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usually trust to might more than right to maintain their standing ; and when conscious weakness leads them to adopt underhand measures to regain their rights, the temptation which led to these acts is rarely thought of in the day of retribution. The demands of England were not exacting, but she should, and could at this time, in an effectual manner, through her plenipotentiary, have cleared herself from all sanction of this traffic. If Lord Melbourne could wish it were a less objectionable traffic, Sir Henry Pottinger might surely have intimated in as public a manner his regret at its existence. The number of ships, steamers, transports, and all, in the Expedition, when it left Wusung, July 6th, was seventy-two, most of them large vessels. They were arranged in five divisions, with an advanced squadron of five small steamers and tenders, to survey the river, each division having a frigate, or seventyfour, at its head. The world has seldom seen a more conspicuous instance of the superiority of a small body, possessing science, skill, and discipline, over immense multitudes of undisciplined, ignorant, and distrustful soldiers, than was exhibited in this bold manoeuvre. Not to speak alone of the great disparity in numbers, the distant quarters of the globe whence the ships were collected, the many languages and tribes found in the invading force, the magnitude of their ships, abundance of their supplies, and superiority of their weapons of war, the moral energy and confidence of power in this small troop, over its ineffective adversary, was not less conspicuous. The sight of such a fleet, sailing up their great river, struck the inhabitants with mingled astonishment and dread. A small fort near Tungshu was destroyed by a party, accompanied by Mr. Gutzlaff, the garrison making no defence. At Sishan, two new batteries had been hastily constructed in a well chosen position, which opened their fire upon the advanced squadron, but they were silenced, taken, and destroyed, with all the stores and ammunition found in them, in a very short time. The fleet reached Chinkiang fu, and the vicinity of the Grand Canal, July 20th, its passage having been delayed by adverse winds, and the rapidity of the current near Silver lsland. A survey of the ground was taken on the preceding days, by the heads of the expedition, preparatory to the attack. Chinkiang fu, i. e. Mart-river city, lies half a mile from the southern bank of the Yangtsz’kiang, eligibly situated for trade

PASSAGE UP THE RIVER YANGTsz’ KIANG. 559

and surrounded by a high and solid wall four miles in circuit, and having hills of considerable elevation in its rear. The canal comes in from the south, close to the walls on its western side, and along the shores of both river and canal are extensive suburbs—at this time completely under the command of the guns of the ships, which could also bombard the city itself from some positions. A bluff hill on the north partly concealed the town itself from the ships, and it was not till this hill-top had been gained, that a full view of the three Chinese encampments behind the city were had. The general divided his small force of seven thousand men into three brigades, under the command of majorgenerals Lord Saltoun, Schoedde, and Bartley, besides an artillery brigade of five hundred and seventy rank and file, under lieutenant-colonel Montgomerie. The Chinese encampments contained more than three thousand men, most of them soldiers from Hupehr and Chehkiang provinces. The force within the city consisted of 1200 regular troops belonging to the Manchu garrison, and 800 Mongols sent from Koko-nor, together with 835 Chinese troops, making altogether from 2600 to 2800 fighting men; the entire force was under the command of Hailing, who had made such a disposition of his troops, and strengthened his means of defence as well as the time allowed, but was unable to accomplish all that he wished: he closes his last communication to the emperor with the assurance, that “he can do no otherwise than exert his whole heart and strength in endeavors to repay a small fraction of the favors he has enjoyed from his government.”

The right brigade under Lord Saltoun soon drove the imperialists out of their camp, who did not wait for his near approach, but broke and dispersed after firing three or four distant volleys from their jingals and matchlocks; the camp and its stores were burned, and the enemy allowed to escape, as the country was wooded and the day too hot to pursue them far. Capt. Loch, who accompanied the general as an aide, says that while the party of volunteers were approaching the camp, they passed through a small hamlet on the hills; “the village had not been deserted; some of the houses were closed, while the inhabitants of others were standing in the streets staring at us in stupid wonder ; and although they were viewing a contest between foreigners and their fellow-countrymen, and in danger themselves of being shot, were coolly eating their meals.”

The centre brigade under major-general Schoedde landed on the northern corner of the city to escalade the walls on that side, and prevent the troops from the camp entering the gates. He was received by a well sustained fire, his men placing their ladders and mounting in the face of a determined resistance; as soon as they gained the parapet, they drove the Tartars before them, though their passage was bravely disputed. While they were mounting the walls, a fire was kept up on the city by another part of the same brigade stationed on the hills on the northern and eastern sides, and after clearing the ramparts, they proceeded to the western gate, conquering all opposition in the northern part of the city, and driving the Tartars to the southern quarter.

The left brigade under major-general Bartley did not reach the western side of the city as soon as was expected; being delayed by the canal, here between seventy and eighty feet broad, which formed a deep ditch on this side. Preparations were soon made to blow the western gate in, which was done with great skill and precision, the blast carrying before it a high pile of sand-bags, piled on the inside to strengthen the bars. While this work was going on, seven boats from the Blonde carrying artillerymen entered the canal to proceed up to the gate, but when nearly opposite were repulsed by a severe fire from the walls, and the men compelled to abandon the three leading ones, and take refuge in the houses along the banks; the other boats, seeing the danger, halted under cover of some houses, until their comrades rejoined them, when all returned to the ship. Two hundred marines were instantly landed, and with three hundred sipahis soon recovered the boats, and carried the wounded men aboard ship. The party then planted their ladders in the face of a spirited fire from the walls, and succeeded in carrying them against all opposition, and burning a guardhouse on the ramparts.

All resistance at the three gateways having been overcome, it was supposed that the city was pretty much subdued, but the Tartars, now driven into the southern part of it, still held out. The heat was so great, that Sir Hugh ordered a halt for his men, and dispatched a small force to proceed along the western ramparts to occupy the southern gate. This body had proceeded about half a mile, when it encountered a sudden resistance from a body of 800 or 1000 Tartars drawn up in an open space, in

CAPTURE OF CHINKIANG FU. 561

military array, headed by an officer on horseback. They fired with steadiness and regularity, but their bravery was of no avail, for the party, giving them one volley, charged down the bank and scattered them immediately, though not without some resistance. The firing brought up the general, who resolved to sweep the city from house to house before quitting it; the southern gate was occupied without further opposition, and all systematic resistance ceased. The dispersed Tartars, however, kept up a scattering fire along the streets and from the houses, which served chiefly to irritate their enemies and increase their own loss.

The heat of the day having passed, the commander-in-chief, guided by Mr. Gutzlaff and some Chinese, marched with two regiments into the southern quarter of the city. The scenes of desolation and woe, which he met in this march, seem to have sickened the greyhaired warrior, for he says in his dispatches, “finding dead bodies of Tartars in every house we entered, principally women and children, thrown into wells or otherwise murdered by their own people, I was glad to withdraw the troops from this frightful scene of destruction, and place them in the northern quarter.” It was indeed a terrific scene. Capt. Loch, who accompanied Sir Hugh, says they went to a large building, thought to be the prefect's house, which was forced open and found entirely deserted, though completely furnished and of great extent; “we set fire to it, and marched on.” What the object or advantage of this act was he does not say. Leaving the general, he turned down a street and burst open the door of a large mansion; the objects which met his view were shocking.

“After we had forced our way over piles of furniture placed to barricade the door, we entered an open court strewed with rich stuffs and covered with clotted blood; and upon the steps leading to the hall of ancestors, there were two bodies of youthful Tartars, cold and stiff, who seemed to be brothers. Having gained the threshold of their abode, they had died where they had fallen from loss of blood. Stepping over these bodies we entered the hall, and met face to face, three women seated, a mother and two daughters, and at their feet lay two bodies of elderly men, with their throats cut from ear to ear, their senseless heads resting upon the feet of their relations. To the right were two young girls, beautiful and delicate, crouching over and endeavoring to conceal a living soldier. In the heat of action, when the blood is up and the struggle is for life between man and man, the anguish of the woo and the sight of misery and pain is unheeded; humanity

VOL. II. 25*

The centre brigade under major-general Schoedde landed on the northern corner of the city to escalade the walls on that side, and prevent the troops from the camp entering the gates. He was received by a well sustained fire, his men placing their ladders and mounting in the face of a determined resistance; as soon as they gained the parapet, they drove the Tartars before them, though their passage was bravely disputed. While they were mounting the walls, a fire was kept up on the city by another part of the same brigade stationed on the hills on the northern and eastern sides, and after clearing the ramparts, they proceeded to the western gate, conquering all opposition in the northern part of the city, and driving the Tartars to the southern quarter.

The left brigade under major-general Bartley did not reach the western side of the city as soon as was expected ; being delayed by the canal, here between seventy and eighty feet broad, which formed a deep ditch on this side. Preparations were soon made to blow the western gate in, which was done with great skill and precision, the blast carrying before it a high pile of sand-bags, piled on the inside to strengthen the bars. While this work was going on, seven boats from the Blonde carrying artillerymen entered the canal to proceed up to the gate, but when nearly opposite were repulsed by a severe fire from the walls, and the men compelled to abandon the three leading ones, and take refuge in the houses along the banks; the other boats, seeing the danger, halted under cover of some houses, until their comrades rejoined them, when all returned to the ship. Two hundred marines were instantly landed, and with three hundred sipahis soon recovered the boats, and carried the wounded men aboard ship. The party then planted their ladders in the face of a spirited fire from the walls, and succeeded in carrying them against all opposition, and burning a guardhouse on the ramparts.

All resistance at the three gateways having been overcome, it was supposed that the city was pretty much subdued, but the Tartars, now driven into the southern part of it, still held out. The heat was so great, that Sir Hugh ordered a halt for his men, and dispatched a small force to proceed along the western ramparts to occupy the southern gate. This body had proceeded about half a mile, when it encountered a sudden resistance from a body of 800 or 1000 Tartars drawn up in an open space, in

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