Sivut kuvina

Monthly Memoranda in NATURAL Jan. 2. 1808.-A good many spe HISTORY.

cimens of the Cuttle-fish (Sepia Loli

go,) have of late been cast ashore in NOTWITHSTANDING, the severity different parts of the coast of the frith.

of the weather in November last, Some of them have been found still in the season has not hitherto, upon the life, though in an exhausted state.whole, been more rigorous than our This is the 0-fish, or Sleeve-fish, of our average winters. In that severe storm fishermen. Its numerous arms or ten. a Whimbrel (Scolopax Phoeopus) tacula, with bell-shaped cirrhi, render was found on the beach near Aber- it a hideous looking creature. It is lady, apparently in a posture of re- the animal which has been celebrated pose, with the head under the wing, from antiquity for its bag of inky but frozen to death! The whimbrel, matter, by diffusing which in the it may be remarked, resembles the water, it is said to be able to conCurlew or Whaap, but is smaller, and found its enemies and effect its eshas the bill less bent; and it is a cape. It is gregarious, and when one much less common bird. Besides the is forced ashore in a storm, more may single Little Auk, or Greenland be expected at the recess of the next Ratch, formerly mentioned in the tide. It is edible, and some parts of December Magazine,) as having been it are said to be a dainty even to the taken at Luffness, three others were gulosiores ; but its appearance is cerabout the same time found in the tainly not prepossessing. It is more neighbourhood; they were kept alive common here than the Sepia octopus, for some hours, but all of them soon which is sometimes found in dredging spontaneously died. A small flock of for oysters in our frith; or than the them, therefore, appears to have been Sepia officinalis, the large bone of forced into our frith by the rigour of which is occasionally cast upon our taat snow storm,

shores. The winter has been distinguished Jan. 5.- Jack - snipes (Scolopax rather for the violence of the gales Gallinula,) which visit our neighbourthat have occurred. In the beginning hood every winter, are at present of December, during a strong breeze; pretty common. They are smaller a Bottlenose Whale (Delphinus bi- than the common snipe; and they dens,) twenty-one feet long, was strand- sit very close, so that they seem to ed near Goulon Point, in East Lothi- allow a person almost to tread on them an. The country people instantly before they spring. stripped off the blubber, leaving the Jan. 7,-9.–The mercury in the krang or carcase to those who should barometer has stood at the mark Set come after! A number of aquatic Fair for these three days. birds seem to have been wrecked on Jan. 15.-Garvies, (Clupea Sprat-' the shores of our frith by the fury of tus) are taken at this season, in large the winds and waves. Between Ca- quantities, in the Forth above Queensroline Park to the westward and ferry. They are of a larger size than Gossford 'to the eastward, the follow- the spratts of the Thames, and probawing sorts were strewed along the bly of a different species. They are beach : several Scouts, or Marrots, seldom brought to the Edinburgh (Colymbus Troile ;) Razor-bills of market. Coulternebs, (Alca Torda ;) and some Jan. 24.- In the poultry market, young Herring-Gulls, (Larus fuscus.) a pair of Scouts, or Marrots, and a sinSeveral small Coal-fish appeared alsó gle Spotted Diver, (Colymbus stellato have been dashed ashore.

tus) appeared on the stalls. They


had been entangled and drowned in 17'..10" North. His declination is the herring-nets in the Frith. The then 16°..S' South, and the time of Spotted Diver is the Arran Ake of his southing 54..50' in the morning. the west country.

Saturday, February 13th. Edinburgh, 2

N. 27th Jan. 1808. S

The planet Venus will be in conjunction with o Sagittarii, a star of the 4th magnitude, situated in the

head of the Archer, in longitude 9.. CELESTIAL PHENOMENA for February 120..19.28", the latitude of Venus 1808.

being 32..42" North, and that of a

Sagittarii 53..36' North, the nearest Wednesday, February 3d. approach of their centres will be. 1o..

26'..18", and the planet will pass to THE planet

. Venus

will be in con- the north of the star. junction with 1 pe Sagittarii, a star of the 4th magnitude, situated to the Sunday, February 14th. north of the bow, in longitude 9..0.. VENUS will be in conjunction with 32..32", and latitude 29..22'..24"

* Sagittarii, a star of the 4th magniNorth; the latitude of Venus being tude, situated in the head of the Ar20..3..13" North; the rearest ap- cher, in longitude 9..130..35'..5", and proach of their centres will be 19..11", latitude 10..28'..7" North. The latiand the planet will pass to the south tude of Venus being 19..22...57", the of the star. A few hours after this distance of their centres at the time of conjunction Venus will be in conjunc- conjunction will be 5'..10', and the fion with 2 » Sagittarii, a star of the planet will pass to the south of the 6th magnitude, and will pass to the star. south of it at the distance of 40 mi

The pianet Jupiter will be in con

junction with the Sun at 11 o'clock in Sunday, February 7th. the forenoon in longitude 109..24°.. The planet Mars is situated in lon- 39'..23". gitude 11s...30..59', and latitude 59' south. His declination is 10°..59'

Tuesday, February 16th. south, and the time of bis southing with

a, or Spica Virginis, at 25 minutes

The Moon will be in conjunction 1h..2' in the afternoon.

after 3 o'clock in the morning. Monday, February 8th. The GEORGIUM Sidus is at present

Friday, February 19th. stationary in longitude 78..50..0'..42",

The Sur will enter the sign Pisces and latitude 31 minutes North. His at 56 minutes after 5 o'clock in the distance from the equator is 120..43' evening. South, and he comes to the meridian at 5"..9 in the morning.

On the same day, at 8 o'clock in Memoirs of the Progress of Manuthe morning, the planet Mercury will

FACTURES, CHEMISTRY, SCIENCE, arrive at his superior conjunction with

and the FINE ARTS, the Sun. Thursday, February 11th.

A Very considerable improvement The planet Saturn will be in qua- upon the Galvanic trough has been drature with the Sun at 7 o'clock in recently made by C. Wilkinson, Esq. the evening. His longitude is then The box is formed as usual, but with a 7..210..57..54", and his latitude 20.. series of wooden partitions, (instead of



the usual plates of metals) about half an SCOTTISH REVIEW. inch distant from each other, and well I. Essays on the Natural History and covered with cement. A piece of copper wire is bent into the form of one

Origin of Peat Moss, the peculiar

qualities of that substance; the of the plates, like the letter n invert

Means of improving it as a Soil ; ed, with a ring at the top. A bent wire of this construction is fixed upon

the Means of converting it into

Manure; and the other economical each plate, so that one of its extremities is fastened to the copper, and the o-,

purposes to which it may be made ther to the fine side of the plate. The

subservient. By the Rev. R. Renplates therefore lie loose in the trough,

nie, Kilsyth. 8vo. 5s. Constable

and Co. and may be raised from it at the same time by passing a wire through the FEW subjects connected with narings. In the common battery, a con tional improvement are more desiderable part of the surface of the serving of attention than that which plates is covered by the cement, but is here treated of. All over Europe, in this improved battery, the whole extensive tracts of land are covered surface is exposed to the action of the and rendered unproductive by a thick acid. When the trough leaks, or layer of this substance. Great Briwhen the plates become unsoldered, tain is not without its share. Suppothe convenience of repairing the de- sing the proportion all over the kingfect is also very great.

dom to be the same as in CambridgeM. SEGUIN has discovered the fol- shire, there would be upwards of lowing method of making the common twenty-millions of acres, and the proalums equal to the Roman alums for portion in Ireland would be still longdyeing, which is done by purifying er. And as it was in this part of the them from a little iron. M. Seguin United Kingdom that the conversion dissolves sixteen parts of common alum of moss into arable was first undertain 24 parts of water, allows it to ken, the subject possesses a peculiar chrystallise, and by this method ob- appropriation to our national feelings. tains 14 parts of alum as pure as that Mr Rennie seems to have carried of Rome, and almost as pure as that on very extensive researches into of Liege.

this subject, and to have collected a M. LELIEVRE has discovered a mi- wide range of information. The view neral in the Island of Elba. It contains which he has given of the formation more than half its weight in oxide of of peat moss appears to be satisfaciron, and a little oxide of manganese, tory, and will not only be interesting the rest is formed of silex and lime. to the natural historian, but even ta Its chrystalline nucleus is a prism with the general reader. a Rhomboidal base. It is black and The grand and fundamental source opaque. Its hardness is a little infe- of moss seems to be from the ruins of rior to that of Felspar, and its specific forests. These, as is well known, gravity 4 times that of distilled water. had overspread a large portion of anM. Lelievre has given it the naine of cient Europe. Gaul, Germany, and Jenite, from the battle of Jena. the other northern countries, were

A machine for preventing accidents covered almost entirely by immense to painters and glaziers has been in- and impenetrable woods. Trees vented by Mr Davis. A drawing sprung up naturally in the uncultivaand discussion of it may be seen in the ted soil ; they were carefully preserTransactions of the Society of Arts ved by the inhabitants as fastnesses, or for 1806, P 138, or in Nicholson's as the objects and scenes of their reliJournal, No. 81, p. 31.

gious adoration. The map of ancient



Germany exhibits the appearance of the inhabitants of the tributary pro. one continued wood, with only a few vinces, were actively employed in this interstices of open land. The Hercy- operation. Roman coins, utensils, and nian forest extended in length at least remains of their works, have been dissixty days journey; how much farther covered deep in many mosses. unknown ; since no man in those The following particulars are given days had ever reached the extremity with regard to Scottish mosses. of it. If it be certain, however, that these vered in Scotland. I mention a few

Many Roman coins have been disco. extensive forests have existed, it is instances; others will occur to the readstill more certain that they exist no er. They ought to be recorded. longer. By far the greater part of In Possil muss, n'ear Glasgow, a leathem have perished, from the opera- thern bag, containing above 203 silver tion of various causes; and it appears

coins of Rome were found, to be out of their wrecks, when left

In Dundaff moor, a number were dis.

covered about forty years ago. to rot on the ground, that the great

In Annan moss, near the Roman beds of moss have been formed.

Causeway, an ornament of pure gold The extent to which cultivation has

was discovered. been carried in Modern Europe, is e Many utensils, of Roman workman. vidently the grand cause which has ship, have likewise been found in these occasioned the destruction of its woods. At the same time, it does not seem

A Roman camp-kettle was found probable that trees, cut down from eight feet under a moss in the estate of

Ochtertire. this motive, would give rise to moss. In moss Flanders a similar implement This would take place only in cases was found. A Roman' jug was found where the wood was left lying on the in Locher moss, Dumfries-shire. А ground. Thus all trees, after a cer pot and decanter, of Roman copper, tain period, would decay by age.

was found in Kirkmichael parish, in the A new growth, indeed, then springs Roman bronze, were discovered in the

same county. Two pair of vessels, of up in their room; but the decayed moss in Glenderhill in Strathaven; and wood is left to rot; and a succession in the Isle of Sky a chest of Roman of similar depositions would form a arms was found under moss. soft mossy soil, unable to support the The remains of Roman works have been weight of large trees, especially when also found deep in these mosses. Many shaken by the tempest.

Accord of these must have been executed bé, ingly, in many places two, sometimes fore these mosses had a being. In the three tier of roots are found lying per- discovered when the great canal was

Dullatur bog some Roman altars were pendicularly, in moss. These trees dug; these are lodged in the University are generally in the direction opposite of Glasgow, and may still be seen. In to that from which the reigning a moss in the immediate neighbourhood winds in any country proceed.

of this a beautiful Roman aliar dedicatAnother grand cause was the cut

ed to the nymphs, was found : It is ting down of forests. This appears to

This appears to still standing at Nethercroy, in the pahave been chierly effected by the Ro- from whence it was dug. In Ardennis

rish of Cuidbernauld, near the spot mans, and to have been one of their

a beautiful marble altar was found de. great means of securing their con dicated to Diana.

P. 38. quests. It was, as it were, the demolition of the enemy's fortresses. It de It is remarkable, that scarcely any prived them of the opportunity both antiquities have been found belonging of retreat and of ambuscade. During to any other nation except the Rothe short intervals of peace which they mans. There seems therefore no enjoyed, the legions, and sometimes reason to doubt that many, if not


most of the forests of Europe, were munications from M. de Lue, the cemined by that people.

lebrated Genoese philosopher, with Other causes, however, seem in par- whom he appears to carry on a regu. ticular cases to have caused the ruin lar correspondence. The style, with of forests. Many have been consum- the exception of a few passages, where ed by fire ; and here too Mr R. he aims at too high a tone, is as good shrewdly suspects the Romans to have as the subject seems to require.been concerned. Others have been What we chiefly object to is the rage Gvertlowed by the sea; some even he shews for division and subdivision. have gradually decended from moun- Thus at the end of every essay he gives tains into the adjacent vallies. Of all what he calls General Conclusions, these accidents Mr R. gives a consi- where not only a recapitulation is giderable number of instances. ven of what was said before, but new

Our author seems thus to have faire matter is introduced under each head; ly proved that decayed wood is the thus forming a double series of essays grand cause which originally led to on the very same subject. Not only the formation of mosses. But there is every chapter divided into sections, appears also reason to believe, that but these sections are divided into unmoss thus formed, after being dug up, dersections, and these undersections grows again, and that often with sur into still more minute divisions. We prising rapidity. This second opere object also to the quotation of his nuation takes place even where there merous authorities in the body of the are no trees or ligneous plants whats work, rather than by references to the ever, of which therefore it must be bottom of the page, which would both wholly independent. It appears to be leave the text unencumbered, and produced by aquatic plants, which might themselves be made more migrow up from pits dug in moss,provid- nute and precise. These faults, howed these pits contain standing water. ever, are subordinate, and do not affect If the pits be either dry, or have a the essential merits of the work. We stream of water running through are glad to understand that Mr R. them, there is no renovation. This se- means to prosecute these researches. condary moss is softer, lighter, and less He announces three other essays on compact than the old, but it is equally the chemical properties of moss, and inflammable. Sometimes whole lakes the changes which it undergoes. We are thus converted into moss; and are rather surprised to find nothing the moss thus formed is generally in said as to the best mode of cultivating a semiliquid state; hence destructive and rendering it useful; but this is accidents sometimes take place. The perhaps reserved as the subject of submoss accumulated in a particular spot, sequent essays. when it finds an outlet, overflows the adjacent country, carrying with it trees and cattle, houses and inhabitants. Again these large beds, when II. Memoirs of the Life and Writings the mosses are cut out of them, are of- of George Buchanan : By David Irten converted anew into lakes.

vitg, A.M. 8vo. 8s. Bed and Brado Upon the whole, the view given by fute, and A. Lawrie. Mr Rennie appears to'us to be very able and satisfactory. He discovers more HERE is no name of which extensive information, and more accu


Scotland is more justly proud, Tate thinking, than are usually em- than that of George Buchanan. His ployed upon such a subject. His own intrinsic merit derives additional work is also enriched by large com- lustre from the barbarism which surJan. 1808.


« EdellinenJatka »