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ade, in the sequel, met with the greatest success; it was translated into Latin verse; into English by Lokman; into Italian by the Abbe Quirini; into German, into Dutch, &c. The Maid of Orleans." This poem had been begun in 1730. Chauvelin, the keeper of the seals, having heard it talked of, had threatened to throw Voltaire into the bottom of a dungeon, if he published this work. The first edition given by the author was in 1762.
"Philosophical Dictionary, begun in "1760, printed in 1764, one vol. 8vo. "and very much augmented since un"der the title of Questions upon the "Encyclopedia." This work was committed to the flames at Geneva, proscribed in Holland, and condemned to be burned by a decree of the Parliament of Paris, of 19th March 1765. The prosecutor-general wished to make Voltaire be arrested. I have been assured, that it was on the subject of this book that the condemnation of young Labarre to the flames took place. This decree was executed at Abbeville in 1766.
"The Man with Forty Crowns." This romance of political economy was proscribed and burned by a decree of the Parliament. A magistrate is reported to have said, at the time of the condemnation of this work: "Shall we burn books only?" Is this sally well authenticated? It reminds me of one still stronger: a magistrate of the 16th century cried out at the point of death, "Thank God, I die in peace, for thro me, 166 sorcerers have been burned; if I have not done more, God will forgive me, he knows it has not been for want of good will." I do not recollect the name of this worthy and humane magistrate; he belonged to the Parliament of Toulouse or of Bourdeaux.
We shall conclude this article by a notice respecting the library of Voltaire. It consisted of 6210 volumes, the greater part of which were very
middling, especially in regard is tory. Romances were not nuIDERS. they amounted, at most, to 0 But however middling a great part the works in this library were, became very valuable from the not with which Voltaire had covered the When he read a work, and found casion to make any remark upon he took the first scrap of paper whi came to his hand, wrote his remari, and fixed it on the margin, at the ver place which had called it forth. If to be regretted, that this curious nument should no longer be in Fra its place ought to have been in th imperial library of Paris, but it si that of St Petersburg. Catharine II. made the acquisition of it: Made Denis, Voltaire's heir, yielded it 1778, for the sum of 150,000 kr. (about 7000.) This was the piz set upon it by that magnificent ereign. The Empress required s that to the books should be added a” the original letters of Voltaire, whi could be printed, and even those which could not. Madame Denis any s ed permission to keep copies of th Catharine likewise asked exact p in every direction, of the Chatem & Ferney; she proposed to cause as lar one to be built in her park z Czarskozelo, and to erect in it a nument to the memory of Voltaire there was to be a museum, where tie books were to be placed in the s order in which they had been at Feney. I know not if these projects have been executed.
signal of the interests of two false priests, who are manifestly both Antichrist, in order to preserve them in worldly greatness, by oppressing the Christian world more than the Jews oppressed Jesus Christ and his apostles. Why will not the haughty priest of Rome grant to all men, on condition that they shall live in peace and charity, that plenary indulgence which he grants to them to fight and destroy each other. In 1382, a council was assembled at London by William de Courtenay, in which several heretical propositions of Wickliffe were condemned. The most prominent are the following: "Outward confession is . unnecessary to a man who feels sufficient contrition; we do not find in the gospel that Jesus Christ enjoined mass: If the Pope is deceitful and wicked, and consequently a member of the devil, he has no power over the faithful, except, perhaps, what he has received from the Emperor. After Urban VI. we ought to own no Pope, but to live like the Greeks, each under his own laws. It is contrary to sacred scripture that churchmen should hold temporal goods." It has been said, that there exists another work of Wickliffe, entitled, "Four books of Trialogues," infinitely more rare than that we are now speaking of; but no copy of it is actually known, and there is reason to believe that it is the same work with that which we now announce. John Wickliffe, born at Wickliffe, in the county of York, about 1324, died at Lutterward, where he kept himself concealed, in December 1384. The animosity of his enemies pursued him beyond the tomb; for they dug up his body some years after, burned it, and then threw the ashes into the river. Wickliffe composed a great number of works; but none has reached us except that of which we have spoken.
graphice perstringit, 4to. 1525, (no place.") This volume has become ry rare, from the care with which it as suppressed by the court of Rome. appears that it issued from the press John Oporin of Basle': a copy was Id in 1764 by the Jesuits of the ollege of Clermont, at 241 livres, 10.) But it is commonly valued at 30 or 120 livres, ( or 51.) The pression at Frankfort, 1753, in 4to. of less value. In this work, of which tho Brunsfels is said to be the edir, Wickliffe introduces three pernages, who are: Truth, or Alithia; ying, or Pseudis; and Prudence, or hronesis. It is a sort of theology, hich contains all its doctrine, the bas of which, consists in admitting an >solute necessity in all things, even the actions of God. Yet, he says, at God is free, and that he could ave done otherwise had he so willed ; but, at the same time, he says, hat it forms part of his essence not to ill otherwise than he does. Wickffe wished to establish equality and dependence among men; a pretenon equally ridiculous and impossible > execute. The French made a fatal rial of it at the end of the eighteenth entury. The English had made the ame beneath the eyes of Wickliffe in 379 and 1380. It was in the time f this heretic, that Urban VI. and Clement VII. disputed the seat of tome. Europe was divided between hese two Pontiffs: one was acknowedged by the English, and the other by the French. The emissaries of Urvan preached, in England, a crusade gainst France, and granted to the rusaders the same indulgences enjoyed ›y those who went to the Holy Land. Wickliffe thundered against this cruade in a work forcibly written. "It s shameful, says he, that the cross of Christ, which is a monument of peace, ›f mercy, and of charity, should become to all Christians the standard and
SKETCH of the RISE and PROGRESS of which we received from the e,
the BRITISH NAVY.
of the combined fleets into the diz nel, in August 1779. By laz ary 1780, accordingly, they were
and 1st Jm
1782, to 161; the smaller ves were also raised at the latter perist 439. Eight more of the E been added before the signing of t preliminaries on 20 January 1 The tonnage of the Navy then an ted to 500,000 tons. In the con of this war there were taken frenc different enemies, twenty-six ships: the line, and 61 of 54 guns and We lost only one ship of the is thirty of 50 and under, besides sloops and smaller vessels. Fo two ships of the line were bui 13 in the King's, and 29 in the M chants' yards.
(Concluded from p. 815.)
the conclusion of
vember 1762, the number of ships amounted to 141 sail of the fine, 24 fifties, and 267 smaller vessels. Twenty-four ships of the line were building, 14 in the King's, and 10 in the Merchant's yards. Twenty-one ships of the line were taken from the enemy in the course of this war. The English, on the contrary, lost no vessel of more than 50 guns. They lost two fifties, one of 20 guns, and six small vessels. During the course of this war, L.200,000 was annually voted for building and repairing of ships. At the end of it some reduction was made in the navy, though a much greater force was still kept on foot than during any former peace. The number from 1762 to 1771 continued pretty steadily at about 135 ships of the line, and 250 smaller vessels. On occasion however of the dispute with Spain about Falklands islands, it was discovered that these ships were in a most defective state of repair; and, had a long war taken place, the nation must have suffered considerably. In consequence of this discovery, a general examination took place, and pains were taken to put the ships into a proper state of repair.
At the breaking out of the American war in 1775, the navy consisted of fewer vessels than at any former period of the peace. There were only 131 of the line, and 209 smaller vessels; in all 340. As small vessels were chiefly wanted during the earlier stages of this unfortunate contest, their numbers were greatly augmented; and in 1778, the larger vessels continuing the same, amounted to 319. The accession of the European powers rendered it necessary to extend this augmentation to the larger vessels; especially after the alarm
About this time, the East Company presented Government three ships of 74 guns.
The state in which the nawi been found in 1771, afforded pud: the necessity of attending to it per repair. Accordingly all the tificers were retained in the yards, and continued, even during t winter months, to work extra h An useful regulation was adopted the suggestion, it is said, of Lard fr ham, by which large stores of a kinds, sufficient to last for a. years, were kept constantly accus lated; thus obviating any preousness of supply, or uncommon price, to which war might give a
In the course of the peace, fra 1783 to 1791, the building and pairing of ships went on with gat activity; but as a good number va disposed of as old and unservicale no numerical augmentation took plac In 1789 the ships of the line as ed to 148, and the smaller vessels 304. Of these 93 were in perfet good condition, and ready to be se upon immediate service; a much
ger proportion than had ever been so, during any former period of peace.
In December 1790, in the building of a ship called the Hawke, an important experiment was tried.This vessel was built in part of wood that had been stript of its bark and left standing since the spring of 1777. The experiment however totally failed; for in 1803 this vessel was found to be in so great and general a state of decay, as not to be worth repair.
On 1st January 1791, the ships in good condition were 95, of which 35 were in commission. On the 1st December 1792, the ships of the line amounted to 141, but the number in good condition, from several accidental causes, had diminished to 77, of which 12 were in commission. In each of these two years an armament had been prepared, in contemplation of a rupture, first with Spain, and afterwards with Russia. The value of stores, at 31st December 1792, amounted to 1,812,9827.; of which there was at Deptford to the value of 218,558/.; at Woolwich 189,5501,; at Chatham 378,3047.; at Sheerness, 71,8071.; at Portsmouth, 448,624/.; at Plymouth, 506,1291.
The following is a list of those taken or destroyed by the enemy.
At this period, war broke out with France, and the utmost activity was employed in fitting the navy for service. In the course of nine months, the ships in commission were increased from 12 to 72. It is needless to recal to our readers the events of this naval war, the most glorious in which Britain was ever engaged, and which completely established her empire over the seas. The following is a list of the ships taken or destroyed the course of it by the English.
Of the line, and down to 54
Sloops and small vessels,
Of the line to 54 guns, inclusive,
Of 50 guns,
Sloops and small vessels,
206 Rigging, 275 Sails,
Carry over L.38,910
HOR. THE "HERE is a class of men occasionally to be met with, Mr Editor, who neither think nor speak for themselves, but repeat the thoughts of others, and thus, for a season, pass current in the world as men of no small understanding. A celebrated author has told us, that "no writer can be fully convicted of imitation, except there is an occurrence of more resemblance than can be imagined to have happened by chance ;" and this may be admitted as a reasonable opinion. I can very easily conceive, Sir, that a coincidence of remarks may occur in different authors, on various subjects; yet if one should not only write on the same subject, but at the same time make use of the same words, with exactly the same number of notes and quotations employed by another, he may as reasonably be charged with plagiarism, or literary theft.
In the Scots Magazine of Sept. 1807, p. 557, there is published a dissertation, "On a certain impropriety in the English language," dated 18th August 1807, and signed Walterus: with the subject discussed I have no quarrel; but I desire, Mr Editor, to direct your attention, and that of your readers, to the Weekly Magazine for 14th Nov. 1771, Vol. XIV. p. 205, printed by Wal. Ruddiman, and there you will find inserted the same essay, totidem literis, under the signature A.B. as that above noticed. With the preceding remarks in view, Walterus must be brought in guilty of literary theft.
This person, I have led myself to m ceive to be a young man, perhaps, cre anxious to admire himself is print, eve at the expense of his honesty; and ha he stopt with this first imposition, should charitably have allowed him to escape, but forbearance seems caly » have increased his hardihood, and excouraged him in his system of pzring. Now, as I neither choose ay self, nor wish your readers to have the good nature abused, I intend, by me of the preceding hints, and those new to follow, to prevent Waller, & Wr Rd, from practising s deceit in future.
In the Scots Magazine, Sir, for Ma 1808, p. 344, is inserted a namait respecting the shipwreck of cer English people in the year 1569, sig Wr Rd, with an introtion, which concludes by telling that it "may not be very gener if at all known, to most of ders;" that I verily believe he gined, but as Shakespeare says,
'Tis a mistake, I doubt." At the conclusion of the narratt, there is introduced a letter from th said Wr Rd, (which w shall admit he really did write a compose) wherein he tells us a cock and a bull story about an uncle of "a considerable antiquarian," wat died at Ramsgate some time ago, and left to Wr Rd a collect of old pamphlets (a volume of Ru man's Weekly Magazine, not a st dow of doubt,) and, inter alia, the na rative above alluded to: he then, complete the imposition, acquains that the pamphlet is "frail," wh alone prevented his " producing to you the original ;"-yet, that if you, Mr Editor, were doubtful of the fat, he would immediately, by bringing aged production forward," barish a doubts" of its reality and existenceThis is really too bad. Listen to me, Sir: In the same volume of Rad man's Magazine (XIV.) for 26 Des. 1771. p. 385. if you will take