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be begotten of God by that poper and natural generation, and thereby excluding all which are not begotten, as it is a generation ; all which are said to be begotten, and which are called sons, are so only by adoption.
ARTICLE III. Who for us men, and our salvation, came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary, and was made man.
Exposition.—That in this person, the divine and human natures were so united, that they were not confounded ; but that two whole and perfect natures, the God-head and manhood, were joined together in one person ; that of him many things are said that are proper to one person only.
ARTICLE IV. And was crucified also for us under Pontius Pilate : he suffered and was buried.
Exposition.—That this person did truly suffer in his human pature, the divine being not capable of suffering.
ARTICLE V. And the third day rose again, according to the scriptures.
Exposition. Christ did truly rise again from death with that very body which was crucified and buried. I also knew him in the flesh, says Ignatius, and believe in him.
ARTICLE VI. He ascended into heaven; sits at the right hand of the Father.
Exposition. This article teaches us, that he ascended in like manner into heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of the Father to make intercession for us.
ARTICLE VII. And is to come again with glory, to judge both the living and the dead, of whose kingdom there shall be no end.
Exposition. -Our Lord's remaining in heaven till the day of judgment, appears from Acts iii. 20, 21 ; and chap. x. ver. 42.
ARTICLE VIII. I believe in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and giver of life, who proceeds from the Father and the Son, who with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified, who spake by the prophet.
Exposition. This article teaches, 1. that the Holy Ghost proceeds both from the Father and the Son ; 2. that he is of one substance, majesty and glory, with the Father and the Son, very and eternal God ; inasmuch, as such operations are ascribed to the Holy Ghost as cannot be ascribed to a person distinct from the Father and the Son, and therefore must be a person distinct from them both ; and, inasmuch, as such things
are ascribed to him as cannot be ascribed to any but God, and for this reason they are co-equal and consubstantial.
Exposition. From these words we gather, 1. that Jesus Christ has always a true church upon earth ; 2. that this church is always one by the union of all her members in one faith and communion ; 3. that she is always pure and holy in her doctrine and terms of communion, and consequently always free from pernicious errors ; 4. that she is catholic, that is universal, by being the church of all ages, and more or less of all nations ; 5. that this church must have in her a succession from the Apostles, and a lawful mission derived from them ; 6. that this true church of Christ cannot be any of the Protestant sects, but must be the ancient church communicating with the Pope or Bishop of Rome ; that this church is infallible in all matters relating to faith, so that she can neither add to, nor subtract from what Christ taught.
Accordingly we find that the Catholic Christian asserts, that God has been pleased, in every age, to work most evident miracles in the church by the ministry of his saints, in raising the dead to life, in curing the blind and lame, in casting out devils, in healing inveterate diseases in a minute, attested by the most authentic monuments, which will be a standing evidence to all nations, that the church of Rome is the true spouse of Christ.
Exposition.-Baptism is a sacrament instituted by our Savjour to wash away original sin, and all those we may have committed ; to communicate to mankind the spiritual regeneration and the grace of Christ Jesus ; and to unite them to him as the living members to the head.
St. Cyril of Jerusalem says the catechumens, after they were unclothed, were anointed from the feet to the head with exorcised oil; after this they were conducted to the laver, and were asked if they believed in the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. Having made a profession, they were plunged three times in the water.
Exposition. I am fully persuaded of this, as a most evident and infallible truth, that, as it is appointed for all men once to die, so it is also determined, that all men shall rise from death ; that the souls, separated from our bodies, are in the hands of God, and live ; that the bodies dissolved in dust, or scattered in ashes, shall be re-collected and re-united to their souls; that the same fesh which lived before shall be revived, and the same numerical body which did fall shall rise ; that this resurrection shall be universal, no man excepted ; that the just shall be raised to a resurrection of life, and the unjust to a ressurrection of damnation ; and that this shall be performed at the last day, when the trumpet shall sound.
Exposition.-I believe that the just, after their resurrection and absolution, shall, as the blessed of the Father, receive the inheritance, and, as the servants of God, enter into their Mas. ter's joy, freed from all possibility of death, sin, and sorrow, filled with an inconceivable fulness of happiness, confirmed in an absolute security of an eternal enjoyment in the presence of God and of the Lamb forever.
Thus far the profession of the Catholic faith is perfectly conformable to doctrines of the Church of England, as laid down by the Apostles' and Nicene creeds. The remaining twelve articles, with the expositions, exhibit a portion of the faith of the Roman Catholics, somewhat repugnant to the Protestant Churches.
ARTICLE XIII. I most firmly admit and embrace the apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, and all other observances and constitutions of the same church.
Exposition.The Roman Catholic Christians say, that the whole doctrine, to be delivered to the faithful, is contained in the Word of God, which Word of God is distributed into scripture and tradition ; scripture signifies simply writing ; tradition, that which has been preserved and handed down to us by words, from generation to generation; and the Catholics have many arguments in favour of tradition, as forming part of the word or revealed will of God.
ARTICLE XIV. I do admit the Holy Scriptures in the same sense that our Holy Mother Church doth, whose business it is to judge of the true sense and interpretation of them ; and I will interpret them according to the unanimous consent of the fathers.
Exposition. The Roman Catholics hold that the church, which is alone infallible, possesses the power of judging of the right sense of the holy scriptures, and of the traditions ; this church being always under the same divine influence that inspired the prophets and apostles of old. The apostolical traditions are those which are supposed to have bad their origin or institution from the apostles, such as infant baptism, the Lord's Day, or first day of the week, receiving the sacrament, &c.
Ecclesiastical traditions are such as received their institution
from the church, after the first age of the apostles ; such as holidays, feasts, fasts, &c.
They tell us, that the way by which we are to judge of what really are apostolical and ecclesiastical traditions, is the same as that by which the faithful judge of all matters of faith and doctrine, (viz.) the unerring authority of the church, expressed in her councils, and preserved in her universally admitted for: mularies and constant practice.
ARTICLE XV. I do profess and believe, that there are seven sacraments, truly and properly so called, instituted by Jesus Christ our Lord, and necessary for the salvation of mankind, though not all of them to every one, (viz.) baptism, confirmation, eucharist, penance, extreme unction, orders, and matrimony, and that they do confer grace, and that of these things, baptism, confirmation, and orders, cannot be repeated without sacrilege. I also receive and admit the received and approved rites of the catholic church, in her solemn administration of all the aforesaid sacraments.
E.cposition. - A sacrament is supposed to be an institution of Christ, consisting of some outward sign or ceremony, by which grace is given to the soul of the worthy receiver.
Of these several sacraments, though they might appear rather to belong to the ceremonial part of the subject than to the doctrinal, it will be proper to give some account in this place, inas, much as they form so essential a portion of the catholic faith. The accompanying cuts will assist the reader in understanding the forms used in their administration.
1. BAPTISM, according to the Roman Catholics, is an institution of Christ of a very important nature. The mode in which it is administered is somewhat similar to that observed by the Church of England. In this particular, however, the Church of Rome appears to have the advantage, in point of liberality, if I may so term it : should an unbaptised infant fall sick, and there be no priest at hand to administer this holy sacrament, the nurse, or any other person, of the congregation of the faithful, may perform the sacred office : for, argue the Catholics, it were a sad thing that the soul of a child should be damned eternally for want of this essential rite, through the unavoidable necessity of the priest's absence ; and it is clear that the Roman Catholics do hold the indespensible necessity of baptism, from the 10th Article of Pope Pius's Creed, which enjoins this rite - for the remission of sins ;” including, of course, original curruption as well as actual transgression. matapos ang panas
. The ceremonies now used in the administration of baptism, according to several approved authors, are as follows: First, they consecrate the water with prayer, and pouring in of oil three times : Secondly, they cross the party on the eyes, ears, nose, and breast : Thirdly, he is exorcised with a cei ain charm, or exsufflation, or breathing : Fourthly, they put conse
srated salt into his mouth: Fifthly, they put spittle into his nose and ears : Sixthly, they add imposition of hands, and the sacerdotal blessing : Seventhly, they anoint him with holy oil on the breast : and, Eighthly, they anoint him on the crown of the head, using perfume, &c.
It was anciently the practice to give the party the kiss of peace ; to put a lighted taper in his hand ; give him milk and honey to drink ; and then clothe him with a white garment ; but these practices are now, I believe, universally laid aside. The words used, and the rest of the form, are similar to those in the protestant episcopal churches.
Baptism, amongst the Roman Catholics, is not confined to infants, nor to adults ; but, properly speaking, they may be ranked amongst the supporters of infant baptism ; for in this respect, like other Christians, they have varied in their practice, though not in their opinions on the subject.
2. CONFIRMATION, is a sacrament wherein, by the Invoca. tion of the Holy Ghost, and the imposition of the bishop's hands, with the unction of holy chrism, a person receives the grace of the Holy Spirit, and a strength to enable him to make profession of his faith. In this sacrament the Roman Catholics make use of olive oil, and balm ; the oil to signify the clearness of a good conscience ; and the balm as the savour of a good reputation. They use the following form : “I sign thee with the sign of the cross, and confirm thee with the chrism of salvation, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost.”
Calmet says, the Confirmation is that which makes us perfect Christians, and impresses an indelible character after baptism, and imparts to us the spirit of fortitude, whereby we are enabled to profess Christianity, even at the hazard of our lives; and is thereby deemed a sacrament of the church. .
3. THE EUCHARIST, or Lord's SUPPER, is a sacrament of infinite importance in the catholic church, and has given rise to more controversy and dispute than all the rest put t geiber. These Christians believe and assert, that the Eucharist signifies that sacrament which really and in truth contains the very body and blood of our Saviour, transubstantiated, or transformed, into the appearance of bread and wine, when consecraied and set apart at the sacrifice of the mass, which shall be fully explained farther on. It is called the Eucharist, because Jesus Christ, in the institution of this divine sacrament, gave thanks 'to God, broke the bread, and blessed the cup : Eucharistia, in Greek, signifies thanksgiving, and answers to the Hebrew word Barach, to bless, or Hodah, to praise.
The administration of this sacrament must be explained when we come to treat of the Mass more particularly.
4. PENANCE, or Infliction, the art of using or submitting to punishment, public or private, as an expression of repentance for sin, is deemed one of the seven sacraiments. It includes confession of sins to the priest, which, if accompanied with sid.