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with the destruction of whatever is the cause of it. Thus the wrath of God is likened to fire, Psa. xviii. 7, 8. Jer. iv. 4.—Therefore the fire which the false prophet bringeth down from heaven upon the earth, is the fiery indignation which he causes to come down from the heaven or throne of the Latin empire upon all those of the earth or Latin world who rebel against his authority. All this has been fulfilled in the Romish hierarchy: the Latin clergy have denominated all those that oppose their authority, heretics; they have instituted tribunals to try the cause of heresy; and all those that would not submit to their idolatry, they have condemned to various kinds of tortures and deaths. It is said of the false prophet that he bringeth fire froin heaven upon the earth; that is to say, he will only try the cause of heresy, and pass the sentence of condemnation; he will not suffer an ecclesiastic to execute the sentence of the court; the destroying fire he causeth to come down from the heaven or throne of the Latin empire; secular princes and magistrates must execute the sentence of death upon all that are capitally condemned by the spiritual power. He maketh fire come down from heaven; he compels secular princes to assist him

gainst heretics; and if any rebel against his authority, he immediately puts them under the bond of the anathema, so that they are deprived of their offices, and exposed to the insults and persecution of their brethren. Thus the false prophet deceives the Latin world by the means of those miracles which he had power to do in the sight of the beast. Under the appearance of great sanctity, he persuades med to believe gli his lying doctrines; and enforces his canons and decretals with the sword of the civil magistrate. | Verse 14. Saying to them that dwell on the earth, that they should make an image to the beast which har! a wound by the sword and did live. The image of the beast must designate a person who represents in himself the whole power of the Latin empire: therefore it cannot be the emperor; for though he was, according to his own account, supremum caput Christianitatis, the supreme head of Christendom, yet he was only the chief of the Germanic confederation ; and, consequently, was only sovereign of the principal power of the Latin empire. The image of the beast must be the supreme ruler of the Latin empire ; and as it is through the influence of the false prophet that this image is made for the first beast, this great chief must be an ecclesiastic. Who this is has been ably shown hy Bishop Newton, in his comment on the following verse :

: Verse 15. And he had power to give life unto the image of the beast, that the image of the beast shoulil both speak, and cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast should be killed. The influence of the two-horned beast, or corrupted clergy, is further seen in persuading and inducing mankind to make an image to the beast which had the wound by a sword anul did live. This image and representative of the beast is the pope. He is properly the idol of the church. He represents in himself the whole power of the beast, and is the head of all authority, temporal as well as spiritual. He is nothing more than a private person, without power and without authority, till the two-horned beast, or corrupted clergy, by choosing him pope, give life unto him, and enable him to speak and utter his decrees, and to persecute even to death as many as refuse to submit to him, and to worship him. As soon as he is chosen pope he is clothed with the pontifical robes and crowned and placed upon the altar, and the cardinals come and kiss his feet, which ceremony is called adoration. They first elect, and then they worship him; as in the medals of Martin V. where two are represented crowning the pope, and two kneeling before him with this inscription, Quem creant adorant, Whom they create they adore. He is the principle of unity to the ten kingdoms of the beast; and causeth, as far as he is able, all who will not acknowledge his supremacy to be put to death. The great ascendancy which the popes have obtained over the kings of the Latin world by means of the Romish hierarchy, is safficiently marked in the history of Europe. As long. as the great body of the people were devoted to the Roman Catholic idolatry, it was in vain for the kings of the different Roman Catholic countries to oppose the ancreasing usurpations of the popes. They ascended, , in spite of all opposition, to the highest pinnacle of hu| man greatness; for even the authority of the emperors themselves was established or annulled at their pleasure.

The high-sounding tone of the popes commenced in ,Gregory VII. A. D. 1078, commonly known by the name of Hildebrand, who aimed at nothing less than universal empire. He published an anathema against all who received the investiture of a bishopric or ab

bacy from the hands of a layman; as also against those by whom the investiture should be performed. This measure being opposed by Henry IV. emperor of Germany, the pope deposed him from all power and dignity, regal or imperial. See Corps Diplomatique, Tom. I. page 53. Great numbers of German princes siding with the pope, the emperor found himself under the necessity of going (in January, 1077) to the bishop of Rome to implore his forgiveness, which was not granted him till he had fasted three days, standing from morning to evening barefooted, and exposed to the inclemency of the weather! In the following century the power of the popes was still further increased; for. on the 23d of September, 1122, the emperor Henry V. gave up all right of conferring the regalia by the ceremony of the ring and crosier, and that the chapters and communities should be at liberty to fill up their own vacancies. . In this century the election of the Roman pontiffs was confined by Alexander III. to the college of cardinals. In the thirteenth century the popes (Dr. Mosheim observes) “ inculcated that pernicious maxim, that the bishop of Rome is the supreme lord of the universe; and that neither princes nor bishops, civil governors nor ecclesiastical rulers, have any lawful power in church or state but what they derive from him. To establish their authority, both in civil and ecclesiastical matters, upon the firmest foundation, they assumed ta themselves the power of disposing of the various offices of the church, whether of a higher or more subordinate nature, and of creating bishops, abbots, and canong, according to their fancy. The first of the pontiffs who

usurped such an extravagant extent of authority was Innocent III. (A. D. 1198—1216.) whose example was followed by Honorius III. (A. D. 1216,) Gregory IX. (A. D. 1227.) and several of their successors.” Thus the plenitude of the papal power, (as it is termed,) was not confined to what was spiritual; the Romish bishops “ dethroned monarchs, disposed of crowns, absolved subjects from the obedience due to their sovereigns, and laid kingdoms under interdicts. There was not a state in Europe which had not been disquieted by their ambition. There was not a throne which they had not shaken, nor a prince who did not tremble at their presence.” The point of time in which the Romish bishops attained their highest elevation of authority was about the commencement of the 14th century. Boniface VIII. who was pope at this time, outstripped all his predecessors in the high-sounding tone of his public decrees. According to his famous bull, Unam Sanctam, published Nov. 16, 1302, “the secular power is but a simple emanation from the ecclesiastical; and the double power of the pope, founded upon Holy scripture, is even an article of faith. “God," said be," has confided to Saint Peter, and to his successors, two swords, the one spiritual, the other temporal. The first ought to be exercised by the church itself, and the other by secular powers for the service of the church, and according to the will of the pope. The latter, that is to say, the tensporal sword, is in subjection ́to the former; and the temporal authority depends indispensably on the spiritual power. Finally, he adds, it is necessary to the salvation of every human

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