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Scots Magazine,




Description of CALDER CASTLE. CAL ALDER (or Cawdor) CASTLE, the seat, in Scotland, of Lord Cawdor, is a place of very high antiquity. It gave, in the 11th century, to the guilty Macbeth, his second title of Thane of Cawdor; and a very ancient oaken bed of curious construction is still shewn, as being that in which the good and innocent king Duncan was murdered; this fact, however, may admit of being questioned, since it seems scarcely to be as yet ascertained, from the very meagre

knowledge of the times, where Mac

beth himself was slain. Calder castle bears the marks of having formerly been of great strength: the tower is very ancient, and its walls of immense thickness, arched at top, and surrounded with battlements. Even the later additions are of very considerable antiquity in a vault, or cellar, there is, at present, a very singular thorn tree, of a large size, which grows wholly within the walls of the house, the arch at top, over it, being complete and perfect; and this uncommon circumstance is the subject of many romantic fictions throughout the neighbourhood. At a more recent period, this castle afforded a retreat for a fortnight to Lord Lovat, who fled to it after the battle of Culloden: the place of his concealment is still shewn near the top of a stair, and behind a chimney; and although his pursuers had the most positive information of his being in the castle, and in consequence made many searches for him, yet he remain

ed undiscovered. Indeed it is even pretended that they actually saw him on the top of the castle, one day, tho' this seems scarcely credible.

The castle is surrounded by a large wood, which, with a rivulet that runs through it, affords most delightful and romantic scenery. It is situated about a mile to the outh-east of the town of Nairn.

Hints on the Introduction of COFFEE, in lieu of TEA, as a Beverage. COFFEE, as a beverage, possesses

qualities which may operate as inducements for its general adoption in this country. Indeed, it is strange, considering its superiority, that the adoption of it, in the place of tea, has not already been carried into effect. If we allow to physicians that influence which they are supposed to have, in directing our conduct in regard to diet, it pays no compliment to their earnestness, to say, that tea has hitherto supplanted coffee as a necessary of life.

Although, like every other species of food, coffee, when taken immoderately, has very pernicious and peculiar effects, yet it is superior to tea, in many particulars. A subtle oil that prevails in its composition is highly useful in rarifying the blood, and in stimulating the solids: coffee also promotes digestion, and is esteemed for strengthening the stomach, as well as a gentle diuretic. Tea, no doubt, possesses its uses, but its ill qualities are


many; and these are heightened by the immoderate heat of the infusion. Indeed, with tea-drinkers, it is a rule, that the tea shall be drunk as warm as it can possibly be swallowed. The ill consequences of hot liquids are obvious, and have been recently attested by the opinion of an ingenious physician: he observes, of individuals whose system of diet abounds in soups, gruels, and teas, that the stomach is soddened in the same manner as a washing-woman's hand is by a habit of tepid ablution. On this subject, the words of Dr Buchan are explicit and decided: he avers, that " Tea will induce a to"tal change of constitution in the "people of this country. Indeed it "has gone a great way towards effect"ing that evil already. A debility, "and consequent irritability of fi"bre, are become so common, that "not only women, but even men, are "affected with them." These evils, aided by the dreadful effects of a too common disease, have almost fully realised the prophetic sentence of Dr Buchan. That change of constitution, aided by a casual irregularity of the weather, sometimes presents to medical skill such anomalies as threaten to bewilder and defeat the power of science. Among the population of the Continent, tea is rarely used, coffee being preferred. I am told by wellinformed foreigners, that their countrymen express commiseration with any one who drinks tea, in the same tone as we do for a sick person. If truth, in a matter of this sort, be manifested by the force of custom, this assertion is corroborated by the fact of foreigners preferring coffee, even in this country, where, from novelty and complaisance, they might be induced to follow a different course.

From this comparison, it may be conceived, that the considerations above stated, and the determination of the legislature to dispense with the duties on coffee, will lead to its general adoption as a substitute for tea. View

ing the matter as giving a vent to a certain branch of our trade, and, as conducive to health, it wears a favourable aspect. There are only two points which might lead to doubt upon the subject, and as they are connected with some important reaso ings, it may be proper to state then, for the consideration of those who are better versed in such calculations:1st, It may afford matter for serious discussion, whether, in the present situation of commerce, or, indeed, at any period, it is proper for the legisla ture to confer particular advantages on one branch of trade at the expence of another: 2d, It is probable that the evil pointed out in the first objec tion may be realised; as, by giving coffee a preference in the competition with tea, we may shut up that vent for our manufactures which exists in the market where we buy our tea— This seems not altogether a theoreti cal objection: as a test, we must exmine our own rule of policy in such a case. Holland will trade with Br tain on these conditions; she will send her produce to Britain, and will take none of Britain's produce in return, but will have specie; the conxquence follows, that Britain declines this trade upon such terms. The rallel may be stated thus: Britain sends a cargo of her staple produce to China, and is offered the staple China in return, the value of which being depreciated by the competition of coffee, it is of course refused, as an unprofitable commodity: if the paral lel be just, the consequence will be calculated to fall as above. Those to whom the science of political economy

is familiar, will be best able to disc minate as to the connection which the present subject has with the dogmas of that science, and to calculate the effects of the measure, if it ever attains the magnitude of one. From such, we have reason to expect an advice, a I think I could point out those whose opinions and reasonings will have

weight in the present question; if it receives from them that elucidation which they are accustomed to give to public measures, we may hope to view he matter in all its bearings, and in ts most extended relations. What I med at when I sat down to write, vas to shew my fellow-citizens, that, f at this period they adopt coffee as a beverage in place of tea, they co-opeate with the legislature; while, at he same time, they make a change or the advantage of their health. Alexr. Henderson. Edinr. 17th Oct. 1808.

Monthly Memoranda in Natural His


Sept. 21. THE HE first influences of 1808. the nightly frosts were iscernible on the flower-border; the ore tender annuals appeared droopg and flaccid.

27. The frost has now comletely discoloured, and in many cases estroyed, all those annuals. The alks of potatoes in the fields, which ere green two days ago, are now, in eneral, blackened.

Oct. 1,-8. An early and severe inter seems already to be announed, by the premature arrival of large ocks of Fieldfares and Redwings. n intelligent naturalist informs us, at these winter visitors had, this sean, arrived in our neighbourhood, bere our summer friends, the chimneywallow and martin had wholly left

The Wood-cocks have likewise peared very early on our shores. me must have been shot in Fifeire on the last days of September; r we understand, that a dish of woodcks was presented at the public dinr, held by the gentlemen of the unty, on the 1st inst., in celebration the victories of Oebidos and Vimia, in which, their representative in rliament, General Ferguson, so emintly distinguished himself.

14. This morning, a heavy

shower of snow fell, which, in the neighbourhood of the city, lay for some hours on the ground, to the depth of about half a foot. This has been the first snow-storm of the season, and no doubt sufficiently early. About half-past 7 in the evening of

same day, a meteor passed over the city: its appearance was highly luminous, and its motion extremely rapid.

15. After uncommonly violent gales, (chiefly from the N. E.), of several days continuance, our frith seems to have become the resort of sea-birds that do not usually haunt it. We refer, particularly, to the Stormy Petrel or Storm-finch (Procellaria pelagica,) the least of the webfooted sort. A good many of these were this morning, at the time of flood-tide, to be observed skipping along the waves, or fluttering over the breakers, at the mouth of Leith harbour, and occasionally seeking shelter, by retreating within the range of the pier. The Stormy Petrel is truly a bird of the ocean; coming to land only in the breeding season, and scarcely ever approaching ships at sea, but in boisterous weather, when it probably finds some protection by keeping under their lee. It is well known to sailors, by the whimsical name of Mother Carey's Chicken, and its appearance is, by them, considered as the sure indication of a storm. It breeds in Fair Isle, Foulah, and some of the other northern islands; and is there known by the various appellations of Alamouty, Mytie, and Spensy.

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17. Another large and bright meteor appeared to-night, about 15 minutes past 8 o'clock. Its course was nearly from S. E. to N. W.-When first observed, it appeared to descend obliquely in the manner of the sinall meteors, called falling stars ; and, when near to the earth, it seemed to fly off in a horizontal direction, increasing in brilliancy, with a light of the colour of port-fire, till it suddenly

denly disappeared. From the Glasgow newspapers, we find, that it was seen forty miles to the westward of Edinburgh, much about the same time; and, by accounts from Dundee, we learn that it was visible as far to the northward of this city, also about the same hour.

Oct. 18. A small shoal of herrings has made its appearance in the frith of Forth; the fishing at present confined to the neighbourhood of Queensferry, the principal rendezvous of the shoal.

20. The uncommon severity of the late gales at sea, cannot be better illustrated than by the statement of a remarkable fact that has just come knowledge. A Stormy Petrel, (one of the uncommon marine birds above mentioned,) had been driven by the tempest, so far inland, as to a light in the bleachfield at Roslin, about six miles from the frith. This was on the 18th inst. ; and as the gale had abated two days before, it is not unlikely that the poor bird had been forced much farther inland, and was then on its return towards the sea.It seemed exhausted with fatigue, and died soon after being taken up. It was sent to the editors of the Edinburgh Star, and was by them kindly communicated to the writer of this article. In the course of preserving it as a specimen, the intestines were found to be full of a blackish matter: the animal does not see therefore to have perished for want, although it may possibly have swallowed unsuitable food.

P.S.-NARWHALS. For some time past, stuffed specimens, said to be male and female, of the Narwhal (Monodon Monoceros) have been exhibited in a sort of ambulatory museum (belonging to a Mr Sands from Northumberland) at the Head of Leith Walk. The larger specimen is 16 feet long, and has one tooth, or horn as it is generally called, projecting about 7 feet from the upper lip.

The smaller specimen is only 10 t long, and has no tooth. Many Nar whals are taken every year in Davis Straits and the Greenland sexThose now exhibiting were bright, from the latter place by a Shind whaler, in the course of the past summer. Considering the quantity of fat or blubber situated immediately below the skin, and firmly a tached to it, the preserving and stuf fing of these Narwhals must have been a work of no common difcaly and labour; and considerable praise is certainly due to Mr Sands for having presented for the first time, to the inspection of the British Public, tex curious members of the cetaceous tribe. But it is to be regretted th in order to the improvement of their external appearance, these species have been considerably deteriorated in the eye of the naturalist: They seem to have been laid over with a coating of whitish oil-paint, and merous dark spots appear then to have been superinduced, without due gard to the disposition, shape or de lineation of the natural spots: The iris of the artificial eye has, very judiciously, been painted of a big yellow colour,-very different inderd from what prevails among the Cett. in the Narwhal we can state up good authority, the iris is of a de nut colour. The long tooth of the large animal is situated on the l side of the upper jaw; the rudimen or perhaps the remains, of anoth tooth exists on the right side. The long tooth has been loosed from is socket, and its weight ascertained to be 11 lbs. It is spirally striated, the striæ run in a direction from right to left. It is alleged by the onders that the smaller animal said to the female, never had any tootha horn; and the exploded opinion the the female is always destitute of th weapon is confidently reported to the visitants of the museum. It may however merely be mentioned, that


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