Sivut kuvina

this Royal grave,

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the English Pound, and the Latin Forfar. In this vicinity was fought a Pordo. In the Orkneys, where our bloody battle betwixt the Scots and ancient civil and religious institutions. Picts, in which the latter were totally probably found their last refuge, the defeated, with the loss of their King. Lispund, i.e. the Royal or Standard Vaigh is pronounced ula, so that Pund (Regum Pondo,) is still in use. there is hardly a shadow of difference

Dumfries, uniformly pronounced betwixt Reswallow and Risuaighlow. Drumfries, i. e. Drum-Frith, i. e. the Whether this denotes the

grave of the Dorsum or range on the Firth, is a said Pictish King, or of some other town well known in the South of King, (for Forfar was occasionally a Scotland. A little to the east of the Royal residence) cannot

now be tout stands the ancient Tom-an-moid, determined. But as the name intia of Justice Hill, on which the Dun Friars mates that he was buried on an emibuilt a chapel, and this circumstance nence, probably some tumulus or other is supposed to have given name to the memorial may still point out the place. town. The Grey Friars also built a I am unacquainted with the antireligious house here, which still retains quities on the estate of Reswallow, the name of the Old Greyfriars, and and will be obliged to any of your is used as one of the parochial church- correspondents in that quarter, if es. The conversion of Dun Friars they will communicate them through into Drumfries is a mere conceit, to the mediumn of your Miscellany, and tally unfounded in fact. By the same particularly any particulars respecting analogy, Greyfriars should be pronounced Greyfries, but no such thing Tinto, uniformly pronounced Tintot, is the case, for it retains its proper or i.e. Tin-teach, i.e. the fire house, is thography, both in writing and in situated in the upper part of Clydespronunciation. That the word Friars' dale. In the statistical account this should be so ductile in the one case, hill is erroneously translated the fire as to melt down into Fries, and so hill. A tradition still obtains in that stubborn in the other as not to change part of the country that a perpetual a letter, imust appear not a little sin fire was here kept in honour of the gular. The truth seems to be, that great Celtic God Belus. This tradithis etymology has been adopted at tion might well be doubted were it random, because no other more pro not in some degree corroborated by a bable occurred. Brumfries is situat- símilar custom in honour of the goded on the Firth of Niih, and also a dess Vesta. From the chastity of the Dorsum which stretches along that priestesses, and other circumstances, Firth. This analysis, therefore, esta- there is good reason to suppose that biishes itself independent of further this same Vesta was Diana, or the gument. How natural is Drumfrith, Moon, and that the institution itself the Dorsum on the Firth, compared was derived from the ancient Umbrian to Dunfriars, the ill-coloured monks, Sabines, who were confessedly of the As to the trifling variation betwixt Druidical religion. Now, if a perpeFrith and Fries, I shall only observe, tual fire was kept up in honour of that it is difficult to pronounce Frith Moon, or minor luminary, it is proany other way than Fries. This word bable the major luminary, Belus, Frith, Fri, or Fre, (for they are all would have the same honour paici synonimous) is the radix of the Eng- him. If so, a house was absolutely lish Firth, and the Latin Fretum. necessary, both for a saving of fuel and

Reswallow, i.e. Ris-uaigh-low, i.e. to shelter the priests from the incleThe King's Grave Hill, is the name of mency of the weather. Tradition small Property about two miles from says a perpetual fire was kept here, January 1808.



think proper.

and the parallel instance of Vesta with ice. All the others were coverrenders it at least probable. The ed with liquid. Upon touching one name itself is another strong presump- of them with my nail, the ice immetion that this was really the case. If so, diately began to form, and spread what more appropriate name could have from the point where I had touched been given to this hill than Tin-teach, the pane, as from a centre, The same or the house in which this fire was thing was observable when the other kept continually burning?

panes were couched. Not having a 30th November 1807. MILO. stop watch, I could not measure the

velocity with which the congelation pervaded the water. I therefore

resolved to seize the next opportunity Curious Fact'regarding CONGELATION, for that purpose, I waited in vain To the Editor,

ever since, till within these few days, SIR,

when one morning, I found three of

the panes of my window in excellent I Sit down to put you in possession condition for the experiment. The of a fact or observation regarding

rest were frozen over. congelation, of which you may make

covered with liquid, and, upon their what use you

If it should happen, that you resolve to ho being touched with the nail, the connour it with a place in your Maga

gelation pervaded them, as on the for

mer occasion. I measured the veloci. zine, you can easily make a suitable

ty, (for which purpose I had a penduditle for it. Water, we all know, may, with in twenty-five seconds. The freezing

lum prepared.) – It was about two'feet certain precautions, be cooled considerbly below the freezing point, without proceeded fastest where the moisture

seemed to be most abundant. being concealed. If a bit of ice, or a pointed instrument, be brought into ficiently obvious, that the velocity of

Now, upon this statement, it is sufcontact with it in this state, the con

the motion of congelation is materially gelation immediately commences, and different from that of electricity; for is said to pervade the whole like a

an electric shock moves thro' a very flash of lightning. The following fact long slender wire, to all appearance disposes me to call in question the instantaneously; so that the compropriety of the illustration.

mon comparison of the motion of conOne night, at the commencement gelation through water cooled below of a very intense frost, which we ex- the freezing point, to the motion of perienced two or three winters ago, electricity, seems not altogether just. upon going to bed, I saw my window

I have to beg pardon for trespassing covered in the inside with moisture, I drew my finger along one of the

so long upon your time, and for enpanes, to sce if it were really as wet grossing (if it should so happen, so as it appeared to be; and thought cellany, which some of your readers

large a portion of your valuable misno more about the matter till just

may before I extinguished the candle, when

think might be better bestowed

otherwise. it occurred to me to look whether the moisture had encreased sensibly during

I am, Sir,

Your most obedient servant, the time of undressing. I found to

and constant reader, my astonishment, I confess, the

GELU, pane which I had touched covered Edinburgh, 8th Dec. 1807.


Continuation of a Tour to ARRAN. shore, I was frequently amused with the THE village of Torlyn, is plea- address of the latter bird, when endea

santly situated in a hollow on the pouring to decoy me from its nest. It banks of a rivulet, at no great distance feigned the appearance of lameness, and from the sea. It consists of a few fluttered along the sand, with drooping low, detached houses. At a mill si. wing, as if wounded by a shot. In tuated in the middle of the village a

this respect, therefore, it employs the considerable quantity of malt is pret the Partridge uses to lure the eager

same means to preserve its nest which pared, which, I was told, was chiefly employed in the illegal distillation of spaniel from her helpless brood.

The Common Sandpiper, Tringa whisky in this island. Around the village there is a considerable extent hypoleucos, is frequently to be seen on of improveable land, which presents,

the banks of the rivulets of this in a 'few places, the appearance of

island. better cultivation than is to be ob

The Brown Hills are composed of served in many other parts of the

rocks of Porphyry *, which in many island equally susceptible of it.

places incline to the columnar strucThe rivulet of Torlyn, so far as I ture. Towards the sea these hills had an opportunity of examining, has present a precipitous front, and the cut its channel through beds of red broken fragments of the columns lysandstone and ironshot clay. The ing on the beach have produced a beds of sandstone are intersected in very rugged coast. several places by veins of basalt.

After passing the Brown Hills the The basaltic matter of these veins country becomes level, owing to the does not appear to have produced any

rocks receding from the shore. This change or induration in the rocks with level land is however chiefly covered which it is in immediate contact.

with heath.

At the mouth of the Black-water Many rolled masses of Pitchstone here occur among the gravel in the boats occasionally pass to Cambleton, bed of the rivulet. 20 June 1807.—On the banks of Cantire. Here is a small fishing sta


on the opposite coast of the Mull of the rivulet of Torlyn I picked up several plants of the Common En

tion. I observed a few Cod, Coalchanter's Nightshade, Circea lutetiana, fish, and Skate, laid out to dry on the but not yet in flower.

rocks. Although the sea around Ar. The country from Torlyn to Kil

ran teems with fish, yet the indolent patrick is low and flat; the rocks are

inhabitants seldom think of catching of red sandstone. Between Torlyn and the Shiskin there is a tolerably Lark to be only a summer bird of pasgood road. The occurrence of a made road in this island

sage, and consequently to leave us may

during the winter. It is probable howsidered as a rarity, although the rocks

ever, that a few of these birds remain almost every where present excellent with us the whole year, as I have obe materials for the purpose.

served them on the shore between In travelling along this part of the Leth and Portobello during the month coast, I observed many breeding pairs of January: of Oyster-catchers, Hæmatopus ostra

This' Porphyry has a basis of a legus; and Sandlarks, Charadrius hia

grey colour and even fracture ; not to

be scratched by a knife. In it are nuticula *. While walking along the

merous angular pieces of Felspar of a

woite colour, and rounded pieces of * Mr Pennant supposes the Sand Quartz of a smoke.grey colour.


be con

more than is sufficient to supply their wort, Asplonium marinum. This plant present wants.

(together with the Cotyledon umbilicus At Drumodoon a high bank of which is here common) was observed sandstone is covered by a thick hori at this place in the summer of 1772, zontal bed of Porphyritic Greenstone *. by the late Rev.), Lightfoot, the felProceeding along the coast to the low traveller of Pennant, and the northward, the bed of Porphyry gra- author of the excellent Flora Scotica. dually decreases in thickness, and at In a moor near this place, I likewie last totally disappears. Near the four.d the Black Bog-Rush, Schanus King's Cove a bed of Pitchstone oc nigricans. curs, resting between two beds of In the King's Cove, and many other sandstone. The upper bed of sand caves around the coast of this island, stone is covered by a bed of green, the Rock Pigeon, Columba enas, stone.

breeds in considerable numbers. This These greenstone rocks were dot- bird is usually supposed to be the pated red in several places with Lichen rent stock of our common domestic piventosus, and Lichen coccintus ; and geons. Mr Pennant, however, is of on several of the rocks and stones here opinion, that the bird which he dethe Polytrichum piliferum was growing scribes under the name of the Stockin plenty.

Dove, or Wood - Pigeon, (not the The King's Cove is a large hollow Ring - Dove, or Cushat, the Coluniwhich has been scooped out from a so ba Palumbus,) and which he su plid bed of red sandstone, by the ac- poses a distinct species from the pretion of the sea at some remote period. ceding, may likewise have contribuThe length of the cave may be about ted to the increase of our domestic a hundred feet, and the breadth at the stock *. entrance about forty. A projecting A little way to the northward of the mass of sandstone causes the cave to King's Cove a large vein of porphyry, terminate in two narrow recesses, the upwards of forty feet in wideness, tradivision between these having some re verses the sandstone strata on the semblance to the keel of a ship. On this shore. The porphyry of this vein is projection the figure of a cross has been similar in appearance to the porphyry cut. A few rude scratches on the sides of which forms the Brown Hills, already the cave are said by the country peo- described. ple to represent dogs, stags, sheep, &c. The hills behind the King's Cove but as far as I could perceive, they bear are covered with a stratum of moss no resemblance to any terrestrial ob- 'earth nearly two feet in thickness.ject.

As this was the proper season for digThe roofs of several small caves ging peat for fuel, I often met with were here hung with the dark green whole families in the moors employed fronds of the Harts-Tongue, Scolo-' in that necessary work. The peat is pendrium vulgare, and their moist cut into oblong pieces, usually about sides were covered with the Golden a foot in length, and nearly two inches Saxifrage, Chrysosplenium oppositifo. in breadth and thickness. The peat lium. On several rocks in the neigh- in this place was chietly composed of bourhood I observed the Sea Spleen, the remains of heath, and of small

herbaceous plants. Where these were * The basis of this stone is of a green

in colour, glimmering lustre, fracture even, passing into earthy. It scratches with ihe knife, and the scratch is grey. In this basis a few crystals of Felspar and * British Zoology, Vol. 1. ;--correcQuartz are disseminateid,

tions for p. 2904

in the most complete state of decom- kind of Limestone is evidently of an position, or bituminization, the peat older formation than the common was of a black colour, and when dry, grey limestone, which belongs to the was solid, hard, and highly intlamına- independent coal formation. By the ble.

absence of petrifactions, and by its Around the Shiskin there is a fine translucidity on the edges, it makes tract ot level and fertile land, The

The an approach to the primitive marbles, Clachen Burn, however, which tra- and it may be considered as the oldverses this vale or strath, carries with est member of the stratified, or transiit, during floods, great quantities of tion series of limestone rocks. gravel and large stones, which it At a place called the Shedog, in deposits on the neighbouring fields; the district of the Shiskin, there are and no embankments are constructed a few scattered houses, and an inn, on the sides of the rivulet, to prevent such as it is. such destructive inundations, although In the moor between Schedog and these could easily be accomplished. Machry there are a number of large

In the mouth of Glen Clachen, a upright stones, disposed in circles.neat chapel was built a few years a One of these circles, which I measugo, by the voluntary subscription of red, was about 50 feet in diameter.the people of the neighbourhood. The Another circle, of 64 feet in diameter, minister of the parish of Kilmorie offia inclosed a smaller circle of 36 feet in ciates in it every third Sunday. In diameter. The inner circle was forman adjacent burial ground, a circulared of eight blocks of grey granite, mound of earth, with a depression in placed at equal distances. Several the centre containing a kind of grave- single upright stones I likewise obstone, is pointed out as the place served in other parts of the moor. where Saint Molios, or Moleese, was

These circles, it has generally been interred. Many strange stories are, supposed, had been employed as places as might be expected, told by the of religious worship in the days of inhabitants, of the virtues and miracles Druidism. of this tutelary saint of Arran.

About the farm of Auchingallon, In ascending Glen Clachen, beds of a considerable quantity of pitchstone red-coloured sandstone, and of green- is to be observed, lying in loose masstone, are seen to alternate with each In the rivulet north from Achother. On the top of the hill on the incar, a thick bed of Breccia or Pudsouth side of the glen, a limestonedingstone may be seen. This Brecquarry, has in part been wrought.- cia, which is composed of rounded This limestone forms a thick irregular masses of granite, gneiss, quartz, &c. bed *. It contains a great admixture cemented by a hard clay basis, is proof quartz. It is traversed in several bably connected with the primitive places by veins of Lime-spart. This rocks.

The Flowering Fern, Osmunda re

galis, was here common; as was the This limestone is of a grey colour, Sweet Willow or Dutch Myrtle, Myfaintly glimmering lustre, splintery rica gale, in the moist moors. Lightfracture, in some places even and coni

foot, pact. It is translucent on the edges, . scratches easily with the knife; streak white.

f I have here, and elsewhere, used authority. It is composed of two the word Lime-spar in preference to the English words, and is equally short and terms calcareous spar, or calc - spar, expressive with any term of similar ime although these are sanctioned by high port borrowed from the Latin language.


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