

Suppose the three dimensions to be-339, 337, 33.8, the mean horizontal would be 33.8; calculated in this manner, 9 tenths, 7 tenths, and 8 tenths 24 tenths÷3=8 tenths added to 33 inches gives 33.8 as the mean. The external mean diameter being 33.8, we must find the internal dimension, and as we assumed the thickness of the staves to be 1 inch, 2 inches (i.e. for the 2 staves) have to be deducted from 338, leaving 31.8 as the true horizontal bung. Now chalk this dimension on the right bouge of the cask, near the bung, thus--1.8.

The next dimension to be taken is the perpendicular bung, which is done by taking the bung or dip rod in the right hand, passing it through the bung hole until the point touches the bottom stave, holding it perpendicularly and sliding the brass until it rests on the bung stave; then withdraw the rod so that you can see the inches at the end of the brass slide, which we will take as 31.6. The difference between the horizontal bung, 31.8, and the perpendicer bung, 316, being 2 tenths, the mean or true bung will be 31 7. Now chalk 317 near the centre of

the front head of the cask.

The length is next to be taken; and to do this, take the long callipers, and, holding them as you did the short callipers, place the left arm on the back head, and bring the right arm gently up to the front head; then look on the line of inches

* The horizontal bung diameter of all casks must be taken, whether gauged all round or diagonally.

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