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EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For JANUARY 1808.
Description of the Map of Brasil, References to the Plan of the City.
and PLAN of Rio JANEIRO. OUR UR readers, and particularly the A B C, Landing places in and without the
entrance, defended by lines. commercial part of them, must D, Sniall works on a height commandnaturally feel curiosity with regard to ing Fort Lucia on the Island E. this great country which has become F, Fort Santa Cruz, on a rock of gra
nite 30 feet high, with 23 guns on the refuge of the house of Braganza,
the side next the sea, and 33 to the and is now laid open to British com
westward and northward; it is flankmerce. We have therefore given in ed by several batteries, and com. this number the largest and most par
manded by others on the signal
hills. ticular map of Brasil which we were
GH, Ships in entering and leaving the able to procure. It contains the sub
harbour must pass close uuder the stance of three maps in vol. xiv. of
guns of Santa Cruz. the Histoire Generale des Voyages.
1, A very strong fort commanding the The coast from San Salvador to Isle
K, Store of light ordnance commanded St Catherine, including by far the
by a strong fort on the height L. most important part of Brasil, is given *M, The citadel on the highest point of of the same size with the original.
1. dos Cobras, about 80 feet above the water.
The Island slants on The northern provinces, which are of
the east side to about 8 feet, and is inferior importance, are given in ano
occupied the whole way with stone ther part of the map on a reduced lines flatıked at intervals: greatest scale. There is still some extent of
length 300 yards; 20 guns to the
south and south-east, and 26 on the coast, from the Isle of St Catherine to
opposite points. the Rio de la Plata, which our limits N, Common landing place; line for have not permitted us to include ; but musketry and light guns intended it is almost uncultivated, and contains
to extend the whole front of the to place of any importance.
0, Square fort commanding the Royal The plan of Rio Janeiro, (or St Se
dock yard. bastian, as the town is often called,) P Q R, Convents on eminences, mostly foris from Mr Barrow's travels to Co
tisica. chinchirid. It is on a reduced scale,
ST, The opiy works on the east side of
the harbour,andof little importance. Kui will still, it is hoped, include every U V. Small svorks to prevent a linding ct of real importance.
en she sandy beach as these places.
Account of the Discovery, Conquest, and of Brasil is Don Pedro Alvarez Car present State of BRASIL *.
bral, who set sail in March 1500,
with a fleet of thirteen vessels, for the THE country of Brasilis computed coast of Malabar, in the East Indies.
to extend two thousand four hun. After passing the Cape de Verd dred miles in length, from north to Islands, he stood far out to sea, in or- . south, and about two thousand in der to avoid the calms which reign on. breadth from east to west ; though the the coast of Africa, and on the 24thEuropean settlements have not penc- of April, found himself on the coast trated nearly so far in this latter di- of an unknown country. Its aspect rection. The soil is of the most exu was inviting ; the natives, in any inberant fertility, though, from a want of tercourse he had with them, were activity in the nation, and imprudent friendly, and upon the whole, the disrestraints imposed by the government, covery appeared of such importance it has hitherto received little improve- that Don Pedro sent back a vessel to ment from cultivation. The climate Portugal with an account of this new seems to be the most salubrious and country, and of his having, in the usudelightful of any in the tropical re al form, taken possession of it in the gions; the Portuguese, when worn name of his sovereign. The intelliout with age, are said to have been in gence was welcome; and persons the habit of transporting themselves were sent for the purpose of making. thither, and thereby prolonging their farther discoveries upon these coasts. lives for a considerable period Yet no due estimate of its importance
The honour of discovering Brasil was as yet formed. Gold and silver, does not seem to have belonged to the grand allurements to European any of the original navigators to A. adventure, did not appear in the posmerica. Columbus, indeed, sailed a- session of the natives, and the whole long the coast of South America as coast was covered by ferocious tribes, far as the river Oronooko; but finding against whom continual war must be only an extent of solid land stretch- waged. The difficulty, therefore, was ing westward ;, he saw no prospect of to find persons of opulence and distincaccomplishing his original object of tion, who would go out as settlers ; finding a new route to the East Indies, and when any such presented themand returned to seek it, with greater selves, liberal grants were made of probability of success, in the deeply large tracts of land at a very small indented shores of the Gulph of Mexi- quit-rent. Thus the whole of that exco. If we may believe, indeed, the tensive coast was alienated for a very narratives published under the name moderate revenue.
The new settlers of Americus Vesputius, that navigator consisted chiefly, as may be supposed, had, in 1499, penetrated to the South- of men of desperate fortune, or parward of the great river of the Ama- doned malefactors.
These persons, But these narratives abound exposed to continual attacks from the with so many contradictions, that rude natives, found it necessary to little credit is generally attached to combine the character of soldier with: them.
that of planter ; and so completely The first ascertained discoverer did they do so, that after an entire
change of system, the different pro* Harris's Voyages, vol. II. Hist. vinces of Brasil still retain the name: Gev. des Vovages, vol. XIV. Burke's of Captaincies.
of Captaincies. However, this hardy European Scitiements, Vol. I.
population soon multiplied to such a
degree, that Brasil became a flourish- succeeded in establishing a more friending colony, and drew the attention of ly correspondence with the natives, the mother country. The Portuguese than the Portuguese had been able to government now began to repent of bring about in the course of fifty the profuse grants which they had
years. Allured by the accounts made ; and in the year 1549, John which he sent home, new adventurers III., with more policy it would appear collected themselves; and a second than justice, entirely revoked them. colony, as numerous as the first, set In the same year he sent out Thomas out from Honfleur, in November de Sousa, with the title of Governor 1556. They returned, however, in a General of Brasil, accompanied by a very short time, declaring that Vilstrong body of forces, and six sail of legagnon, from being a protestant, the line. This new governor landed had unexpectedly become a most furiin the Bay of All Saints, where, by ous catholic ; that they had receiorders of his sovereign, he founded the ved such treatment from him, as had city of San Salvador, which continued placed them under the necessity of em-long the metropolis of Brasil. Under barking for Europe ; and that not havhim, and the succeeding, governors, ing been able to lay in sufficient provinew towns were erected, the old forti- sion for their voyage home, they were fications of earth were demolished, reduced to dreadful extremities of faand made way for walls of brick and mine, insomuch that after having constone, mounted with cannon. These sumed even their own shoes, they had precautions were the more necessary, almost been tempted to fall upon,
and as Brasil had now become an object devour each other. Villegagnon, afof ambition to the other nations of ter their departure was unable to mainEurope.
tain himself against the Portuguese, During the civil contests which ra and returned also to France, where he ged in France, between the votaries loudly denied all these allegations. of opposite religions, Nicholas Durant, It is certain, however, that he contiLord of Villegagnon, conceiving, or nued, during his whole life, to be a at least professing a zealous attach most furious enemy to the protesment to the reformed doctrines, and
tant cause. having experienced some disgusts in The Portuguese now remained in his native country, communicated to quiet possession of Brasil till the end Admiral Coligni his design of forming of the century, and the beginning of a settlement in the New World. the next, when some French adventuThe Admiral encouraged and assisted rers made repeated attempts to formi him; and Villegagnon was soon able settlements on the river Maragnan. to equip a squadron of three vessels, All these, however, either in consewith which he set sail from Havre de quence of disastrous accidents, or of Grace in May 1555. After a trou exertions made by the governor of blesome voyage, he arrived in Novemn- Brasil, were quickly rendered aborber, at the mouth of the Rio Janeiro; tive. but finding no good landing place In 1581, in consequence of the there, sailed up the river, and founded rash expedition and fate of King Sethe fort of Coligny, not far from the bastian, Portugal fell into the hands place where the present town is situa- of Philip II. It thus became involved ted. He does not appear to have in the war which that monarch was, met with any considerable resistance, carrying on against the Dutch, whom and with the assistance of some of his ferocious bigotry had compelled to his countrymen who had been slip- throw off the yoke, and erect thema wrecked there some time before, soon selves into an independent state. That
people, then active and enterprising, lar attempt upon some other city. Acunderstanding that Brasil was ex- cordingly in 1629, a squadron of fortytremely ill provided with the means of six sail was dispatched under Admiral defence, conceived the design of at- Lonk, with a considerable body of land tacking it ; and this they accomplish- troops under Gen. Wardenberg. Wared in 1624, by a squadron under the denberg landed on the 15th of March command of Admiral Willekens. As 1630, and after a vigorous resistance soon as this squadron appeared in the took Olinda, capital of Fernambuea. Bay of All Saints, the inhabitants of The Dutch, possessing a great naval San Salvador thought only of remov- superiority, were then able to make ing their persons and property as ex themselves masters of all the coast of peditiously as possible: the governor, Brasil to the south of that city. The who wanted presence of mind either Spaniards were not negligent in sendto fight or Hy, was taken prisoner; ing out succours; and a war ensued and the capital of Brasil surrendered, which lasted upwards of ten years, and almost without striking a blow. A was distinguished by many obstinate remarkable proof, however, was here battles, both by sea and land. The given of what courage can do, even in Dutch, however, partly through the the most desperate circumstances.- valour and activity of their General The Archbishop, Michael Texeira, Count Maurice de Nassau, and partly assembling his clergy and monks, pre- through the characteristic sluggishness vailed upon them to take up arms, of the Spanish government, found and placing himself at their head, means to possess themselves of all the made a gallant resistance, and effected southern provinces of Brasil. Seven his retreat to a strong position, in the out of fourteen had fallen into their neighbourhood, which he fortified in hands, when changes happened in Eusuch a manner as enabled him to keep rope which gave a new turn to the the enemy in continual aların.
face of affairs. These news being carried to Europe, In the month of December 1640, struck the Portuguese with the deep- took place that famous revolution est consternation, as they dreaded that, which rescued Portugal from a foreign in consequence of the system which yoke, and placed the house of BraSpain had formed of depressing their ganza on the throne. The Dutch country, she would make but feeble and Portuguese, from their common efforts to repair this disaster. She was enmity to Spain, became then natural mistaken however ; a fleet of twenty- allies. A truce for ten years in their six sail of the line was equipped, and East and West India possessions was fent, with fifteen thousand men on accordingly agreed upon on the 13th board, under the command of Osorio, of June 1641. The Dutch, however, Marquis of Valduesa. This armament were considered by the Portuguese as arrived in the bay just as the gallant having taken advantage of their nearchbishop had succeeded in collecting cessities to impose very severe terms, an army, and driving tbe Dutch into and to arrange all the stipulations of San Salvador, which he kept closely the treaty, so as to turn to their own blockaded. The place soon surren- advantage. They found it prudent dered ; and Osorio sailed back to however to dissemble for the present ; Spain, imagining the Dutch to be now but secretly cherished the design of completely rooted out of the colony. vindicating their rights on a future
He was deceived, however; for in occasion. In Brasil they were parti1629, the Dutch, who had acquired cularly on the watch for an opportugreat wealth by the plunder of San nity of regaining the complete possesSalvador, determined to make a simi- sion of so important a settlement.-