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died on the 2d June thereafter, after having sustained, with uncommon fortitude and resignation, for many months, all the ills attendant on a weakly constitution attacked by disease. As a proof of the serenity with which he contemplated the probably fatal issue of his illness, we cannot help mentioning that, in a card dated 10th May, he continued to display the usual innocent playfulness of his mind, promising to transmit his MS. communication by the 25th of that month, "if he has 1 not, before that time, (like the "swallows,) migrated to another and "a milder climate, namely Heaven!" We shall only add, that he was a young gentleman of very promising abilities, and of the most amiable dispositions, which last will long be held in remembrance by his relatives, tenants, and domestics, all of whom he greatly and deservedly attached to himself.

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of our brave defenders will be preserved, while the adoption of them will greatly diminish the charge of the national protection; as Twenty Thousand Artillerymen, properly disposed in them, would afford more permanent security to the British coasts, to ward off an invading foe, than Five Hundred Thousand of the best disciplined troops in the world could possibly do unassisted by this discovery.

Lest it should be said that I exaggerate its importance, may I request. that you will insert the following letters from persons of the first distinction in the navy, and as engineers, which must remove every doubt that can be entertained on the subject.

COPY.

No 52. Margaret Street, July 12. 1802.
SIR,

HAVING, at the request of Major Cartwright, examined your Model of a Machine for defending the coasts with cannon, I have, with great pleasure, to N. express to you my extreme admiration of the same, and also my thorough approbation thereof. And though I cannot altogether subscribe to the very extensive application which you seem to

think it may be put to, yet I am most firmly of opinion, it may be found of superior utility on many particular spots, and on a great variety of occasions; and as such, that it ought to be adopted by His Majesty's Servants.-I further have to say, that I have no manner of hesitation in declaring,-as I hereby do declare, my most ardent wishes, that, for the good of the King's service, such measures will be taken as will prove effectual in preventing you, with your Model, from going out of the country, to seek the well-earned recompense for an Invention of such

transcendest merit.

Plan for the Protection of the United
Kingdom of GREAT BRITAIN and
IRELAND.

To the Editor.

SIR,

IT will, I flatter myself, be one object
of your work to encourage every
undertaking for national improvement
and defence. I am now exhibiting in
this city the Model of an Impregnable
Revolving Battery, the adoption of
which would, I conceive, be of the
highest advantage to these kingdoms.
A subscription has been set on foot by
Members of both houses of Parliament
for the erection of one of these formi-
dable engines of national defence.-
They are so constructed as to protect
completely the Artilleryinen employ- Tor JOHN GILLESPIE.

COPY.

ed in working them, and to exterminate the foe against whom they may be directed; by which means, the lives and properties (as appears by the Plan

"WE have examined the construction

and

..

I am, with sincerity and esteem, Your well-wisher, and humble servant, HUGH DEBBEIG.

"Lieut. Gen. and Col. of the corps of Royal Invalid Engineers.”

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"I have this morning seen one of the most destructive Engines ever invented by human ingenuity, called an Impregnable Fort, or Battery, and which I do not hesitate to assert, that if it is not immediately adopted by this country, will prove its destruction.

upper apartments of the palace in Ken sington Gordens, and any evil disposed person, of common ingenuity, might carry the invention to the eremy.

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As the plans were lying rather carele sly about, I requested the inventor, Mr Gillespie, to let me have them, and they are at present in my possession. He informed me, that he has had overtures from Russia and Denmark to carry the model to those countries; but fortunately, tho' struggling under the evils of po verty and neglect, he has continued, like an honest man, attached to his country.

navy.

"I am induced to trouble their Lord. ships on this occasion, as I think it will appear to them, that his Majesty's minis ters should, without loss of time, secure the talents of the inventor to this coun

try, and that the model should be immediately lodged in some place of safety, for at present it is in one of the

"I have the honour to be, &c. &c. "MALCOLM COWAN, Commander R. N."

"A copy of the foregoing was sent by Captain Cowan to his Royal High ness the Duke of Kent, with a letter, to which he received the following an

swer:

“Kensington Palace, April 8th, 1806. "LIKUT. COL. SMYTH is commanded,

by the DUKE of KENT, to acknowledge Capt. Cowan's note to his Royal Highness, accompanying a copy of his letter to the secretary of the Admiralty, upon the subject of Mr Gillespie's invention of the impregnable Battery, and to com vey to him the Duke's thanks for the communication, as also his Royal High. ness's entire coincidence in opinion with him, upon the merits and importance of it, which he anxiously hopes the Captain's letter may be the occasion of bringing forward to the rotice and remuneration it so unquestionably merits."

"I can only account for the neglect which it has met with, from the poverty of the Inventor, and the little attention or encouragement that unfortunately is given to ingenious men in this country.

"It may not have occurred to the military gentlemen who have inspected the Model of this Battery, the facility

with which it might be made moveable History and Description of the City of

CARLISLE.

on wheels to work on the inside, nor, the application of it to a vessel of easy draught of water, when one of them might bid defiance to our whole navy, and come up the river Thames, and return, in defiance of both the army and

(Concluded from p. 325.)

C

ARLISLE, which, previous to the Union, was so often the scene of desolation and bloodshed, shone more in the strength of its walls and fortress, and grandeur of its cathedral, than in the neatness and elegance of its streets, houses, and other buildings. Even so late as the beginning of the last century, the dwellings of the inhabitants were mostly formed of wood,

wood, clay, and laths; exhibiting amarks of poverty and bad taste. The gables fronted the streets; and the diminutive windows, and clumsy oaken doors, fastened together with large projecting wooden pins, were of the Gothic form, and corresponding with the gables. The streets were badly paved, and had large ditches on each side. But, as the prospect of future warfare vanished, trade and manufacture were introduced, began to increase, and an equal augmentation of wealth, spirit, and taste for improvement, as well as of population, took place. In short, one improvement followed another more and more rapidly, till, at the present day, Carlisle, in the openness of its principal streets, neatness and elegance of its buildings, and the decency and respectability of its inhabitants, is excelled by few, if any, towns of equal size in Great Britain. It is, however, to be lamented, that the city walls (now it is hoped for ever useless) should be suffered to remain a circumscribing nuisance, confining the air in its vicinity, and fostering diseases.

The public buildings are various; but the castle and cathedral are most worthy of attention; they are prominent objects, and not only strike the eye of every stranger at a distance, but, on a closer view, their several parts are found equally worth notice.

These edifices are of considerable antiquity, and have undergone a number of vicissitudes; having been rebuilt and repaired at different times, and by different people. There appear to have been three or more religious houses in Carlisle; but only one continues to exhibit its ruins, near St Mary's church: even the sites of the other are not clearly ascertained.

St Cuthbert's church is a modern edifice, rebuilt in 1778, upon the ground where the old church stood. It is neat, but without much ornament. The steeple is very small, but decorated with a dome covered with

lead; from which a fane projects, having the year in which the church was rebuilt cut in it.

Beside these two churches of the Establishment, there are three Protestant Dissenting meeting-houses, one Quaker, and one Methodist meetinghouse.

The town-hall, moot-hall, and council-chamber, are conspicuously situated in the centre of the city; and you ascend to them by a flight of broad steps from the promenade. In these most of the public business is done, and the corporation records kept. The council-chamber is ornamented with a cupola and clock. The Guild-hall, at the head of Fisher-street, has an ancient appearance, and is but a mean edifice. The guard-house, from its situation, is a nuisance. The county jail is old, much out of repair, and without the regular means of supplying the different rooms with fresh air, so necessary in such wretched receptacles of guilt and misfortune. It is said, however, that the magistrates of the county have it in contemplation to build a new jail in the castle green; a situation which cannot be too much recommended for the purpose. The citadel is in ruins.

The different manufactories are mostly situated on the west side of the town, upon the river Caldew, and were increasing rapidly at the commencement of the present war. The private buildings are, for the most part, genteel, convenient, and modern. Shops are numerous, (some shew a degree of elegance,) and well furnished with every necessary of life, and not a few of its luxuries. Carlisle also affords several very commodious inns, and maintains an intercourse with the other parts of the island, by the following, among other means of conveyances, viz. Two mail coaches set out every morning for London; one by Manchester, and the other by Boroughbridge: a heavy coach is also forwarded to the metropolis every Monday, Wed

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This great increase of population, wealth, and refinement, is principally owing to the introduction of the cot

ton manufacture in its various branches. Did our limits allow, it would be a pleasing task to trace with minute attention the rise and progress of manufactures in this city. We shall, however, make the following short remarks on the subject.

Soon after the rebellion in 1745, a woollen manufactory was established at Carlisle by a company of Hamburgh merchants. This at first promised much to the adventurers, and country at large; but, after a few years, some unfortunate circumstances took place, which ruined the projectors, and injured many persons in their

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connection.

At this time provisions were extremely cheap; and such was the ig. norance and sloth of farmers, that the corporation gave a man 40s. a year, and a new cart occasionally, to take

the manure from the streets once a week. Goods were then brought on nack-horses from Newcastle; and CarIsle, at that time, was only noted for

making a few whips and fish-hooks and also a small quantity of linen.

About the year 1750, the late Alderman Richard and William Hodgson established a manufactory of coarse linen cloth, called Osnaburgs; and about the same time arose a new woollen manufacture, the proprietor of which was Mr George Blamire. The latter was of short duration, and has scarcely been revived since.

The road from Newcastle to this place was now made good, and came in at the Scotch gate; whereas it formerly came through Warwick-bridge, and in at the English-gate. Large carts and waggons were set up about this period, and found employment.

Provisions rose in price, butchers began to sell their meat by weight, the street manure was sold, and the country wore a more cultivated as pect.

About this time, spinning and weaving cotton and linen began to increase rapidly, and population kept pace therewith. Every year houses were pulled down, and rebuilt upon a more elegant plan. The grass, which disfigured the streets, lanes, and avenues, began daily to disappear.

In 1756, a public brewery arose.— In 1758, many hundreds of French prisoners, with plenty of cash in their pockets, came to Carlisle on their parole of honour; and several parties of the military being there also, money was circulated in Carlisle and its neighbourhood with more than usual celerity. A more luxurious mode of living stole in upon the inhabitants, and carriages began to be more in use. The private carriages kept at that time were-Dr Waugh's, Dean of Worcester, a coach and four horses-Major Farrer's, a single horse chaise-Mr Dobinson's, a single horse chaise-Gen. Stanwix's, a coach and four horses.

of postponing the conclusion of this ar [We regret being under the necessity ticle till our next.]

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Port

POPULATION of the principal CITIES and TOWNS in SCOTLAND, according to the Return of 1801.

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|20,276 20,967 1,184 $5,007 42,371,834 22,355 43,120 77,385
642 974
1 2,180 2,512 259 1,611 2,822 4.692

(To be concluded in our next.)

Oris

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