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17. Poff, which figniics afier; as Postjcript.
18. Fre, which fignifies befire; as, to preme litate, to Fre-engage, Preface
19. Pro, which signifies for or forth; but it has also a great many other Senses; as, to profejs, pioleat,prouounce, prorogae.
20. Preter, which lignifics again; as, preternatural.
zi. Re, which generally implies a repeated setion; as, to repeat, rechange, Sometimes it denores Opposition; as, to repulje : Sometimes it denotes only the elarging the Sen. of the simple Verb; 22, repose, repaft: Sometimes it figuifies the changing one Thing or State into another; as, Reduce, Reduction: Sometimes it denotes contrariet z; as, Reverse: Sonietimes Honour and Ejtcoin; as, Rrgard, Respect : And fametimes dislike and difefteeni; as, Reprsach, Rije?, Reject on.
22. Retri, which fignifiés backward; as, Retruspect, Retrograde Motion.
23. Se, which figuifies without, or by itself; as, secure, Separate, seclude.
24. Sub, which fignifies under; as, to subscribe:
25. Subter, which also signifies undet; as, Subterfuge, i.e. a. Refuge. under.
26. Super, which figpifies upon, over, or above; as, Supexcription, Superfluous.
27. Trans, which lignifies over, or beyond;, as, to trian port, to transgress: Sometimes it signifies the moving from one Place to another; as, to translan, lo transponse ; fometimes it denotes the changing of one Thing into another ;jas, to transfcin., Tranfubftaniiaticn.
Q. "V hich are the Preptitions in Composition derived from the Greek
A. 1. A; which fignifies Privation or not; as, Anonymous, Anarchy.
2. Ampbi, which fignifies on both Siles and about; as, Amphibious, Amphitheatre, Amph bology.
3. Anta and Anti, which signify against; as, Antagonis; Antichrift.
4. Hyper, which figni-s over and above; as Hyperbolla 5. Hypo, which fignifics under; as, Hypocrify.
6. Meta, which fignifies beyond ; or else denotes the change ing of one Thing into another; as, Me apher, a tetamorphos 7. Peri, which signifies about ; as, periodical, Penip
8. Syn, which fignifies with or rogerber; as, Syntax.
C H A P. X.
A. An Interjection is a Part of Sprech, which denoteth a fudden Pation of the Mind, without the he.p of any other Words : And thereiore Interjections are various as the sudden Passions of the Mind themselves; as, Ho, brave Boys! Here is Nezus for you.
Q. Il bich are the Interjections ?
A. These following are some of them; Ab! alack! alas! arvay! fe ! foh? good lack! good Sir! ha, ha, be! ha! beigh! hem! ho! boi! hozu-nocu! hus!, now! 0! Oh! O brave! O frange! O hoe! pijh! fbuh! Sirrab! Jobo ! S!! tuh! well-done! well-jaid! whoo! wo!
C H A P. XI.
A. It shews how every Word may be formed in its proper Cafe, Mood, Tense, and Quality.
Q. How is the Genitive Case Singular formed, without the Preposition of prefix'd?
A. By putting 's to the Substantive of the Poifeflor; as, The Master's Eye, i. e. The Eye of the Master makes the Horse fat. Note, 1. That tre Poffeffor, or the Thing poffeffed, with
this Termination 's, may be accounted either a Substantive of the Genitive Singular, or an Adjective Possessive; as, My Master's Son, where Master's is an Adjective Poffeflive ; which may be properly rendered otherwise, by
the Genitive Case, The Son of my Master. 2. It must nevertheless be carefully objerved, that the single
s added to the End of a Word, which before ended in e, does not make such a Wors? a Genitive Case, or an Adjective Posseflive ; neither does it add any Syllable 10 ohe Word; for the e, to which it is added, is caft away in the Pronunciation, and the s only a.lds to the Number :hat Word, and is founded together with the laft Con
thereof; as, In the Words Share, Shares; Trade,
Spade, Spades, &c. 'except where the Word's ; as, Cage, Cages; or fe; as, Case, Cases : or
Q. How are Verbs derived from other Parts of Speech?
A. Many Substantives, and sometimes Adjectives; and fimetimes the other Parts of Speech become Verbs, by prefixing the Sign to before them, or by adding the Termination en to the Adjective; as, from a Houjè comes to house ; from warm, to warın; from hard, to harden.
Q. Do not Subitantives come sometimes from Verbs ?
A. Yes ; almost every Verb has some Sub;fontive coming f.om it; fór by the Addition of er to the Ending of the PreJent Tense, comes a Substantive fignifying the Agent or Doer, which is therefore called a Verbal Nour; as, from to hear comes a Hearer ; from to carry, a Carrier. Note, Some Subitantives are formed from Verbs, by the Ad
dition of or to the Ending of the Present Tense; as from to govern, comes a Governor; from to follicit, a Sollicitor fram to visit, a Visitor ; from to poffefs, a Poffeffor ; from to fail, a Sailor; from to vend, or fell, a Vendor; also from to contribute, comes a Contributor ; and from to sur.
vive, a Survivor, dropping the e. Q. Are not Adjectives fometimes formed from Substantives ? Ă. Yes; 1. By adding the Termination y, are formed Adječlives of Plenty or of Abounding; as, from Health comes halthy ; from Wealth, wealthy.
2. By adding the Termination en, are formed Adjectives, that signify the Matter out of which any 'Thing is made ; as, from Ash comes Afhen ; from Birch, birchen ; from Oak, oaken, &c. as, An onken Stick, A birchen Broom.
3. By adding the Termination ful, are formed Adjeétives, denoting Fulness; as, from Yoy, comes joyful; from Youth, youthful; from Sin, finful; also from to abash, bashful, &c.
4. By adding the Termination fome, are formed Adjeétives, denoting much the same; as, from Trouble comes Troublesome. from Game, Gamefome, &c. tho' sometimes the e is left out.
5. By adding the Termination lefs, are formed Adjectives, fignifying Want; as, from Worth comes worthlejš ; from Help, belpless; from Tooth, toothless, &c. Note, The same Thing is also signified by un, in or im, prefixed
to Adjectives; as, unpleasant, indecent, improper, &c. 6. By adding the Termination ly, are formed Adjectives, which denote Likeness; as, from Mon comes manly; from godly ; also from to.fit comes fitly; from cerlain, certainly
7. By adding the Termination.ish, are for med Adje denoting the same Thing; as, from:Wolf comes-wolfijn;
Child, childish; Sheep, jheepish. &c. Also from Book comes bookish ; and from to tickle cine tchlish Note, 1. From Adjectives, by adding the same Termina'ion,
are formed Adjectives d minii, as, yrom G. en comes
greenish ; Soft, softish : Hare! bih jo. 2, There are also jem. National ame. wisich ind in ish;
as, English, Spanish Danish, &c. ani.nic; as. Britannic,
Geimannic, Italic. Q. By what orber Means are Words derived from ;heir Primitives?
A. by adding-pip, -dom -rick, -wick,*-ness, -head, -heol.
1. Words ending in -jbip, denote, Office, Employment, or Condition; as, Stewardjhip, Fillozuship, Jordjnip, &c.
2. Words ending in -dom fignify Office or Charge with Power and Dominion, or without them; as, Popedom, Kingdom. Alfo
They fignify the State, Condition, Quality, Propriety, and place in which a Person exercises his Power; as, Freedom, Thraldom, Whoredom, W’isdom, Dukedum, &c. 3.
ords ending in -rick and -zuick, denote Office and Dominion; as, Bishoprick. Bailya ick. Note, -ment and -age cre purely French Terminations,
and have the same Meaning with us as 'with them, and scarce ever occur but in Wirds derived from that
Language; as Commandment. Usage. 4. Substantives ending in. -nejs, fignity the Essence of the Thing; and are formed from Adjectives; as, from white comes Whiteness ; from hard, Herdnefi, &c.
Note, These are called Abstract Nouns.
s. Nouns that end in - head and -hood, denote the State, Condition, and Quality of a Thing, or Person; as, Godhead, Manhood, Wiiowhood, Brotherhood, Livelihcod, &c. Note, There are also Substantives (derived from Adjec-.
tives and Veibs) which are made by adding the end ing th, with some jmall change ; as, fram long, simes Length; itrong, Strength; warm,- Warmth; Moon, Month. &c. A!Jo fiom. to die, cumes Death ;, from grow, Growth, &c.
Of Substantives Diminutive. Q. What is a Substantive Diminutive?
À. It is another Method of Derivation, by which a Nur is formed, to leflen the Sense of its Primitive Word; as, trom Lamb comes Lambkin, which is a little Lionel
CH A P. XII.
of the SY N T A X. HAT.is Syntax ?
A. It is the disposing of Words in their right Cafe, Gender, Number, Perjon, Mocd, Tenji and Place, in a Sentence.
2. Give an Exampie.
Ă. Good Bays are not beaten ; here the Words are placed according to Syntax: Whereas should I say, Beaten not are Boys good, it would be unintelligible ; because here is no Syntax in this Sentence.
Q. How many kinds of Sentences are there?
À. It is that wherein there is but one Verb, and one Nominative Word of the Subject, either expressed or understood; as, The Bay reads.
Q. What is a Compound Sentence ?
A. It is two Simple Sentences joined together by a Come junction, or by a Relative; as, who, which, that ; or by a Comparative Word; as, ļo, as, fuch, so many, as many more than; as, I am diligent, and you are negligent. He is a naughty Roy, who defèrves Correction.
Q. What do you mean by a Nominative Word ?
A. The Word that goes before the Verb, and answers to the Question who or what; as, Boys play. be asked, Who do play? Answer; Boys.
Q. Does the Nominative Case or Word always go before the Verb ?
A. Yes; except when a Question is ak'd, and then the Nominative Case follows the Verb, or more commonly the Sign of the Verb; as, Did John go to London. De I neglect my. Business ?
Q. What is the Construction of the Verb with the Nominative Word ?
1. The Verb must be of the fame Number an! Perfon with the Nominative Word; as, I stand ; thou Jiandeft; be ftandah: Not I fandeft ; thou fandeth; he fiand.
Q. Is the Nominative Case 10 tbe Verb a ways Subitantiver
Where it may