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was intense, and in the afternoon a terrific thunder-storm almost deluged the country; the English troops were unable to see each other, and one company of sipahis separated from their comrades, and were surrounded by the Chinese. The superiority of a disciplined body over an immense unorganized mob, was never more apparent than in the successful stand made for three hours by this handful of 90 men; they were relieved without the loss of a man, and only 14 wounded. The villagers assembled the next day in a still more menacing attitude, when Sir Hugh told the prefect that if they were not instantly dispersed, he should fire on the city; whereupon one of the commissioners and the prefect, accompanied by an English officer, went out and coaxed them to retire. On the 31st, the prefect furnished five hundred coolies to assist in transporting the guns and stores to the river side, the British flag was hauled down from the forts, and everything restored to the Chinese. The casualties among their forces were 14 killed and 112 wounded, but the deaths which took place from fevers contracted on the heights and river were not far from three hundred. The losses of the Chinese, from the time the Bogue forts were taken in February, to the retirement of the troops in June, could hardly have been much under five thousand. The number of cannon taken was not less than 1,200, besides a great number of ginjals. In posting their forces, and placing their masked batteries, and equipping their troops and forts, the Chinese showed greater command of means and knowledge of war, than it was supposed they possessed; but their lack of discipline and confidence rendered every defence unavailing. The imperial commissioner, Yihshan, whose moral turpitude and ridiculous bravado brought upon him the contempt and detestation of his own countrymen, proclaimed a victory, and rewarded the troops he was forced to disband with medals, in testimony of their valor for driving the English out of the river. He and his associates memorialized the emperor, detailing their reasons for ransoming the city, and requesting an inquiry into their conduct.* Sir Fleming Senhouse died of fever at Hongkong, June 13th, and the sickness of the troops generally compelled the force to * Chinese Repository, Vol. X., p. 402; in which, an? in Wols. viii., ix.

X, and XI., most of the official papers issued from the Chinese and English authorities during the war, are contained.

SIR HENRY POTTINGER ARRIVes. 541

remain there to recruit, and wait for reinforcements from Calcutta. Commodore Bremer returned as joint plenipotentiary, with additional forces from Calcutta, and the expedition was on the point of sailing northward, when both Captain Elliot and Sir Gordon Bremer were wrecked in a tyfoon south-west from Macao, and narrowly escaped with their lives; this detained the ships a few days longer, during which a new plenipotentiary, Sir Henry Pottinger, bart., and Admiral Sir William Parker arrived on the 10th of August, direct from England by steam in 67 days, to supersede them both. Sir Henry publicly announced his appointment and duties, and also sent a communication to the governor of Canton, assuring him that the existing truce would be observed as long as the Chinese did not arm their forts, impede the regular trade, which had been lately reopened to British ships by imperial command, or trouble the merchants residing in the factories. The trade went on at Canton, after this, without any serious interruption during the war, the usual duties and charges being paid as if none existed. The expedition moved northward, August 21st, under the joint command of Sir Hugh Gough and Admiral Parker, consisting of two 74's and seven other ships of war, four steamers, twenty-three transports, and two other vessels, one of them a surveying vessel, carrying in all about 3500 troops. Six men of war, and four or five hundred Indian troops, remained off Canton and at Hongkong to compel the observance of the truce. The combined force reached Amoy on the 25th, and after a hasty reconnoissance, attacked all its defences the next day, which were carried without much loss of life on either side. The city was taken on the 27th, and all the arms and public stores found in it, consisting of powder and materials for making it, wall-pieces, ginjals, matchlocks, shields, uniforms, bows, arrows, spears, and other articles in great quantities, were destroyed; 500 cannon were found in the forts. When the Blonde came into this harbor fourteen months previous to deliver the letter for Peking, the fortifications consisted only of two or three forts near the city, but in the interval they had been increased very largely. Every island and protecting headland overlooking the harbor had been occupied and armed, and a continuous line of stone wall more than a mile long, with embrasures roofed by large slabs covered with earth to protect the guns, had been built, and batteries and bastions erected at well chosen points. The broadsides of the ships had little effect on these stone walls, and it was not until the troops landed and drove out their garrisons, who “stood right manfully to their guns,” that the fire slackened, and the Chinese retreated. The Wellesley and Blenheim each fired upwards of twelve thousand rounds, besides the discharges from the frigates and steamers, and this tremendous cannonading was continued for four hours without the least real damage to the fortifications, and killing only twenty-five or thirty people. The city was completely pillaged by native robbers after the authorities had left, and it was not till several weeks after that they resumed their functions. The island of Kulang su was garrisoned by a detachment of 550 troops, and three ships left to protect them. The English did not have a man killed in the attack on these works, and only a few wounded; nor was there evidence of any great slaughter of the Chinese; their force was estimated at about 8,000 troops and 26 war junks, all of which were either scattered or burned; one two-decker, built on the foreign model, and carrying 30 guns, was found launched and ready for sea. Several instances of determined heroism were exhibited, and the naval officer in command, Kiang Kiyun, seeing the day lost, deliberately walked into the water and drowned himself. As usual, they claimed a victory on the departure of the enemy. The English fleet left for Chusan, and entered the harbor of Tinghai the second time, Sept. 29th, and found the beach very much altered since it was evacuated in February, a line of stone wall and fortifications extending two miles in front of the suburbs having been built, besides many defences of sand-bags and redoubts thrown up on well selected positions. suburbs were occupied as a military station, and every p the extensive works were fully manned and garrisoned.

hey were attacked Oct. 1st, and taken after a defence marked with unusual courage, on the part of the Chinese, who waved their flags and fired inces. sant vollies upon the advancing enemy. The general commanding the battery and all his suite were killed at their posts, and many hand to hand conflicts took place. But their courage and numbers were unavailing, and in two hours their defences were cleared, the walls of the town escaladed, the "whole force scattered, and the island subdued, with the estimated loss of a thousand men. Great quantities of ordnance, among which were 40

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AMOY, TINGHAI AND CHINHAI TAKEN. 543

brass guns made in imitation of some taken from the Kite, with military stores and provisions in abundance, were found, all of them brought from the mainland. A detachment was soon after sent throughout the island to drive off the scattering bodies of the enemy’s troops, and announce to the inhabitants that they were now under English authority, and would remain so until all demands were fully complied with. The people evinced none of the alarm they had done the year before, and provisions came in, shops were opened, and confidence in these proclamations generally exhibited. A military government was appointed, and a garrison of 400 men left to protect the island. The military operations in Chehkiang were conducted by Yukien, an imperial eommissioner appointed in place of flipu, and Yu Puyun, general of the land forces; both these men had urged war, and had done all they could to fortify Tinghai and Chinhai, whose batteries and magazines showed the vigor of their operations. The English fleet proceeded to Chinhai, Oct. 9th, and a force of about 2200 men, with twelve field pieces and mortars landed next morning to attack the citadel and intrenched camp. There were nearly 5000 men in this position, who formed in good order as the English advanced, opening a well directed fire upon the front column, but quite neglecting the two lesser bodies sent to turn their flanks; and as the three opened upon them nearly simultaneously, their whole force was completely bewildered, and soon broke and fled in all directions. Knowing nothing of the mode of asking for quarter, while some fled into the country, the greater part retreated towards the water, pursued by the three columns, hundreds being shot and hundreds drowned. Sir Hugh Gough sent out a flag with Chinese written upon it, to inform them that their lives would be spared if they yielded, but not more than five hundred either could or would throw down their arms. The water was covered with dead bodies, and fully 1500 lost their lives. The town and its defences on the north side of the river were bombarded by the ships, and the troops driven out. Yukien endeavored to drown himself on seeing the day was lost, but being prevented he retreated to Yuyau, beyond Ningpo, where he committed suicide, as was said, by swallowing gold leaf. He was a Manchu, and could not brook his master's displeasure; and his atrocious cruelty to two foreigners who fell into his hands, one of whom was flayed and then burnt to death, had aroused general detestation, and none regretted his death. About 150 pieces of brass ordnance, besides great quantities of gunpowder, iron cannon, matchlocks, and other military stores, were taken and destroyed. The guns and carriages in the fort and batteries were so well made and placed, that in some cases the victors on entering turned them against the flying Chinese. The frame of a wheel vessel, intended to be moved by human power was found near Chinhai, showing as did the brass guns, traversing carriages, and frigate at Amoy, that the Chinese were learning the machinery of war from their foes. Ningpo was taken without resistance on the 13th, General Yu having retired on Hangchau. The people left the city in considerable numbers, and those who remained shut themselves in their houses, writing shun min, i. e. submissive people, on the doors. Captain Anstruther took possession of his old prison, where he found the identical cage he had been carried in, and released all the inmates to make way for his detachment of artillery. About £20,000 in sycee were found in this building, upwards of $70,000 in the treasury, many tons of copper cash in the mint, and rice, silk and porcelain in the public stores, forming altogether the most valuable prizes yet taken. Sir Henry Pottinger intended at first to burn the city, but on deliberation it was determined to occupy it as winter quarters, a garrison being left at Chinhai, and two or three ships in the river to keep open the communication. The plenipotentiary returned to Hongkong in February, 1842, leaving Sir Hugh and the admiral at the north, as the new colony required his presence. The fall of Amoy, Tinghai, Chinhai, and Ningpo, instead of disheartening the emperor, served rather to inspirit him. His commissioners, generals, and high officers generally, did the best their knowledge and means enabled them to do, and when defeated, endeavored to palliate the discomfiture they could not entirely conceal by misrepresenting the force brought against them, and laying the blame upon the common people, the elements, or the inefficiency of the naval armaments. The troops sent home with tokens of victory from Canton, stimulated the war spirit in the western provinces. After they had gone, Yihshan concocted such measures of defence as he could, one of which was to enlist two or three thousand volunteers, or “village braves,” near the city, and place them under their own officers. The people hav.

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