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A. The Positive Degree mentioneth the Thing absolutely H without any Increase, or Diminution ; as, long, short, wife

Q. What is the Comparative Degree?

A. The Comparative fomewhat increaseth or diminisheth its Positive in Signification ; as, longer, or more long ; fporter, or more short ; wifer, or more wife.

Q. Wbat is the Superlative Degree ?

A. The Superlative increaseth or diminisheth the Signification of its Positive to the utmost Degree; as, longef, or most long ; shortest, or most short; wifeft, or most wise.

Q. Are all Adjectives, that admit of any Comparison, compared thus ?

A. No: Some Adjetives are irregular ; as, good, better, beft; bad, worse, worf'; much, more, moft ; linle, lefs, leaft.



HAT is a Pronoun:

A. A Pronoun is a part of Speech, that fupplieth the Place of a Noun.

Q. How many Things belong to a Pronoun:

A. There belong to a Pronoun, Number, Cafe, Gender, Person and Declension.

Q. How many kinds of Pronouns are there?
A. Two: Substantives and Adjellives.
Q. Which are the Pronouns Substantive?

À. These ; 1, thou or you ; He, She, It; and their Plurals, we; ye or you ; they.

Q. Which are the Pronouns Adjective ?

À. My, mine, thy, thine, our, ours, your, yours, who, awhich, what, this, that, jame, his-self, her-felf, it-self, &c.

Q. What is the Uje of these Pronouns Adjective? A. By some a Question is ask'd'; 'as, Who teacheth me? What new. Meihod is this? By others we learn the true Polelor of a Thing; as, This is my Book. By fome we call to mind something that is pasi; as, This is ihe Book which [Book] I lent you. By others we demonstrate our Meaning; as, What I said to John, the fame I say to you ; Live well. Note, Pronouns have no Articles before the 12,. except for

Diffinĉzion, or by way of Eminence; as, God is the same,

Yesterday, 10 Day, and for ever.
Q. What Pronouns are of the firft Person's
A. I and We.
Q. What Pronouns are of the second Person i A. Thou

A. Thou or you, and ye or you. The rest are of the I bird.
Q. How is the Pronoún I declined ?
A. Thus;

Nom. I.

Nom. We.
Gen. Of me. Gen. Of us
Dat. To me.

Dat. To us.
Acc. Me.

Acc. Us.
Voc. Is wanting

Voc. Is wanting.
Abl. From me. Abl. From us.
Q. How is the Pronoun Thou or You declined ?
A. Thus ;

Nom. Thou or you.

Nom. Ye or you.
Gen. Of thee or of you,

Gen. Of you.
Dat. To thee or to you.

Dat. To you.
Acc. Thee or you.

Acc. Ye or you.
Voc. O thou or you.

Voc. O ye or you.
Abl. From thee or from you. Abl. From you.
Q. How are the Pronouns he, she, it, declined?
4. Thus;

Nom. He.
Gen. Of him.
Dat. To him.
Acc. Him.
Voc. Is wanting
Abl. From him.

Nom. She.

Nom. They.
Gen. Of her. Gen. Of them.'
Dat. To her. Dat. To them.
Acc. Her.

Acc. Them.
Voc. Is wanting

Voc. Is wanting
Abt. From her. Abl. From them.
Nom. It.
Gen. Of it.
Dat. To it.
Acc. It.
Voc. Is wanting.

Abl. From it,
Note, His, Hers, Its, and Theirs, being Pronouns Poffeffives,

are frequently ufed for the Genitive Cafes of He, Se, It and They.


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of a V E R B. HAT is a Verb?

A. A Verb is a Part of Speech that betokeneth Being; as, I live : Doing; as, I love : Or suffering ; as, I

Q. How many kinds of Verbs are there ??
A. Three : Active, Paljive, and Neuter.
Q. What is a Verb Active ?

A. A Verb Active, is a Verb' that denoteth Attion; but in such a manner as to admit afterit the Accusative Case of the Thing it acts upon ; as, I love him.

Q. What is a Verb Passive ? .
A. A Verb Pasive betokeneth Suffering; as, I am loved.
Q. What is a Verb Neuter?

A. A Verb Neuter fignifies the State or Being, and sometimes the Aation of a Pe:Ion or Thing, but has no Noun after it to denote the subject of Action.

How many different Ways is a Verb Neuter express'd? A. Two Ways : sometimes actively; as, I fight ; and fometimes paffively; as, I am fick.

Q. How many Things belong to a Verb?
A. Four : Mood, Tense, Number and Perfon.

Of the MOOD s.
Q. What is a Mood ?
Ā. 'Tis the Manner by which a Verb shews its Signification.
Q. How many Moods are there?

A. Six: The Indicative, the Imperative, the Optative, the Potential, the Subjunctive, and the Infinitive.

Q. Hory are these Moods known?

A. 1. The Indicative Mood directly declareth a Thing true or faise; as, I read; or else asketh a Question ; as, Do I read?

2. The Imperative Mood biddeth or commandeth; as, read thou

3. The Optative Mood wisheth or desireth ; as, I wille I could read.

4. The Potential Mood fheweth Power or the want of it ; and is known by these Signs, may, can, might, would, should, could, of ought; as, I can quork or play just as I please : John would play but his Mafter will not let hiin.

5. The

may read.

5: The Subjunctive Mood is Conditional, having always à Conjunction joined to it; as, When I can love; or, if I

6. The Infinitive Mood affirmeth nothing, but signifieth indefinitely; having neither Number, nor Person, nor Nominative Cafe before it; and it is commonly known by this Sigu 10 before it; as, To love.

Q. Of what do Moods confif?
À. of Tenses.


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Of the TENS E.S.
Q. What is a Tense?
A. It is the Distinction of Time.
Q. How many Tenses are there?

Present Tense,
A. Three : Paff,

viz. Preterperfea Tense, and

the Future Tense. There is also another Division of Time after this Manner: The Preterperfe&t Tense is fubdivided into the Preterimperfect Tense, or the Time not perfectly paft; and the Preterpluperfe£ Tense, or the Time long paft.

And to these may be added, what the Greeks call a Second Future.

Q. How is the Present Tense known ?

A. It is known by the Signs, do, doft, does, doth, and speaketh of an Action now a-doing but not finished ; as, I do read, that is, I have not yet done reading.

Q. How is the Preterperfect Tense known?

A. It is known by these Signs, have, haft, hath, and has, and speaketh of the Time perfectly past, and of the Action finished without regard to any thing else; as, I have read, or quite dove reading

Q. How is the Preterimperfect Tense known?

A. By the Signs did and didft, and speaketh of the Time past, but shews that something was then a-doing but not finished at that time which we speak of; as, I did read while you was at play.

Q. How is the Preterpluperfect Tense known? A. By the Signs had and hadst, and speaketh also of the Time past, but news that something had been done before another Thing that was done and patt; as, I had read an Ho: before I wrote my Exercise.

Q. How is the first Future Tenfe known?

A. The first Future Tense is known by the Signs shall and will; and speaketh of a fhort Space of Time to come; as, I will read presenily. You shall write to-morrow.

Q. How is the second Future Tense known?

Ā. The second Future Tense is known by the Signs fall or will hereafter, and speaketh of a long Space of Time to come; as, I mall read hereafter.

Of the Number of V ER B S.
Q. How

many Numbers are there in Verbs?
A. Two: the Singular and the Plural.
Q. How do you know the Number of the Verb ?
A. By the Number of its Nominative Cafe.
Q. Have all Verbs Numbers ?

A. All, but Verbs of the Infinitive Mood, which have no Number, because they admit of no Nominative Case.

Of the Person of VERB S.
Q: How are Verbs otherwise divided?
A. Into Personals and Impersonals.
Q. What is a Verb Personal ?

A. Any Verb that will admit the Pronouns, 1, thou, be, foe, or their Plurals, We, ye, or they before it.

Q. What is a Verb Impersonal ?

Ā. It is an absolute Verb, which hath only one Perfon; and therefore can only admit of the Pronoun It before it; as, li ruineth : It freezeth i fint is hot: It is coid. Q. How

many kinds of Impersonals are there? A. Two, Active ; as, It rains : Passive; as, It is qvarm.

Of the helping VER B S. Q. What is a helping Verb?

A. It is a Verb that is prefixt to another Verb, to denote or signify the Time, or the Mood, or the Manner of the Verb. Q. Which are the belping Verbs ?

1. Do, doft, does, doth, did, didft, have, haft, bas, hath, had, hadit, zvill, wilt, shall, ait, may, may' , can, can, might, mightest, would, would'Afhould, should st, could, could's, ought, oughtest, let, am, are, is, was, were, been and be.

See the Formation of Verbs both personal and impersonal. thro' Mood and Tense, in the several Pages following.



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