« EdellinenJatka »
the more early ages it was composed of six parts only. At present they are divided into seven or eight parts, (viz.) mattins for night, lauds for the morning ; prime, tierce, sexte, and none for the day ; vespers for the evening, and compline for the beginning of the night.
The hour of saying prime is directly after sun-rising ; tierce is fixed to the third bour of the day ; sexte at the sixth hour ; none at the ninth hour; vespers towards the evening, and compline after sun-set. Due care is taken, that these offices be all punctually performed at or near the times specified.
When the pope celebrates mass himself, the cardinals appear in white damask robes, laced with gold. The cardinal bishops wear copes ; the cardinal priests chasubles ; the car. dinal deacons tunics ; and all of them white damask mitres. The bishops were copes also ; but they are all of rich silks, embroidered with gold, and white linen mitres sewed on pasteboards.
The Ceremonies of the Mass come next to be described. In this most solemn service, which is, as I have already stated, a holy sacrifice, the church not only prays herself, but Jesus. Christ, by the sacrifice of his own body, is supposed to offer up to God bis Father the most perfect adoration that can possibly be paid, since it is nothing less than a sacrifice offered to the Almighty by one who is himself God. ***
The mass consists of two parts, (viz.) first, from the beginning to the offering, formerly called the mass of the catechumens; and the second, from the offernig to the conclusion, called the mass of the faithful. All persons without distinction being present at mass till the offering, the deacon then crieth out "holy things are for such as are holy : let the profane de part. bence!"
In Picart's book on Religious Rites and Ceremonies we bave no fewer than thirty-five curious prints, illustrative of the several parts or portions of this great service : they are briefly · as follow :-). The priest goes to the altar, in allusion to our Lord's retreat with his apostles to the Garden of Olives. 2. Before he begins mass, he says a preparatory prayer. The priest is then to look on himself as one abandoned of God, and driven out of Paradise for the sin of Adam. 3. The priest makes confession for himself, and for the people, in which it is required that he be free from mortal and from venial sin. 4. The priest kisses the altar, as a token of our reconciliation with God, and our Lord's being betrayed by a kiss. 5. The priest goes to the epistle side of the altar, and thurifies or perfumes it. Jesus Christ is now supposed to be taken and bound. 6. The Introite, said or sung, i e. a psalm or hymn, applicable to the circumstance of our Lord's being carried before Caiaphas the high-priest. 7. The priest says the Kyrie Eloison, which signifies, Lord, have mercy upon us, three times, in allusion to Peter's denying our Lord thrice. 8. The priest turning towards the altar, says, Dominus vobiscum, i.e. The Lord be
with you ; the people return this salutation, cum Spiritu tuo, and with thy Spirit, Jesus Christ looking at Peter. 9. The priest reads the epistle relating to Jesus being accused before Pilate. 10. The priest bowing before the altar, says Munda dor, i. e. Cleanse our hearts. The gradual is sung. This psalm is varied according as it is the time of Lent or not. The devotion is now directed to our Saviour's being accused before Herod, and making no reply. 11. The priest reads the gospel wherein Jesus Christ is sent from Herod to Pilate. The gospel is carried froin the right side of the altar to the left, to denote the tender of the gospel to the Gentiles, after refusal by the Jews. 12. The priest uncovers the chalice, hereby to represent our Lord was stripped in order to be scourged. 13. The oblation to the host, the creed is sung by the congregation. The priest then kisses the altar, then the priest offers up the host, which is to represent or import the scourging of Jesus Christ, which was introductory to his other sufferings. 14. The priest elevates the chalice, then covers it. Here Jesus being crowned with thorns is supposed to be figured to the mind, shewing that he was going to be elevated a victim ; and it is well known the victims of the Pagans were crowned before they were sacrificed to their idols. 15. The priest washes his fingers, as Pilate washed his hands, and declares Jesus innocent, blesses the bread and the wine, blesses the frankincense, and perfumes the bread and wine, praying that the smell of this sacrifice may be more acceptable to him than the smoke of victims. 16. The priest turning to the people, says, Coremus Fratres, i. e. let us pray. He then bows himself to the altar, addresses himself to the Trinity, and prays in a very low voice. This is one of the secretums of the mass, and the imagination of the devout Christian is to find out the conformity between this and Christ being clothed with a purple robe ; but we shall be cautious of adding more on this head, that we may not loose ourselves in the boundless ocean of allusions. 17. The priest says the preface at the close of the Secretum. This part of the mass is in affinity to Jesus Christ being crucified. The priest uses a prayer to God the Father, which is followed by the Sanctus, holy, holy, holy is the Lord, &c. which the people sing. 18. The priest joining his hands prays for the faithful tbat are living. This is said to be in allusion to Jesus Christ bearing the cross to die tipon, that we might live. 19. The priest covers with a cloth the host and chalice, St. Veronica offering her handkerchief to Jesus Christ. 20. The priest makes the sign of the cross upon the host and chalice, to signify that Jesus Christ is nailed to the cross. 21. The priest adores the host before elevated, and then he raises it up, in the best manner to represent our Saviour lifted upon the cross. He repeats the Lord's prayer, with his arms extended, that his body might, represent the figtire of a cross, which is the ensign of Christianity. 22. The priest likewise consecrates the chalice, and elevates it, to rep.
on this purpleonformity
· resent the blood of Jesus Christ shed upon the cross. 23.
The priest says Memento for the faithful that are in purgatory. This prayer is in allusion to that which our Lord made for his enemies, but this allusion would be forced and unnatural, unless the devotees looked upon themselves as bis enemies. 24. The priest then raises his voice, smiting his breast, begs God's blessing on bimself and congregation, for the sake of such saints as he enumerates, and implores the divine Majesty for a place in paradise, to imitate the thief upon the cross. 25. The priest elevates the host and cup, and says the per omnia, then the Lord's prayer. The sign of the cross, which he makes on the bost, the chalice, and the altar, is to represent to God that bleeding sacrifice which his Son offered up to him of himself; then the devout Christian becomes the child of God, and all this is an allusion to the Virgin Mary's being bid to look on St. John as her son. 26. After the Lord's prayer the priest says a private one to God, to procure his peace by the mediation of the Virgin Mary and the saints, then puts the sacred host upon the paten, and breaks it, to represent Jesus Christ giving up the ghost. 27. The priest puts a little bit of the host into the cbalice. The true Christian is now with an eye of faith to behold Jesus Christ descending into Limbo, i. e. hell. 28. Then the priest says, and the people sing, Agnus Dei, &c. thrice over, and the priest smites his breast. This action is an allusion to those who, having seen our Lord's sufferings, returned home smiting their breasts. 29. After the Agnus Dei is sung, the priest says a private prayer for the peace of the church. He then kisses the altar, and the instrument of peace called the paxis, which being received at his hands by the deacon, it is handed about to the people to be kissed, and passed from each other with these words, peace be with you; and whilst the paxis is kissing, the priest prepares himself for the communion by two other prayers, when he adores the host, and then says, with a low voice, "I will eat of the celestial bread; and smiting his breast, says, I am not worthy that thou shouldest enter into my house, three times, after eating of the bread. He uncovers the chalice, repeating verse i. of the 115th psalm, according to the Vulgate. When the priest has received the communion, he administers it to the people. The application of these ceremonies is to the death and burial of Jesus Christ, and his descent into hell. 30. After this, the priest putting the wine into the chalice, in order to take what is called the ablution, repeats a short prayer; then he causes wine and water to be poured out for the second ablution, accompanied with another short prayer, and then salutes the congregation. These ablutions allegorically represent the washing and embalming the body of Jesus Christ, &c. 31. The priest sings the post communion or prayer for a good effect of the sacrament then received, expressed by the glorious resurrection of the regenerate Christians, and is to be looked upon as the representation of our Lord's resurrection. 32 The priest, turning to the people, says, Dominus vobis, cum, salutes the congregation, as the ambassador of Christ, with the message of peace. 33. The priest reads the beginning of St. John's gospel, and particularly of Jesus's appearing to his mother and disciples, and uses some short prayers, 34. The priest dismisses the people with these words, Ite missa est, depart, the mass is concluded, to which they answer, God be thanked. This, they say, points to the ascension of Jesus Christ, where he receives the eternal reward of that sacrifice, both as priest and victim. 35. The people receive the benediction of the priest or bishop, if he is present, to represent the blessings promised and poured down upon the apostles by the Holy Ghost.
This benediction must be given after kissing, with eyes erected to heaven, and arms stretched out, and then gently brought back to the stomach, that the hands may join in an affectionate manner for the congregation of the faithful.
The extension of the arms and the joining of the hands are both mystical, and shew the charity with which the priest calls his spiritual brethren to God.
When he pronounces the benediction he must lean in an engaging posture towards the altar.
The general division of masses is into high and low. High Mass, called also the Grand Mass, is that sung by the choristers, and celebrated with the assistance of a deacon and a sub-deacon. Low Mass, wherein the prayers are barely rehearsed, without any singing, and performed without much ceremony, or the assistance of a deacon and a sub-deacon.The music on these occasions is generally as full and as rich as possible.
As to ordinary masses, there are some which are said for the Christian's soul ; for releasing it from purgatory, or mitigating its punishment there. A sufficient sum must be left to the parish priest for that purpose.
There are also Private Musses, for the restoration to health. for travellers, and for returning thanks to Almighty God for particular mercies ; these are called Votive Masses.
The mass used at sea is called the Dry Mass, because on those occasions the cup is omitted, lest the motion of the vessel should occasion any of the consecrated wine, which is the blood of God, to be spilled.
There are other sorts of solemn masses, as the collegiate, the pontifical, those celebrated before the pope, cardinals, or bishops, at Christmas, Pession-week, &c.
When high mass is performed episcopally, or by a bishop, it is attended with still greater ceremony and magnificence. As soon as the bishop is observed to come in sight, the bells are rung ; that is of course, where bells are used, which is not very common. On his setting his foot within the church doors the organs begin to play ; the master of the ceremonies gives the sprinkle to the head-canon, who presents it, after he has kissed both that and the prelate's hand. His lordship sprinkles him. self, and then the canons with it, in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost; and then goes and says a prayer before the altar, on which stands the holy sacrament, at a desk prepared for that particular purpose, and does the same at the high altar, from whence he withdraws into the restry, and there puts on his peculiar ornaments in the following order :
The sub-deacon goes to a little closet contiguous to the altar, and takes from thence the episcopal sandals and stockings, which he elevates and presents to the bishop. Then the deacon kneels down, and pulls off his lordship's shoes and stockings, in the midst of seven or eight acolites and readers, the former being generally young persons, whose business it is to wait on the pope, or serve in churches, as in this instance. The word itself simply signifies followers. These are all dressed in their respective habits, and with the deacons, all upon their knees, spread the prelate's robes.
Two of the acolites, or accolythi, after that they have washed their hands, take the sacred habiliments, bold them up, and give them to the two deacon-assistants, to put upon the bishop as soon as he has washed his hands. The deacon salutes the bishop, takes off his upper garment, and puts on his amice, the cross whereof he devoutly kisses. Then they give him the albe, the girdle, the cross, for his breast ; the stole, and pluvial. Upon receiving each of these the bishop kisses the cross, thereby to testify his veneration of that sacred emblem. The deacons and assistants likewise kiss the holy vestments.
As soon as the bishop is seated, they put bis mitre on, and a priest presents him with the pastoral ring. The deacon gives him his right glove, and the sub-deacon his left, which each of them kiss, as also the hand they have the honour to serve in all these circumstances.
Prayers intended to return God thanks for the sanctification of his church by the Holy Ghost, are ejaculated, and adapted to each individual piece of the episcopal robes. The devotion of this ceremony is also supported and confirmed by the singing the office of the tierce. These several robes, &c. have also each a mystical or spiritual signification; as the stole describes the yoke of the gospel ; the taking off of the shoes alludes to Moses putting off his shoes. The pluvial was formerly used by travellers, to represent the miseries of this life, &c. &c.
The bishop being thus dressed in all his habiliments, his clergy range themselves round about himn. Two deacons, who are canons, place themselves on each side of him, both in their . dalmaticus ; and after them a deacon and sub-deacon). Then the incense-bearer, with the censer, and a priest, with the nave!, out of which the bishop takes the incense, puts it into the censer, and gives it his benediction. After this he kisses the cross, which is upon the vestry altar ; and then goes in procession to the other altar, where he is to celebrate the mass. The incense bearer walks at the head of the process on ; two wax-candle-bearers, with lighted tapers in their hands, inarch