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supporters of their king and their country, there is not one, whose parents and whose priests have not taught him, that loyalty is a religious as much as a civil duty; and that when he is fighting for his king and his country, he is performing a duty to his God."
This paper was signed by 59 of the most respectable catholic noblemen and gentlemen of the kingdom, with the late venerable Dr. Douglas, Vic. Ap. London, at their head.
A faithful view having thus been exhibited of the RELIGION of the Roman Catholics, so far as relates to doctrines and opinions, nothing remains but to attempt a similar description of their Rites and CEREMONJES, including some religious PRACTICes not already sufficiently explained.
It is well known that the Roman Catholics perform divine service in the Latin tongue. The Council of Trent decreed that this ought to be the case. This practice was introduced so early as the year 666 ; a very ominous number, being no other than the number of the beast mentione in the holy Scriptures, that beast being, as we protestants believe, no other than the church of Rome herself ;* though some ignorant catholics have declared that it meant the famous Doctor Martin Luther; and several later writers, that it applies to Napoleon Bonaparte, now fallen like Babylon of old. However this may be, the Church of Rome has chosen to have all her masses performed in the Latin tongue ; but for the instruction of the ignorant, all those prayers, &c. are translated into the mother-tongue.
It has been said, but without foundation, that the Roman catholics forbid the use of the holy scriptures in the vulgar tongue; they now have numerous translations in use among the laity as well as among the clergy ; but the church does not encourage any translation besides her own.
Something ought to be said concerning Persecution and the Inquisition ; but all that is needful to be stated on those points is, that the religion of the catholics forbids the former, and knows no more of the latter than the protestant religion knows of the Star-chamber. They are state institutions and state practices, not properly chargeable upon the religion of the catholics; though they may be upon catholic princes and rulers, who “not knowing what manner of spirit they were of," encourged them in despight of the obvious tenets of their religion.
The WORSHIP of the Church of Rome is of the grandest and inost imposing character. Its ceremonials, especially in foreign countries, are extremely splendid. The most remarkable of their religious solemnities shall be now described.
The ALTAP, according to the sacred canons, should be made of stone ; and it is the bishop's province to consecrate it. The table should be made of one single stone, supported by pillars ;
* Tlie opinion that the Catholic Church is the Antichrist of the scriptures is not so general among Protestants as it has been. That church has never denied, esplicitly, the Father and the Son.
shere should be three steps to go up to it, covered with a carpet; and it is the clerk's business to see that the table be covered with a chrismal, that is, a fine cloth as white as possible, laid upon it. All this must be observed with the greatest exactness with regard to the high altar, where Christ's body, or the host, is generally deposited. The clerks must be dressed in their surplices when they approach it, and immediately kneel down and adore the holy sacrament. Certain rules are likewise to be observed in the change of the ornaments ; the whole of which must be blessed, crossed, &c. and sprinkled with holy, or consecrated water.
The same forınalities are to be observed with respect to the TABERNACLE of the altar, to the pyx, that is, the box wherein the host is locked up, and the corporals on which they consecrate; in all which they are to provide every thing of the greatest value ; neither gold, silver, nor precious stones, are spared to adorn it, and the most splendid productions of art contribute to its lustre. . Tapers are set on the right and left side, wbicb must be made of white way, except in elices for the dead, &c.
There must be a crucifix, in alto relievo, on the altar; wbich is generally of curious workmanship. This crucifix must be so placed, that the foot may be as bigh as the top of the candlestick. There are, also, sundry cruets, basins, ác. for washing ; also, a little bell to be rung at what is c:lled the sanctus, and the two elevations, or listings-up, of the hust The clerk must tinkle it twice at each sanctus; and at the two elevations nine times (viz.) thrice when the priest kneels down; thrice when he elevates the host, and thrice when he sets it down upon the altar.
The same formalities are observed in regard to the chalice, or cup.
The altar is inclosed within rails generally of curious workmanship, and the whole service is conducted with solemnity and great ceremony.
It will be proper here to explain, as well as I can,“ obscured as they are in the mist of antiquity," some of these ceremonies, and of the vestments with which the priests are decorated on their solemn occasions. The Rev. Peter Gandolphy, a learned priest of the metropolis, has giveu sufficient explanation of them in his preface to his edition of the liturgy, published a few years ago. These ceremonies, composed, as he says, for the edification of the faithful, were mostly intended to bear a mystical signification ; though convenience and propriety often dictated the adoption of some. Thus the praying with uplifted hands, in imitation of Moses, mystically expresses the elevation of our thoughts to God., St. Paul also gives a mystical reason for the custom of men praying uncovered in churches : and even to many of their ceremonies which propriety has introduced, the church has added a mystical sense. Thus the altars in the Roman Catholic churches are always raised above the level of the pavement, that the people may more easily observe the mysteries as they are celebrated ; yet, in this the church proposes to herself a meaning of a mystical kind, which is that they are the altars of mediation between heaven and earth.
In the same manner the sacred vestments were, we are told, originally common garments, in universal use when first introduced into the offices of religion. These several vestments are called by the following names : The chasuble and dalmatic : these were coloured dresses, corresponding in shape to the French frock worn by our labouring peasants : convenience has taught the Catholics to leave the seams.unsewed at the sides.The cope. This is an exact pattern of our modern trooper's cloak. --The stole : this was a smaller cloak, more resembling a tippet, or a Spanish mantle, which the scissors have gradually narrowed to its present shape.--The inanuple was originally à cloth, hanging from the left arin, to wipe the face. The amice was a cloth tied over the head ; used perhaps for warmth, and so placed that it might be drawn back upon the neck and shoulders at pleasure. The aib was the universal under garment of all ranks, full, and reaching down to the heels ; and is still the cominon dress of the Asiatics.---The girdle was a cord necessary to confine it close to the body. The surplice was a short loose white dress, and so called because occasionally worn over a dress made of the fur and hair of animals.
Such are the names, and such the origin, of the principal vest:nents worn by the Catholic priests of the present day ; but influenced by the ever-varying fasion of the times, the church soon affixed to them a inystical signification, and piously assim. ilated them to the virtues jo which the Christian's soul is ever supposed to be arrayed. The arnice, or head-cloth, for instance, was compared to the protecting helmet of spiritual grace and salvation. The long alb, or white linen garment, was supposed to be emblematical of future glory and immortality. The manuple was thought to be an emble of persecutions and sufferings for Christ's sake; and the chasuble, i cimatic, &c. to express the yoke and burthen of the gospel.
Divine service, amongst the Citholics, consists of prayers and holy lessons, which the church has appointed to be read every day by the clergy at particular hours. This service is called by the church the canonical hours ; because it was ordained by the canons of the church, which not only prescribe the hours in which it was to be said, but likewise the particular circumstances by which it is to be said.
This office is generally called the breviary, which derives its name from its being an abridgment of a longer service, that was formerly used, than is at present.
This office is to be said in a standing posture, pusuant to the ancient custom of the church ; and upon the knees on the day of penance.
The office consists of seven hours, is mattins and lauds are to be reckoned one ; but of eight, in case they are divided. In