Sivut kuvina


among the few specimens described by naturalists, in which both teeth have been found complete and of equal length, one happens to be a female: we refer to that figured in the Encyclopédie Methodique. From the circumstance of only one tooth being generally found complete, the narwhal very often gets the name of the Sea Unicorn; and, as an improvement on this name, the narwhals in question have been announced in the newspapers simply as Unicorns." The unicorn is universally considered as the emblem of strength and agility, and is represented in paintings as partaking of the appearance of the horse and the stag. If the printed advertisements led any person to expect to behold some such animal at Sands's museum, they must have been greatly astonished when they were shown a whale! Many, we believe, are not aware that the unicorn of heraldry is entirely a fabulous animal; and that the Reem of Sacred Scripture, which our translators have rendered Unicorn, is by judicious expositors supposed to be the Rhinoceros.

ly one tooth or horn; this was 27 inches in length, and spirally twisted, the striae running from right to left, or according to the course of the sun. The upper part of the body of the animal was dusky, with still darker spots, not however very perceptible. The darkness gradually decreased downwards on the sides, and the spots then became more distinct. These spots were horizontal or longitudinal, but of no determinate shape. The belly was pure white. The pupil on the eye was black; the iris, chesnut; the cornea, white. The tail was 30 inches broad, very slightly forked; by no means deeply forked, as represented in Dr Shaw's figure of the Monodon in his General Zoology. In the stomach were some remains of animals of the Mollusca order. This is the second instance on record of a narwhal having been stranded on the British shores; this may therefore with propriety be marked as an occasional visitor of our seas. Our information was derived from an able naturalist, the Rev. JOHN FLEMING, who inspected the animal on the spot soon after it came on shore.

Edinburgh, 26th Oct. 1808.


Since we are upon the subject of Narwhals, we willingly embrace this opportunity of communicating a fact which must be somewhat interesting

to every student of British zoology. Improvement in the Supply of Water


To the Editor.

On the morning of the 25th of Sept. last, a Narwhal * was found, by some fishermen, cast ashore at the entrance of Weisdale in Shetland, on the property of Mr Ross of Sound. The animal was observed by these fishermen swimming about with great velocity on the preceding day; and when they found it next morning, it was dead, but still warm. It had severely cut and bruised itself by floundering among the rocks. It measured, from the nose to the extremity of the tail, twelve feet 3 inches. There was on

* Possibly this narwhal may prove to be of the kind called Narwalus microcephalus by La Cepede.



N abundant supply of water has great advantage to a city, but while justly been considered a very it is confined to that obtained from pit-wells, great inconvenience arises to the inhabitants, in carrying it to houses; and in cases of accidental fire, the carriage of the water hindrance to the exertions of the firemen, and thereby much increases the danger of the conflagration.

But when a town is supplied by means of pipes, the ease of obtaining water, by promoting cleanliness, must be of great advantage to the health


Robertson Buchanan, civil engineer.

There is reason to suppose that this is the first instance in Britain of filtration being accomplished on so great a scale with sufficient purity. The effect is such, that though the Clyde, during floods, is very maddy, the water, even at such times, is rendered as transparent as spring water. The construction of the filter is extremely simple, and might be easily adopted in any other situation where a large supply of pure water is requi red. The advantage of a plentiful supply of good water to bleacher, dyers, &c. begins already to be powerfully felt about Glasgow.

In order to procure good water, manufacturing establishments have of ten been erected in remote situations, labouring under great disadvantage, from want of hands, long carriage of goods, &c. Manufacturers are now convinced, that it is a very great & vantage to have their works near the market. Hence cotton mills are almost entirely confined to the manufactu ring towns. Those operations which depend on good water, such as bleach ing, dying, and callicoe - printing will of course also be brought to those towns where good water c with ease be procured. This naturally have the effect of incre sing the riches and prosperity of sud places.

and comfort of the inhabitants, while the fire-plugs, and other conveniences, greatly facilitate the means of extinguishing accidental fire. It is therefore almost incredible to think, that the citizens of any large place should feel satisfied without so essential means of health and safety, which in general lies so easily within their reach.

Spring water has been very often used in preference to river water, for the purpose of supplying towns by means of pipes. But this preference was given merely from its apparently greater purity. For spring water, however pure to the eye, often contains foreign ingredients, hurtful to the human constitution: these ingredients, modern chemistry has enabled us to detect.

This subject will be well illustrated in a work speedily to be published, under the title of "An Analysis of the "pit-wells and mineral waters of "Glasgow and its vicinity, with ob"servations medical and economical, "by Dr URE, Professor of the An"dersonian institution, Glasgow."

But whether the foreign matter in spring water happen to be hurtful or not to the human constitution, yet river water, from its softness, is the fittest for washing, for culinary purposes, for the processes of bleaching, dying, and for manufactures.

In its usual state, however, river water contains certain earthy particles which give it a muddy, unpleasant appearance. In order to get rid of this, filtering stones and other contrivances have been long in use. But of late, in this part of the kingdom, the filtration of water on a more extensive scale has been a subject of much attention with bleachers, and has for several years past been successfully practised.

At Glasgow, filtration has lately been conducted on a very large scale at the Cranston Hill water works, for supplying that city from the west, executed under the direction of Mr

While the public are benefited by such undertakings, it is satisfactory to observe, that, when judiciously a ducted, the individuals more imme diately concerned receive ample tturns for the capital which they bark.

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ACCOUNT of Books committed to the
Flames, suppressed, or censured.

(Continued from p. 653.)

On the Recall of the Jews: by Isaac la Peyrere, (without name of city or printer,) 1643, 8vo." This work made a great oise when it first appeared, and the opies were stopt and suppressed by rder of the magistrates. The author roves, that the Jews will regain posssion of the Holy Land, and will be led a more just and ing than their last princes; and this mporal king is to be the King of rance, for many reasons: 1. Because e is his most Christian Majesty, and ie eldest son of the Church: 2. Beuse it may be presumed, that if the ngs of France have power to cure scroulous sores which afflict the Jews their body, they will also have the culty of curing the inveterate malaes of their souls, which are unbelief d obstinacy: 3. Because the kings France wear on their arms a fleur lys, and the beauty of the church compared, in scripture, to the beauof lilies. He reduced all religion the belief in Jesus Christ, and thus oped to reconcile, not only the Jews, it all the sects who had separated emselves from the church.

"The Manners of the Age, in dialogues, by M. de la Popliniere, with indecent figures." This book, the istence of which seems doubtful, is id to have been found among the pers of M. de la Popliniere, who ed in 1762; it was suppressed and rried off by order of the king, if we ay believe the account given in the cret Memoirs of the Republic of etters, 15th July 1763. This infaous production would be one of the rest books known, if it really exist1. The account given is, that there ere found only three copies, which ere adorned with numerous and beauOctober 1808.

tiful plates. When this discovery was made, Mademoiselle Vaudi, one of the heirs, made a dreadful outcry, and said, that this diabolical production

ought to be thrown into the flames. would require the concurrence of the The commissary remarked, that this other heirs; he proposed, therefore, that it should be put under seal, till which was done. The commissary some resolution had been formed, then mentioned the occurrence to M. de St Florentin: the minister dispatched an order from the king, enjoining him to seize the work in name of liniere is given at length in Marmon his Majesty. The character of Pop

tel's Memoirs.

"Principles of French Legislation, "proved by the monuments of the "history of that nation, with a re"ference to the affairs of the time. lates to the business of the parliaments, "1771, 8vo." This work, which rehas been severely proscribed, on account of the freedom of its strictures upon the French constitution, and the royal authority. It appears from his statements, "that the French were originally a free people, elected chiefs, to whom they gave the title of kings, either for the execution of laws established by themselves, or for leading them to war. These assemblies, he states to have had the power of judging in all cases of revolt or treason, of regulating the whole internal government of the monarchy, and the imposition of taxes: the choice of peace and war, as well as the manner in which the war should be conducted, was determined by them. He proves that the States General exercised, in whole or in part, all these functions, till 1258, under the regency of the Dauphin, when the princes, taking advantage of public commotions, encroached successively upon them; that the last assemblage of the States, under Louis XIII., in 1614, gave the most severe blow to French liberty;


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730 Account of Books committed to the Flames, suppressed, St.

&c. and not very common. He composed many other books on subjects of the ology and controversy. "This m says Voltaire, was extravagantly str pulous; he would have thought him self damned, if he had worn a shart coat instead of a long; and he would have wished that one half of mankin should massacre the other, for the ge ry of God and the propagation of the faith." He died at Lincoln's Inn, October 1669, at the age of 69.

"The Heroic Actions and Saying " of the good Pantagruel, by "Francis Rabelais." This satire, which the monks are covered with dicule, was censured by the Sorbon, and condemned by the parliament, account of the obscenities with whit it was filled. Sensible persons adhun very willingly to the judgment p nounced on it by Voltaire, whose "In this extravagant and unintel ble production, Rabelais, it is trat, displayed an extreme gaiety, but still greater impertinence; he ha vished erudition, obscenity, and t a good story of two pages is purcha at the expence of volumes of fully,"

"Radzivil's Biblia Polonica, ( lish Bible.) Brestia, 1565, fol." Te works can equal this Bible in It was undertaken by order of P Nicolas Radzivil, Palatine of Wi who caused it to be printed at his pence: it is said to have cost bi ten thousand crowns of goid. The translation was executed by leade the Unitarian or Socinian sect, nej whom even Servetus is mentor The cause of its great rarity iss to have been, that almost all the pies were bought up and bunt the opponents of this doctrine. On three are known to exist; Vienna in the library of the ror; another in the imperial lit of France; and a third at Stat

"Animadversions on the Disk "of Aristotle, in 20 books: by P "ter Ramus, 8vo. Paris 1543. Di "tical Institutes, in 3 books, by

but that the rights of the nation are not the less imprescriptible.

"Histiomastix; or, the Scourge of "Players: by William Prynn. Lon"don, 1632, 1000 pages folio." This work, the first ever burned in England, was composed by Wm. Prynn, an English advocate. The principal object of this author was to shew, that plays, balls, and masquerades, were unlawful, and contrary to Christianity. In treating of this subject, however, he had interspersed divers reflections, which might be applied to the king, the queen, the church, as approving of, or tolerating these abuses. His general aim was said to be, to shew that there was a design formed of reducing religion to a species of paganism, in order the more easily to restore the catholic religion in England.This offence was represented, by those attached to the king, in the blackest colours; and after a solemn audience, which lasted three days, in February 1634, the book was condemned to be burnt by the hand of the executioner. The author was sentenced to be expelled from the society of advocates, deprived of the degree which he had received at Oxford, set up in the pillory, to have his ears cut off, to perpetual imprisonment, and to a fine of 5000/. sterling. The bookseller who had printed the book was condemned to a fine of 500, and he who had given the licence to print it, to a fine of 50. In 1640, Prynn recovered his liberty, by order of the House of Commons, and was elected Member of Parliament. He contributed to the restoration of Charles II., who named him keeper of the archieves of the tower, with a salary of 500/. sterling; here he employed himself upon his "Antiquæ Constitutiones Regni Anglia, sub Joanne, Henrico III., et Ed. wardo I., circa jurisdictionem et potestatem ecclesiasticam, ex archivis turris Londinensis, collectæ et edicta, per Guill. Prynn. Londini, 1672, 2 vols. folio:" a work of estimation,


Ramus begged for his life. Charpentier agreed to sell it to him and after having received all his money, delivered him to the assassins who were in his pay; he was slain, and thrown out of the window. This celebrated professor never had any bed but straw, nor drank wine till ordered by the physicians in his old age. He spent his life in the most austere celibacy, distributing his income to such of his scholars as were in want.

"Medical Dissertation on Air and "Food. By Joan. Fr. Rauch. Vienna. "1622, 4to, 36 pages. On Drink, by "the same. 1624."-These little treatises have been suppressed with such care, that scarcely a copy is now to be found. Their singularity consists in this, that in treating of the effects of wine and chocolate, he pretends that their use should be prohibited to monks. Thus, he says, many scandals would be prevented. This advice was so little relished by those to whom it was addressed, that they have suppressed the copies as carefully as possible.

ame author, 8vo. Paris, 1543, (both n Latin.") These two works, direced against Aristotle, made the greatst noise at the time they appeared: hey caused a kind of sedition in the niversity of Paris; the quarrel beame embittered, and was carried not nly before the Parliament, but even efore Francis I. Commissioners were amed, some to defend the Grecian phiosopher, and others to judge between lamus and him. After very long nd keen debates, Ramus was worsted, and the commissioners pronounced entence against his works and himelf, which was confirmed by a decree of parliament the S0th May 1543. This decree sentenced the Animadverions and Institutes to be suppressed, s full of falsehood, of slander, and of Juffoonery. Such are the expressions ›f the arbitral sentence, which receivd the sanction of the king: he procribed the two works of Rainus, and rohibited him from teaching philoophy. It was declared that, rashly and insolently, he had risen against he logic of Aristotle; that he had bewn in the dispute much ignorance ind insincerity, &c. Ramus, conlemned by the court, was at the same ime houted by the public, and ridiculed on the theatre: he endured all without a murmur. This is not the first

check which Aristotle's philosophy net with even in 1209 his metaphysical books had been burnt at Paris, and there had been a prohibition against reading or holding them, under pain of excommunication, because they gave occasion to new heresies. Ramus, having embraced Calvinism, broke the images of the College of Presle, where he taught, saying that he had no need of deaf and dumb auditors. He was involved in the massacre of St Barthelemi, in 1572. He was at the College of Preslé; in his first alarm he went to conceal himself in a cave, where he remained two days. Charpentier, one of his enemies, discovered and drew him out of it.


(From Copy in possession of a Gentleman of Edinburgh.)

RIGHT trustie and right weelbe

loved Cousengills and Counsellors, we greet you weel: Whereas we understand, that the deadly feid betwixt VEITCHES and TWEEDIES is as yet unreconciled, and our peace keept betwixt them only by the means of renewing of assurances from time to time: but since we came so far by great pains in our person, endureing our stay there, and by our continual direction sensyne, suppressed that monster within that kingdom, so as wee do hardly think that there be any one feid except this in all that kingdome unreconciled; and the wrongs and mischiefs done by either of them, as we understand, to others, being in


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