Sivut kuvina
PDF
ePub

tached pieces. Potatoes, bear, and rived at Kilmahunock, near the haroats, are their only crops ; and the bour in. Loch-Crinan, and hard by latter looked very poorly in the braird. the entrance from that into the canal

, We had a very

disagreeable walk to where we called the people from their Lochgilt head, for, as usual, it rained beds, and took up our lodging. Almost furiously. We arrived at the inn though this was but a poor despicable in our old state, and though extreme- inn, the woman was civil and discreet, ly hungry, I thought of nothing but and we agreed very well. The rest going away without dining, late as it day being Sunday, we were obliged was, such a violent heat arose be- to remain here ; as the people will not twixt Mr G. and the house. He open the locks to let vessels through pretended, as his grounds for this ani- on that day, although I wish they mosity, the huge impropriety of show- may never do a worse tum. Ox ing us into the bar instead of the din- anxiety to get forward increased wik ing-room ; but the truth of the mat- every opposition: and we felt very ter was this : The dialect of the coun- impatient during the Monday, try differed widely from any that he continued so windy, that the rese had been acquainted with; and as could not be moved for fear of beng you know the tone of the voice is un- dashed against the rocks ; while et derstood to be more expressive of the were cooped up in our little pubit state of the mind, and the exact feels house, and could not stir abroad fir ing of the speaker with regard to you, the rain. On the Sabbath-day : than the words which accompany it; climbed to the highest point in Syed so, the sharp key in which they talk. Knapdale, from whence we had a ed, did not accord with the musical ear extensive view of the Atlantic

, and d of my friend, especially the last syllable all the islands and headlands that of each sentence which was not only lie between the paps of Jura and the lengthened out to a minum ; but in dark rocks that wall the coast of Me the beginning also rose to a fifth, besides a good extent on the easter and descended with a rapidity, and shore of Isla. But as I have deci cadence, so abstracted from all prece- bed a considerable part of that com dent in Italian music, that it raised in try already, I shall take my leate, him a belief, that the people were not ter subscribing myself only in a high passion, but treating

Yours, &c him with the utmost disdain : and he being resolved to be nothing behind with them, wrought himself into such a strain, that if I had not remained ob- SCOTTISH REVIEW. stinately fixed on my dinner, we had certainly danced off without it. Here

I. A General View of the Coal Trade we laid in considerable stores for our

of Scotland, chiefly that of the

ver Forth and Mid Lothian, voyage, being determined to treat for

nected with the supplying of Le a passage in the first vessel that left the canal for the north. According

burgh and the North of Scores ly about mid-way we spoke with the

with fuel; to which is added Johnson of Greenock, bound for the isle

Enquiry into the Condition

those women who of Sky with a valuable cargo of luxu

carry ries: and as the owner made us very

ground in Scotland, known by the welcome to such accommodation as he

name of Bearers. Svo. Ef had, we thought this extremely lucky;

Edinburgh, 1808. but in the event it turned

out but mo- T is perhaps surprising, that are derately so. At a late hour we ar. should not have been written

J.

the subject to which this volume re. Scotch machine, on the contrary, rai.
lates. Few topics connected with po- sed water, at once, to the height
litical economy seem more interesting of forty fathoms. This machine has
to this country. The great extent of since been advantageously superceded
the trade, its subserviency both to the by the water wheel, with cranks and
uses of domestic economy and to va- beams, working with puinps.
rious important manufactures, joined After some curious particulars re-
to peculiarities, both in the nature of lating to the introduction of the steam
the supply, and the mode of working, engine, our author proceeds to give a
combine to make it deserving of a ve- comparative view of the mode of sup-
ry ample discussion.

The present plying the cities of Edinburgh and work does not quite display that ex- Glasgow with coal ; and this part of tensive information, and those lumi- his work seems indeed very importnous views, which might be desired ; ant. It appears that the price of coals but it contains a great deal of good in Edinburgh is nearly double that of sense and observation : it is that of a Glasgow; that while the former is Is. plain practical man; and tho' it can per cwt., the latter is only 7d. Now, hardly be said to exhibit a General our author undertakes to prove, and View of the coal trade of this coun seems fairly to have proved, that this try, contains many detached hints difference of price arises chiefly from which may be of material use. ignorance and bad management. It

Our author begins with some par- is true, the pits are somewhat nearer ticulars relating to the coal antiquities at Glasgow; the average distance beof Scotland. The first authentic ac. ing four miles, while in Edinburgh it counts of coal wrought in this coun- is stated to be five and a half. But, try are in 1291, when it is mention- on the other hand, wages are higher ed as taking place on some lands be- in the former, and the carter will not longing to the Abbey of Dunferm- work without an assurance of greater line. The only mode of draining the gains. The first superiority of the collieries, was by forming a communi- Glasgow system, our author states to cation with lower grounds. This pre- consist in the quality of their carts carious plan was succeeded by water and horses, which are so much preferwheels and buckets, which performed able, as to be in the constant practice the same operation in all situations, of carrying 21 cwt., whereas the Edinbut with great trouble and inconveni- burgh carts carry only from 12 to 15

Half the water was spilt in its cwt. This greater burden will much ascent upwards; and when any of the more than compensate the difference, bolts gave way, the whole machinery though great, which takes place in fell to the ground, with a tremendous the prime cost. The remedy of this crash, in which every bucket was evil is difficult, as it rests with the splintered into a thousand pieces. Se- carters, who may not possess capital veral public-spirited proprietors sent or enterprize sufficient for the adopto Newcastle in hopes of obtaining tion of a more liberal systein. The better machinery; but there it seems coal-proprietors, however, might, we to have been still more defective ; for conceive, find it their interest to intheir machines could not act above terfere, and advance to them the means fifteen fathoms, so that when the mine of doing so. A still greater error, was to be sunk lower, it became ne- however, consists in the manner in cessary to form detached pits, and which the coals are conveyed. In transmit the water from one to the Glasgow, each colliery has an agent other, till it reached the top. The in town, who receives all orders for

coals,

ence.

[ocr errors]
[ocr errors][merged small][merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]

coals, and transmits them to the ma- laid aside, and sold separately at an nager. This person then arranges inferior price. The Glasgow colliers, with each carter the precise time when on the contrary, make no distinction he is to receive his load, for which, of this kind, but accommodate their therefore, he never has occasion to customers with a mixture of both, as wait. In Edinburgh, on the contrary, produced in the course of working the carters receive the orders, or bring Now, this mixture appears to be the in the coals upon chance. . When only way in which Scots coal can prothere is a great demand, they go in duce a comfortable fire. Chews af. crowds to the hill, and have to wait a ford the strongest heat, but bum to long time, sometimes a whole day, fiercely and rapidly; while large com before they are supplied. Here the form a lasting, but dull and dead fire. superiority of the Glasgow system is It is only by mixing the two, that a evident, and the remedy so obvious, fire, at once strong and durable

, cæ that we cannot but consider it as a be produced. Upon this subject, Mr Teproach upon the coal proprietors in Bald makes the following pertiser

: our neighbourhood, that it should not remarks, which entirely accord wit before this have been applied. The our own observation. consequence is, that while the Edinburgh carter usually makes only one the cellars is quite impossible, as the

To burn such masses of coal as are ir journey a day, carrying 12 cwt., the would not kindle by any ordinary mus. Glasgow carter makes three journeys, If, therefore, in a winter morning, alcarrying 24 cwt. each, or 72 cwt. intention is paid to what is going on to all. It is true, the one is paid 10s. the coal cellar of each family, where a 6d. the other only 4s. Id. ; still the number of fires are to be put on, nothing former amounts only to 8}d. per ton, is to be heard but hard blows; and a for each mile, while in Edinburgh, ment of those who have attended to the

pon entering, what must be the astoriska we pay 1s. 5d. Thus every one suf- whole detail of keeping the coal in all fers by this blundering system ; the masses, to see them at last violently proprietor, the carrier, and most of tacked with every kind of destructie all, the public. That all parts of the implement, such as heavy cangot balik operation may be equally ill conduct- double and single headed shot, based, the weighing is performed on com

mers of all descriprions, axes, cross, po mon beams, by 4 cwt. at a time ; in- by one piece of coal dashed with me

kers, picks, and pieces of whinstore, stead of by weighing machines, as in lence against the other; all witbart Glasgow.

to reduce part of them to chews, Still, however, the price of coals, was previously so much avoided, and even at the hill, is considerably lower which could be bought 30 per cent. cteno at Glasgow than at Edinburgh. In per than the great coal of the 197 the former, it is only 8s. 4d. per ton, implements actually used for break as in the latter, lls. 8d. A considera

coal, not one is adapted for the purpix ble part of this difference, however,' break the coal into chews, but about

except the pick: all the rest oot en Mr B. imputes to the groundless and ly bruise much of it into a powder *** exclusive prection, which the in- use; and therefore, while the predilectii habitants of this city entertain, for for great coal continues, no family osph what is called great coal. To accom

to allow their coals to be broken by 217 modate themselves to this taste, the other implement than a light sharp pic

Post miners are at incredible pains to di. vide the coal only into large pieces; Upon the whole, though the me while the chews, or small coal, which of Mid Lothian appears, even in the are necessarily produced, to the amount first instance, to be somewhat bigka of about one third of the whole, are than that of Lanarkshire, it seems that

[ocr errors][ocr errors][merged small][ocr errors][merged small]

OC

to infer, that by proper management, crative, but more agreeable employ-
and by merely following the example ments, Under these circumstances,
set by Glasgow, we may reduce our we really think that Mr Bald's pro-
coals 20 or 30 per cent., to the great posal deserves consideration, of ex-
benefit of the proprietors, and the empting colliers from the militia bal-
public. The former might thus be lot, which would both remove a con-
enabled to undersell their maritime stant drain upon their numbers, and
competitors, and to check that propen- would act as a bounty' upon a trade
sity to the use of English coal which so necessary, and, at the same time, so
seems rapidly gaining ground. We disagreeable. Our author insists, that
must remark, however, that the use of they “ fight a much better battle for
mixed coal does not promise to pro- their country, when driving vigorous-
duce any augurentation of the supply, ly at the coal wall, than when charg-
since all the chews appear to be at ing the eneniy sword in hand.”
present consumed in our manufacto- : Another important point which
ries.

cupies the attention of the author, is With regard to the use of coal in respecting the free exportation of coal, families, our author advises a fire of To this he is decidedly inimical; and chews in the morning, to heat the really, with all our attachment to the house, and then recommends that, af- principles of commercial freedom, we ter breakfast, a large coal should be must own ourselves somewhat staggerlaid above them, which will keep up ed by his arguments, and at least ada comfortable fire during the day. mit, that if such a prohibition be adHe censures the use of gathering coals, missible in any instance, it is in the and recommends, that both the kit- present. In the first place, he mainchen fire, and the others in the house, tains that the coal field of Scotland is should be lighted every morning by limited; that the drain from it is immeans of wood. We doubt, however, mense and continually increasing, and that in this country there would be a that therefore it must, in a certain pedeficiency of the article, unless the riod of time, be exhausted. With repurpose could be answered by shav- gard to theories of its reproduction, ings, or thin flakes separated by car our author insists that this process, if penters in the operation of sawing. it really takes place, has been imperWe are next presented with some ceptible for the

space

of five hundred important facts respecting the mode years, (though we hardly see how the of procuring labourers for the coal- thing can be traced quite so high ;) mines. Till the yeår 1775 the col- that the completion of it must thereliers were slaves, adscripti glebe; and fore belong to a period indefinitely reupon the abolition of this degrading mote. He enquires what we are to system, it was expected that the trade do in the interval between the exhausmight attract labourers from other tion of the present beds and the forprofessions. This expectation has not mation of the new ; and alledges that been realized. So uncomfortable and our posterity will think the transmislaborious is the trade, that not even sion of an ingenious sym, a poor subthe allurement of double wages has stitute for the comforus of a good coal yet induced any one to enter into it, fire. When in addition to this we who has not been, from infancy, ha- consider the manifold uses of coal in bituated to its hardships. Indeed Mr agriculture (for lime,) in machinery, Bald seems to think, that no other and in directly promoting the accomwould be capable of enduring them. modations of life ; when we consider On the other hand, persons are daily the serious blank which its cessation seen passing from it to other less lu- would leave in this country; we must

ad

[merged small][ocr errors][ocr errors][ocr errors]
[ocr errors]
[ocr errors]

admit, that there is no article of which shire, and at S.nquhar in Dumfries shire, it is more important to be economical. but they are not of great extent. Com Encouragement to production, there- strata are also to be found lying water

.

neath the precipices of greensture suck fore, the chief advantage of free ex

at Abbey Craig, Stirling Castle, and poriation, is here scarcely desireable. Craigforth, in Stirlingshire; but these We admit this reasoning, however, are beyond the line of the main f'd

, not without reluctance; and we rather and only very thin seams of coal desi. incline to suspect, that the freight on tute of bitumen, termed Blind-coal, havz so bulky an article will, even during been found there.

Even within these boundaries are peace,

confine its export within narrow límits, and to cases in which it is the intervention of hills, aud the convel

tracts of country without coal

, owing ta of great and indispensable utility. So sion of the strata by whistorie, and long as this is the case (which at pre- those troubles and dykes so common in sent it avowedly is, in consequence of coalfields. the war) we do not see sufficient ground In the last chapter, our author comto recoinmend the adoption of so chur- plains grievously of the present anlish and illiberal a system.

settled state of mineralogical nomenIn the course of this discussion Mr clature. He proposes that a general B. gives the following statement of society should be formed, for the purthe extent and direction of the coal pose of agreeing upon a common la field of Scotland.

guage. We suspect, however

, that The coal-field of Scotland is confined sent unsettled and polemical state of

the evil arises necessarily from the pre, to a certain district of country. It the science ; few, at least, will a crusses the island in a diagonal line from west to east. Beyond this belt, either

ticipate much union from a genera to the north or south, little or no coal is meeting of Edinburgh mineralogist to be found; and the inhabitants who The mind of the learned is, upon this are removed at any distance from the subject, in a state of agitation

, from coal-field feel the greatest hardships, by which great improvements in the so the high price and scarcity of fuel. The north boundary of the coal field

ence may, we hope, result in tiste, kes extends from the banks of the river

which necessarily produces, in the men Eden, near St Andrew's, to the south time, a good deal of confusion. parts of Kinross-shire, from whence it Our author concludes with redosweeps towards the Ochil mountains at strances on the hardships endured by Dollar, and keeps close upon their base the class of women called Bearers, albo westward till it arrive at Craigleith, one bring up the coal from the pits

, and to of the hills of that beautiful range, when commends the use of horses in their it suddenly turns southward, and crosses the river Forth below Stirling ; from stead. The difficulty is, that they thence it is traced by Kilsyth, Campsie, sist of the wives and daughters of the Witch-hill and Kilpatrick, till it fall in. colliers, who are there at all eventi to the river Clyde above Dumbarton. and are willing to perform the worker 'The south boundary commences near

a moderate rate. Haddington, and stretches by Linton, Douglas Mill, Glenbuck, Muirkirk, New Cumnock, and from thence down the water of Girvan, till it join the II. The Cottagers of Glenburi,

Tale for the Farmer's Ingle-sack These boundaries are not minutely cor

By Elizabeth Hamilton. 24 cm rect, but they certainly contain the whole 8vo. 7s. 6d. of the Main Coal-field of Scotland which is of any importance. Detached insula. THIS little work, with its ingens

satire on certain parts of our * these lines, as at Brora in Sutherland. tional character, bas excited an extra

ocean.

arthy

« EdellinenJatka »