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ANNUAL CYC)

1886

CONTAINING

VEARLY 2000 CONCISE AND EXPLANATORY ARTICLES, ON
EVERY TOPIC OF CURRENT POLITICAL, SOCIAL AND
GENERAL INTEREST REFERRED TO BY THE

PRESS AND IN DAILY CONVERSATION.

EDITED BY
E. D. PRICE, F.G.S.,

ASSISTED BY A LARGE NUMBER OF CONTRIBUTORS, INCLUDING

SOME OF THE MOST EMINENT SPECIALISTS OF THE DAY.

REVISED TO THE END OF MARCH, 1886.

1st year of issue.

London :
HAZELL, WATSON, AND VINEY, LD., 52, LONG ACRE,
HODDER AND STOUGHTON, 27, PATERNOSTER Row.

AR 20sort ksibilis

Dronnee yeaand.

(1886-9589)

For Summary of Mr. Gladstone's Home Rule Scheme, important

Board of Trade Returns, and other valuable Statistics received at the time of going to Press, see Addenda, pp. 562—566.

Printed by Hazell Watson, & Viney, Ld., London and Aylesbury.

EDITOR'S PREFACE.

In presenting this New Annual to the public, a few words briefly indicating the purpose and scope of the undertaking are, we think, desirable. The work owes its origin to a conviction on the part of its promoters, that most Englishmen who wish to keep au courant with the questions of the day, and regular readers of the daily, weekly and monthly press, often misunderstand or altogether fail to appreciate the precise value of certain points raised, or to follow the exact train of reasoning, on account of their non-acquaintance with the full bearings of the question under discussion, or with a reference or phrase employed therein.

Our object is to meet this difficulty, which is already imposing, but will be more so as the public interests widen, and newspaper extension further increases.

It is claimed for this work that it provides up-to-date information only on such subjects as are now, or are likely soon to be, in the mind of the public—thus forming a companion to the newspaper, and a guide to every-day topics and conversation, supplementing rather than seeking to displace the existing cyclopædias, year-books and almanacs already in general and well merited use.

The scope thus implied is the precise measure of the contents of the book: no attempt has been made to treat old subjects in detail or elaborately; the principal information provided being that of quite recent date, and this mainly on subjects of to-day. Where, however, an entirely new subject is treated, or an old subject illustrated from entirely new standpoints or theories, a comprehensive view of it is given, sufficiently explanatory to convey a clear and intelligent idea.

The essential features that have been kept prominently in view for the work are that it shall be1. Issued as early in the year as will secure the latest Par

liamentary returns; with additions, excisions, emendations and corrections from year to year, as the march of events may

dictate. 2. Absolutely and uniformly up to date, a certain day being

· fixed in each year for the closure of all articles. 3. Confined to plain and impartial statements, all treatment of

a controversial or party nature being avoided. 4. Thoroughly accurate and trustworthy.

The chief subjects have been, and will continue to be, treated by some of the foremost specialists of the day ; neither trouble nor expense being spared to render all information absolutely reliable, and from the first and most responsible sources.

It is thought that this volume will occupy a unique position amongst books of Ready Reference, and that it will be of special value to Parliamentary men, members of Local Parliaments, Debating and other Societies, Journalists, Literary men, and indeed to all who desire to render themselves intelligently conversant with the salient points and progress of modern thought and events.

Concise biographies of all the members of the New Parliament are given,—the House of Lords, the most prominent foreign politicians, distinguished men deceased during the year, and the leading representatives of schools of modern thought in England.

A word of explanation is perhaps necessary with regard to the other biographical portions of the work. Only the names of those who represent some particular school or phase of thought, literary, religious or social, have been included; but, with every desire to avoid omissions, it is to be feared that some names which might justly be considered to possess a claim to notice in our pages may inadvertently have been overlooked.

Copious cross-references form an important feature of the work. All subjects thus cross-referenced and emphasized will be found indicated by thicker type in the articles in which they occur. The eye is thus enabled to find what it is in search of instantly.

To assist the reader in thoroughly investigating certain special subjects on which he may desire more exhaustive information, many references to the best literature on the subject have been given.

The Editor is conscious that notwithstanding the exercise of the utmost care in the arrangement and production of a work of this nature-with its multiplicity of detail, necessarily implying great labour-there may nevertheless be found in this first edition some errors both of commission and omission. He would therefore esteem it a favour if any reader of the book detecting any serious inaccuracies would kindly communicate the same to him, in order that the next edition may be as perfect as possible.

He takes this opportunity of cordially acknowledging the invaluable assistance he has received from the large body of gentlemen who have contributed to the work; of expressing his thanks to all who have courteously aided him by supplying various items of information; and his indebtedness to the Times and standard works which may have been consulted.

April 6th, 1886.

This year is the 6599th from the Creation of the World, according to the Julian Period; the 5647th (commencing Thursday, September 30th) according to the Hebrew calculation, and the 7304-5th of the Byzantine Era. It is the 1304th of the Mohammedan Era--the Hegira, or Flight of Mahomet to Mecca commencing on September 30th; the Ramadan, or month's fast of his followers, commencing on Thursday, June 3rd, 1886.

QUARTERS OF THE YEAR.-Greenwich Time. Spring Quarter begins March 20, at 4 p.m. | Autumn Quarter begins . . Sept. 22, at 3p.m. Summer Quarter begins . . June 21, at 1 a.m. / Winter Quarter begins . . Dec. 21, at 9 p.m.

ECLIPSES. During the year 1886 there will be two eclipses, both of the Sun. The first is an annular eclipse, on March 5th; the second a total eclipse, on August 29th,-neither of them being visible in Great Britain.

LAW SITTINGS.
Hilary Sittings. begin Jan. II . end April 21 | Trinity Sittings. begin June 22, end Aug. 12
Easter Sittings , begin May 4 . end June 11 | Michl. Sittings · begin Oct. 24 end Dec. 21

UNIVERSITY TERMS.
OXFORD.

CAMBRIDGE.
Lent . . . . begins Jan. 14 . ends April 17 Lent.... begins Jan. 8. ends April 5
Easter . . . , April 28,
June 11 Easter ... ) April 27.

June 24 Trinity . . . , June 12. July 6 Michaelmas. » Oct. I .

Dec. 19 Michaelmas. Oct. 10 . Dec. 17

A CALENDAR (MARCH 1886 TO FEBRUARY 1887), WITH THE

LESSONS FOR EACH SUNDAY.

MARCH, 1886.

First Reform Bill introduced, 1831.
Tu Hostilities against the Chinese, 1841.
W Emancipation of the Russian serfs, 1861.

Installation of President Cleveland, U.S., 1885.
Catholic Emancipation Bill passed, 1829.
Royal Commission on Housing the Poor met, 1884.
Quinquagesima. M.L.-Gen. 9 to v. 20, Mark 7 v. 24 to 8 v. 10; E.L.-Gen. 12 or 13,
Battle of Aboukir, 1801..

[Rom. 16.
War between France and Mexico terminated, 1839.
Ash Wednesday.
Mr. Gladstone's Irish University Bill rejected, 1873.
Discussion in the House of Commons on “Soudan,” “Russia and India," and
Battle of Tamanieb (Soudan), 1884.

(“German Colonisation,” 1885. 1 Sunday in Lent. M.L.-Gen. 19 v. 12 to 30, Mark 11 v. 27 to 12 v. 13; E.L.-Gen. 22 Explosion at Local Government Office, 1883.

[to v. 20 or 23, 1 Cor. 7 to v, 25.
Alliance at Vienna, 1731.
Petition of Rights, 1627-8.
Insurrection at Berlin, 1848.
Lucknow taken 1858.
House of Lords : Opening of Museums on Sunday: 64 pro and 64 con.
2 Sunday in Lent. M.L.-Gen. 27 to v. 41, Mark 15 to 0. 42; E.L.-Gen. 28 or 32,
William Emperor of Germany, born 1797.

[1 Cor. 12 to v. 28.
Col. C. S. Gordon takes Chang-Chow-Foo, 1864.
English and Scotch Crown united, 1603.
Lady Day.
First Printing in England, 1471.
Peace of Amiens, 1802.
3 Sunday in Lent. M.L.-Gen. 37, Luke 3 to v.23; E.L.-Gen. 39 or 40, 2 Cor. 1 to v.
Agricultural Labourers' Union founded, 1872.

[23.
Treaty of Peace at Paris, 1856.
W Spaniards bombard Valparaiso, 1866.

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