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Meanwhile the Dutch, considering but the leading men in the Dutch gothemselves now as secured in the pos- vernment found Viera so very servicesession of this part of Brasil, began to able a person in a commercial point contrive the means of turning it to of view, that they thought it advisebest account. With this view they able not to ruin him altogether, and recalled Count Maurice, who was con contented themselves with taking sesidered as too expensive; and in his curity for his good behaviour, u hich place substituted persons whom they was readily given by several who were could confide in. The chief of these themselves engaged in the conspiracy. were a merchant of Amsterdam, a Viera then prosecuted his designs, and goldsmith of Haerlaem, and a carpen- the Dutch rested in full security till ter of Middleburgh, who were invest- the very night that the plot was ta ted with the supreme power in this have been executed. Intelligence of great colony. These prudent persons it then arrived from the mother counsoon discovered that important addi- try, who, it seems, had been more tions could be made to the revenues of watchful. So great was the consterthe company; that their arms and am nation into which the colonial governmunitions might be advantageously dis- ment was now thrown, that the conposed of to the Portuguese, who offer. spirators easily made their escape into ed high prices for them; that the the woods, where they collected an maintenance of forts and garrisons army of discontented Portuguese, and formed a serious deduction from their established their head quarters near net profits; and that by allowing num- Cape St Augustin. In this extremity bers of the soldiery to return home on the Dutch chose for their general a leave of absence, the expence of their Colonel Huys, but unluckily, in conmilitary establishment might be greatly sequence of their economical measures, reduced At the same time they they had not an army to give him.-were attentive to squeeze as much The few troops whom he could collect as possible out of the Portuguese, were surrounded and taken prisoners who lived under the Dutch govern- by the Portuguese general; their strong ment, and thereby succeeded in com forts were reduced one after another; pletely alienating their affections, and though the Dutch sent out two “ They thus contrived, as a judicious powerful armaments to defend their writer observes *, to sell the whole of possessions, these arrived too late to Brasil at one year's purchase.” The retrieve their affairs. In 1655 Brasil Portuguese governor de Silva kept a was entirely evacuated by that nation, watchful eye on these proceedings, and and has remained ever since under the meditated an opportunity of recover
dominion of the Portuguese. ing what his country had lost. This The trade of the northern provinces soon offered. A Portuguese of the is entirely carried on by the port of name of Viera, having acquired a large Paraiba, which lies about five leagues fortune in the service of the Dutch, from the sea, on a river of the same became a kind of factor or manager
The export consists chiefly of for them, and acquired a large share sugar, in which Brasil formerly excelof their confidence. This man, still led all the American settlements
, and retaining his attachment to his native even now her sugar is superior in quacountry, formed the scheme of a con- lity to ours. About seven or eigl.t spiracy to overthrow the dominion of vessels came there annually from Lishis new masters. It is remarkable, bon. The trade of Olinda, or Fernamthat this conspiracy was discovered; buça, is carried on from the town of
the same name. It is rather ill situa* Harris IJ, 178. led, the port too narrow, and the entry
to it extremely difficult ; yet the trade government, which receives one-fifth was considerable; not less than thirty of the produce. vessels coming annually from Lisbon. St Vincent and Santos, which lie The chief coinmodities were sugar and very near each other, dispute the hobrazil wood.
nour of being the metropolis of this The next province is Bahia, which province. The latter has a very fine carries on its trade by San Salvador, harbour. In this country wild cattle the former capital of Brasil. are almost as plenty as in Paraguay, city is said to possess a very fine har- hides form a considerable proportion bour, capable of being rendered the of its exports. best in America. The town is divi. The island of St Catherine, consided into two parts, the lower and up- derably to the Southward, forms an per; the former situated at the bot- important station on account of the tom, the latter at the top, of a very command which it has of the Rio de steep hill. A lake lies behind and la Plata. The soil is said to be luxurialmost encloses it. The chief exports ant, though uncuttivated; and it can are sugar and tobacco, and the annual be plentifully supplied with every netleet amounted to about thirty sail. cessary from the coast. It has a good
The trade of all the rest of the harbour. country was carried on by Rio de Ja- The royal fifth arising from the gold neiro, which, since the discovery of the of Brasil, is said to amount to gold and diamond mines, has risen to 500,000 1. But the produce of the be the capital of Brazil. This city, mines is, doubtless, much greater than which is more properly called St Se- this would infer: Burke calculates bastian, is delightfully situated on the the export to Europe, at nearly banks of the river about two miles 4,000,0001. The diamonds he estifrom the sea. It is supposed by Mr mates at 130,000 1*. There seems Barrow to contain about 50,000 in- Gittle doubt, therefore, that all its exhabitants.
ports, together, will amount to at The diamonds are found on a river least five millions. Now the whole to the west of Rio de Janeiro, though of our exports to Portugal were estithe precise spot has been carefully con- mated at a million and a half, and cealed. It was long before their va- the imports at two millionst. Here, hue became known; they were con- therefore, is room for a great augmensidered merely as very fine pebbles. — tation. It was at last ascertained, however, In speculating on the future improvethat they were real diamonds, little in- ment of Brasil, we may observe, that ferior in value to the oriental; and grain of all kinds flourishes there; that the Crown then claimed the property its tobacco is of a superior quality ; of them, and let the nines to a compa- that it abounds with the very best ny at Rio Janeiro, for 26,0001. timber for shipbuilding, which may
The next province is that of St Vin- be carried on at nearly one half less cent. It has become distinguished by expence there, than in Great Britain. the gold mines found in it. These It produces all West India commowere first discovered and worked by dities in the highest perfection ; but the Paulists, a mixed race of Portu- this, in the present state of that marguese and Brasilians, joined by rene- ket, cannot be considered as a very gadoes and adventurers of every des- material advantage. cription, who had formed a sort of in
Some depent republic. They have now been subdued, however, and the mines are * European Settlements, I. 317. worked under the superintendance of + Barrow's Cochinchina, p. 129.
Some Account of the Plan for estabhave long been established in the neigh
lishing a LUNATIC ASYLUM at bourhood of Edinburgh, and although EDINBURGH.
Bedlams, on a small scale, have been
connected with the Poor-houses, both THE
cure of the insane is unques- of the city of Edinburgh and of the tionably a matter of the first im- parish of St Cuthbert's, yet they by portance in the practice of medicine. no means superseded the necessity of There is no object of charity, who de a well-regulated public hospital, demands more commiseration than the voted to the cure and treatment of unfortunate maniac ; and there is no Lunatics. It was, therefore, the earnest one to whom charity, properly em wish of many medical practitioners, ployed, can be of more real use. that an institution should be establish
When that excellent citizen, the ed at Edinburgh, in which the unlate George Drummond, Esq., who happy maniac might enjoy every posoften filled the office of chief magis- sible opportunity of recovery, either trate of the city of Edinburgh, with by medical or by moral treatment. great credit to himself, and equal be In consequence of this, Dr Duncan, nefit to the public, first began to ex- Sen., when President of the Royal Colert his endeavours for the establish- lege of Physicians of Edinburgh, in ment of the Royal Infirmary in that 1792, brought forward, in that Sociecity, the care of the maniac did not es ty, a plan for the establishment of a tape his notice. It was his intention, proper Lunatic Asylum at Edinburgh, that the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh where the treatment of the insane should be an Hospital for the cure of might be conducted with many adInsanity, as well as of other diseases. vantages. After various consultations Accordingly, from the plans of that with the Lord Provost, the Principal building, which were presented to the of the University, and other gentlepublic, it appears, that the greatest men in official situations, the followpart of the underfloor was intended ing proposal was submitted to the to be appropriated to the use of the consideration of the public. insane; and for several years after the Hospital was opened for the recep
Proposal for establishing a Lunatic tion of patients, maniacs were admit
Asylum in the neighbourhood of the ted to those benefits which it was ca
City of Edinburgh. pable of affording them. But it was “ Many of the Medical Practitionsoon found, by experience, that the ers of Edinburgh have experienced, treatment of lunatics, under the same with sincere regret, numerous difficulroof with patients subjected to fevers' ties to which they are subjected in the and other diseases, was liable to many treatment of persons deprived of reainconveniences, which could not be son, who are still in a recoverable remedied. While maniacs were often state. The Royal College of Physihighly distressing to other patients, cians having taken this subject into they could not obtain, in the Infir- consideration, are of opinion, that, by mary, that accommodation on which the establishment of a Lunatic Asytheir recovery very much depended. lum in the neighbourhood of the City, The scheme, therefore, was soon a many of these difficulties may be rebandoned ; and for many years past, moved. They are fully persuaded, almost all the cells in the Infirmary, that in a building, accommodated for intended for lunatics, have been ap this purpose, and put under proper repropriated to other purposes.
gulations, those, in the deplorable state Although many private mad-houses mentioned above, would have a much Jan. 1808.
better chance of recovery, than in are in circumstances of indigence, it any other situation in which they can is proposed, as soon as sufficient funds at present be placed, in the city of can be obtained for that purpose, that Edinburgh, or its neighbourhood.
poor patients shall be received into the “ As the importance, therefore, of Asylum, and shall be attended by a proper Lunatic Asylum, can hardly Physicians and Surgeons appointed by fail to recommend it to the attention the Trustees, without expence to them, of the Public, there is reason to expect, or to their relations. that a sum, suficient for establishing “ At the request of the Trustees, such an institution, may, in no long Alexander Bonar, Esq. Banker in time, be obtained, by subscriptions, Edinburgh, has agreed to receive the donations, or legacies; especially if money subscribed for the Edinburgh such an establishment were put under Lunatic Asylum ; which will be dethe care of a respectable set of Trus- posited at interest, till it be appropriatees.
ted to the purpose intended, under “ On the suggestion, therefore, of direction of the Trustees : and it is the College of Physicians, and to for- their intention to carry the plan into ward a plan, which promises to be of execution as soon as the principal and great public utility, the Lord Provost, interest, accumulated for this purpose; the Dean of Guild, and the Convener shall amount to the sum of Two of the Trades of the City of Edin- Thousand Pounds. burgh, the Lord President of the “ Subscription-papers are lodged in Court of Session, the Lord Chief Baron the Principal Banking-louses in Edinqf Exchequer, the Lord Advocate of burgh; and are put into the hands of Scotland, the Dean of the Faculty of different individuals, particularly of Advocates, the Keeper of his Majes- the Medical Practitioners." ty's Signet, the Principal of the Uni- Goldsmiths' Hall, ? versity, and the Presidents of the Col
26th Feb. 1792. S leges of Physicians and Surgeons, have agreed to act as Trustees for an in- This plan met with general approstitution to be named, THE EDIN- bation ; but although a subscription BURGH LUNATIC ASYLUM.
was begun at that period, and encou“ The objects of the institution raged by pecuniary contributions from are,
almost all the Physicians in Edin“ I. That the care of Lunatics, burgh, and from some characters of whose circumstances enable them to the first eminence, (particularly the pay for their maintenance and treat- late Chief Baron Montgomery ;) yet ment in the Asylum, at certain fixed the sum collected was much sinaller rates, according to the accommodation than inight have been expected ; and stipulated, may be conducted under many difficulties occurred, which it is the care of any of the members of the unnecessary, and would perhaps be Royal Colleges of Physicians or Sur- improper to mention. geons of Edinburgh, whom the rela- Although, however, from various tions, entitled by law to the manage- circumstances, this scheme has been ment of insane persons, may think retarded, it has never been deserted. proper to employ ; it being always An annual meeting has been regularly understood, that every Practitioner in summoned of the official characters the Asylum shall be subjected to such mentioned in the original proposal; regulations as the Trustees may find and all the money paid into the hands it necessary to enact.
of the Treasurer has been deposited “ II. In order to extend the benefit at interest. of this institution to such persons as By the exertions of Sir John Sinc
lair, Bart. when Chairman of a tients, in opulent circumstances, may Committee of the House of Commons, be accommodated with houses and and of the Honourable Henry Ers- gardens, entirely appropriated to themkine, when Lord Advocate of Scot- selves; where they may be attended land, Two Thousand Pounds, from by their own servants, and by any methe debts on the Forfeited Estates, dical practitioners whom their guarhave been appropriated by Govern- dians may chuse to employ. ment for this establishment.
The execution of this plan would The greater part of this money has indeed require a large sum of money, been employed in a very advantageous It is computed, that the whole could purchase, most commodiously situated not be completed for less than L.20,000; in the vicinity of Edinburgh, with a and it must be allowed, that all the house already built upon it, and af- advantages of the plan could not be fording many conveniences to the in- obtained, without the completion of tended Asylum.
the whole. But, for five or six thouBesides the purchase of the ground, sand pounds, one side of the square the Managers have also bestowed con- might be finished; and this is so considerable pains in obtaining proper trived, as to admit of at least a temPlans for a commodious building. On porary division of patients, according this subject, they must acknowledge, to their condition. It is the hop: with thanks, the gratuitous exertions ed, that a général subscription, among of Mr Robert Reid, architect, and of all those to whom the wretched conMessrs Kirkwood and Sons, engravers, dition of the insane is not an object of to whom they are indebted for the indifference, will enable the Managers Plans now presented to the Public. to begin the building without delay ;
These Plans are subjected to exa and that the importance of the undermination ; from the hopes that useful taking will recominend it so strongly hints for the improvement of them to the attention of the opulent and bemay be obtained from other architects, nevolent, that the whole may be fiand that the Plans, even in their pre- nished at no very distant period. sent state, may convey interesting information to those, by whom houses List of Subscriptions for building a for the treatment of insanity may af, Lunatic Asylum at Edinburgh. terwards be built. Of the peculiar advantages of the
Şubscriptions in 1792. Plan now proposed, it is at present A. B. by A. K. Tate,
L. 5 5 unnecessary to enter into any detail. A. B. by T. Keir,
5 5 It is sufficient to say, that the great Dr Wm. Wright,
2 2 object which has been aimed at, is to Dr A. Duncan, Sen.'.
5 5 afford, even to that class of patients Dr Roxburgh,
5 who are received at the lowest rate, Mr Kirkwood, engraver, . 22 every chance of recovery which can The Right Hon. Jas. Montbe had, either by medical or mental gomery, Lord Chief Baron, 21 O treatment ; and, particularly, to allow Dr James Gregory, .
5 5 proper opportunity for the separation Dr Chas. Stuart,
3 3 of patients, as being furious, tractable, Dr Thos. Spens,
2 2 convalescent, or incurable. It has al- The Royal College of Physiso been an object in the plan, to afford cians,
25 0 superior accommodation to those whose Dr Jas. Hamilton, Jun. 2 2 relations are willing to pay for it. Dr Joseph Black,
5 5 From the Plan it will be seen, that pa- Dr Alex. Monro,