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IMPERIAL PLANS FOR RESISTANCE. 545

ing been taught to despise foreigners, were easily incensed against them, and several cases of insult and wantonness which occurred during the occupation of the heights were repeated and magnified in order to stir up a spirit of revenge. These patriots supposed, moreover, that if the great emperor had called on them, instead of intrusting the conduct of the quarrel to truckling traitorous poltroons like Kishen and the prefect, they could have avenged him of his enemies. This spirit was chiefly confined to Canton, and the defeats and losses experienced the year before had rather irritated than humbled it. Consequently the truce was soon broken in an underhand manner by sinking hundreds of tons of stones in the river, some in boats, but mostly thrown into the water between hurdles. The Royalist levelled the fortifications at the Bogue, and Captain Nias destroyed a number of boats at Whampoa, and threatened the authorities in case they did not observe the stipulations. After the destruction of these forts and his retirement from the river, Yihshan directed his attention to erecting forts near the city, casting guns, and drilling the volunteers, who numbered nearly 30,000 at the new year. He also gave a public dinner to the rich men of the city, in order to learn their willingness to contribute to the expenses of these measures. However, since no serious obstacles were placed in the way of shipping teas by the provincial officers, from the duties on which they chiefly derived the funds for these undertakings, it was deemed advisable to let them alone. This supineness of their rulers did not please the people, and manifestoes were now and, then issued expressive of their dissatisfaction, specially directed against the prefect, who was forced to resign his office. Bands of thieves on shore and in boats aggravated these troubles, and showed the weakness of their government to the well disposed, as well as the attendant evils of war. The case was different at other points. The government supposed Amoy would be attacked, because the visit of the Blonde showed that the barbarians, “sneaking in and out like rats,” knew of its existence; but the people thereabouts, except in the city and suburbs, took no particular interest in the dispute, and knew far less probably, within a hundred miles of it, than was known in most parts of England and the United States; no newspapers, with “own correspondents” to write the “latest accounts from the seat of war,” circulated the progress of this struggle,

which to them was like the silent reflection of distant lightning in their own quiet firmament. The sack of Amoy was a heavy blow to its citizens, but the plunderers were mostly their countrymen ; and when Captain Smith of the Druid had been there a short time in command, and his character became known, they returned to their houses and shops, supplied the garrison with provisions, and even brought back a deserter, and assisted in chasing some pirates.. Rumors of attack were always brought to him, and his endeavors to allay their apprehensions were successful, so that, after the haifang, or sub-prefect, had resumed his authority no disturbance occurred. The explanations of the missionaries on Kulang su, in diffusing a better understanding of the object in occupying that island also contributed to allay their fears. The loss of Chinhai and Ningpo, threw the eastern parts of Chehkiang open to the invaders, and alarmed the court far more than the destruction of Canton would have done. The emperor immediately appointed his nephew Yihking “majesty-bearing generalissimo,” and with him Tih-i-shun and Wänwei, all Manchus, to command the grand army, and arouse the dwellers on the seacoast to arm and defend themselves. “Ministers and people ! Inhabitants of our dominions ! Ye are all the children of our dynasty | For two centuries, ye have trod our earth and eaten our food. Whoever among you has heavenly goodness must needs detest these rebellious and disorderly barbarians even as ye do your personal foes. On no account allow yourselves to be deceived by their wiles, and act or live abroad with them.” Such was the closing exhortation of an imperial proclamation issued to encourage them. In order to raise funds for its operations, the government resorted to the sale of office and titles of nobility, and levied benevolences from rich individuals, and contributions from the people; which when large in amount were noticed and rewarded. Kishen, who had been tried at Peking, and sentenced to lose his life, was for some reason reprieved to be associated with Yihking as an adviser, but never proceeded beyond Chihlí. Lin was also recalled from sli, if indeed he ever went beyond the Great Wall, and slipu, whose treatment and release of the prisoners at Ningpo had gained him the goodwill of the English, was also sentenced to banishment, but neither did he go beyond the Desert. Yen Pehtau, the governor of Fuhkien,

CITIES ON THE COAST FORTIFIED. 547

was summarily dismissed from the public service for the loss of Amoy, and his inefficiency in devising measures of protection. Defences were thrown up at Tientsin and Taku, to guard the passage to the capital, but the bar at the mouth of the Pei ho was its sufficient protection. The great object of immediate attention, however, was the city of Hangchau, and fearing that the English would immediately advance upon it, the troops of the province and all its available means were put into requisition. An advance upon this opulent city would probably have been made by Sir Hugh Gough if he had had troops, but as it could only be approached by a land march from Ningpo, he deemed it advisable to wait for reinforcements, his small force being reduced to 600 men on entering that city. Chapu, the port of Hangchau, and Tsienshan, another seaport near by, were garrisoned by the governor. Hu Chau, a brave general from Shensi, was dispatched to his assistance with 300 troops, but on the appointment of Yihking, his destination was changed to Tientsin. The rewards given to the families of those who had fallen in battle, and the posthumous honors conferred upon them by the emperor, stimulated others to deeds of valor, and a determination to accomplish their master's vengeance. Yukien, “who gave his life for his country, casting himself into the water,” received high titular honors in the hall of worthies, and his brother was permitted to bring his corpse within the city of Peking, while the local officers were ordered to pay it due honor on the route to the capital. The names of humbler servants were not forgotten in the imperial rescripts, and a place was granted them among those whom the “king delighteth to honor.” Thus did the Chinese endeavor to reassert their supremacy, though their counsels and efforts to chastise the rebellious barbarians were not unlike the deliberations of the rats as to the best mode of restraining the devastations of their enemy, the cat. The occupation of Ningpo was an eyesore to the Chinese generals, whose movements were easily learned through native spies, one of whom in particular, nicknamed Blondell by his employers, was conspicuous for his services in this respect, and the fearlessness he exhibited. The genius of the people was often illustrated in their contrivances to carry off plunder. Secreting valuable articles in coffins and ash-baskets, wrapping them around corpses, packing them under vegetables or rubbish, were a few of the means taken to elude the sentries. One party overtook two persons near Ningpo, running off with a basket between them ; on overtaking and recovering it, a well dressed lady was found coiled up, who, however, did not scream when detected. On another occasion, a female was found in a locker on board a junk near Chinhai, and as the captain was desirous of examining the mode of bandaging her feet, he told his men to lift the body out of the closet, when a scream explained the trick; she was dismissed, and the money she had endeavored to hide put into her hands. Opium was found in boats and most of the official residences, showing how extensive its use had become; the sale of it received little check from the war, and no reference was made to it by either party. Towards the end of the year 1841, information was received of the collection of a large force at Yūyau, about forty miles beyond Ningpo ; and the general resolved to anticipate its movements. Two iron steamers soon landed seven hundred men there, who took up a position for the night, intending to escalade the walls in the morning; but before the attack, the townspeople came out to say that their defenders had evacuated the place. The marines and seamen, who had just landed, took the circuit of the walls, and found the troops, about a thousand strong, drawn up in array; and the two, after exchanging their fire, almost immediately started on the run. The snow had fallen just enough to cover up the pathways, which enabled the Chinese to distance their pursuers, who were now and then bemired in a half-frozen rice field. The public stores were destroyed, and the town left to the care of its citizens, without much loss of life on either side. On his return, the general visited Tsz'ki, but it was found unoccupied, the troops and the authorities both having fled. The rice found in the grandoles having been distributed to the townsmen, the detachment returned to Ningpo, Dec. 31st, much refreshed by the expedition. In a week, preparation was made for a similar visit to Funghwa, where it was found, on arrival, that the authorities and troops had fled; so that to destroy the government stores, and distribute the rice in the granaries to the people, was all that remained to be done. These two expeditions so terrified the “majesty-bearing generalissimo,” Yihking, and his colleagues, that they fled to Suchau, in Kiangsu, to assure themselves of safety. With such leaders, it is not strange

CHINESE TROOPS ATTACK NINGPO. 549

that the villagers near Ningpo wished to enrol themselves under British rule; and the effect of the moderation of the English troops was seen in the people giving them little or no molestation after the first alarm was over, and supplying their wants as far as possible. The force had become settled in its quarters at Ningpo, after returning from Funghwa, when the Chinese opened the cam. paign, March 10th, by a well-concerted night attack on the city. During the preceding day, many troops entered the city in citizen's clothes, and stationed themselves near the gates; and about three o'clock in the morning, the western and southern gates were attacked and driven in. Colonel Morris ordered a party to retake the south gate, which was soon done, with considerable loss to the enemy; for the moment the Chinese were opposed, their main object was forgotten, and every man sought his own safety, thereby exposing himself more fully to destruction. On the approach of daylight, the garrison assembled at the western gate, where the main attack had been made with more than usual vigor, and two or three howitzers taken through the gate, when the main force of the enemy was met approaching in a compact form along the street, headed by an officer on horseback. The volleys of musketry and chain-shot poured into this dense mass, mowed them down so that the street was choked with dead bodies, and the horse of the leader actually covered with corpses, from which he was seen vainly endeavoring to release himself. Those who escaped the fire in front were attacked in rear, and at last every man fled as he best could into the open country, the English following in hot pursuit. About 600 were killed, and the whole force of 5000 completely scattered by less than two hundred Europeans, with the loss of one man killed and six wounded. The general and admiral then prepared to attack an intrenched camp of 8000 troops near Tsz'kí, and about twelve hundred were embarked in the steamers. The Chinese had chosen their ground well, on the acclivity of two hills behind the town, and in order to confound and disperse them completely, the attacking force was divided so as to fall upon them on three sides simultaneously, which was done with great slaughter. The Chinese did not run until they began to close in with their opponents, when they soon found that their intimidating gesticulations and cheers, their tigerfaced shields and two-sided swords, were of no avail in terrifying

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