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Doctor in Divinity, or the like ; as you may find more
DCCC. Eight Hundred X. Ten L. Fifty
DCCCC. Nine Hundred XI. Eleven LX. Sixty
M. One Thousand XII. Twelve LXX. Seventy M DCC XCI. One Thou. XIII. Thirteen LXXX. Eighty sand Seven Hundred and XIV.Fourteen XC. Ninety Niney-One.
Q. How are the Letters naturally divided ? A. Into Vowels and Consonants. Q. What is a Vowel ? A. A Vowel is a Letter which gives a full and perfect Sound of itself, and without which there can be no Syllable.
Q. How many Vowels are there in English ?
A. There are Six; 4; $; i, o, u, and y when it follows a Confonant,
Q. What is a Confonant?
A. A Confonant is a Letter, that cannot be founded with. out a Vowel; as b without e: Therefore all Letters except the Vowels, are Consonants.
Of SYL L A B L E S. Q. What is a Syllable?
1. A Syllable is either one Letter; as a; or more than one; as Man.
Of Spelling, or Division of SYLL A B L E $.
your Syllables ? 1. By taking Words asunder into convenient Parts, in order to sew their true Pronunciation, and original Formation, which is commonly called Spelling.
the Doctrin of Speiling be contained?
A. All Spelling, or Division of Syllables, may be comprehended in Seven general Rules.
Q. In how
RULEI. Q. What is the First general Rule for Division of Syllables?
A. A Confonant between two Vowels, goes to the latter Syllable ; as ba-nish.
Q. What is the first Exception to this Rule ?
A. These Conso:lants, w and +, go to the former Syllable ; as, Flower, Ex-ile.
Q. What is the second Exception?
A. Words formed and compounded, must be divided according to the Fifth and Sixth general Rules.
RULE II. Q. What is the Second general Rule for Divifion of Syllables ?
A. Two Consonants in the Middle of a Word, that are proper to begin a Word, must begin the Syllable together ; as, Clu-ster.
Q. What Excepcion have you to this Rille ?
A. All fuch Derivatives, whose Primitives ending in e final, drop the ein Spelling, have the Confonants in the Middle of the Word parted, though they be proper to begin a Word; as, Houf-hold Note, That dl, tl, kl, and zl, are often used to begin Sylla
eles, thơ they begis wo Words, as La-dle, Tur-tle, Wrin-kle, Puz-zle
RULE III. Q. What is the Third general Rule for Division of Syllables ?
A. Two Gonfonants in the Middle of a Word, that are not proper to begin a Word, must be divided; as, Num-ber.
Q. What Exception have you to this Rule ??
A. Two Consonants in the Middle of a Derivative, though they be not proper to begin a Word, must not be divided ; as, Stand-ard.
RULE IV. Q. What is the Fourth general Rule for Division of Syllables ?
4. If two Vowels come together, not making a Diph. thong, they muít be divided : as,
ae in Ja-el; ao in ex-tra-or-di-na-ry; eo in pi-te-ous ; ia in Vi-al; io in Vi-ol; iz in di-ur-nal; oe in Co-er-ci-on; ua in u-su-als we in Du-el; ui in ru-in, con-gru-i-ty: and uo in con-gru-ons.
Note, 1. Ua, ie, us, and uo, become Diphthongs after ę;
as, Quar-rel, Que-fti-on, Qui-et, Quo-ti-ent; likexist
ua in per-sunde, Per-sua-sion, &c. 2. Though eo cannot, properly, be called a Diphthong, x
those Vowels are not divided in Peo-ple, Leo-pard.
RULE V. Q. What is the fifth general Rule for Division Syllables?
A. Let Words formed or derived, be divided according to their Origindl, or Primitive.
Q. What is the Consequence of this Rule ?
A. These Terminations, -age, -ed, -en, -er, -est, -et, -eth, -ing, -ish, -ous, -ard, -al, -or, ougħt to go by themselves in Spelling; as, Herb-age, boast-ed, gold-en, knezu-eft, larch-et
, bear-eth, bear-er, bear-ing, fool-ish, ru-in-ous, Stand-ará, Mo-nu-ment-al, Ex-act-or.
Q. What is the first Exception to this Rule ?
A. Monosyllables, and Words accented upon the last Syl. lable, ending in a single Confonant, without a Diphthong foregoing, double their final Consonant when they take any of the formative Endings; and then it may be proper to put the latter Consonant with the Termination ; as, Pot-tage, blot-ted, blot-teft, blet-teth, bloi-ting, biot-ter, rer-rent, jeste tih, A-bet-tor.
Q. What is the second Exception?
A. When Words in e final take any of these Terminations, e final is loft even in writing, and then a Consonant may be put to the Termination; as, write, wri-test, wri. teth, Wri-ter, Wri-ting. Note, 1. Where casting away thee would create any con"
fufion in the Sense, I advise 10. retain it; as, from the Verb finge, I would avrite finge-eth, finge-ing, to aia ftinguish it from fing-eth, sing-ing, when the lord hap
pens to be wrote on two different Lines for rvant of room. 2.* If Words in e final have the last Syllable short, it is a
much better Guide to the Ear, to let the Termination go
by itself; as, For-giv-ing, for-giv-en, Lov-e, com-ing. 3. Such Primitives as take only y after them, have fome
of the foregoing Consonants joined 10 it; as, earchy: But after u, w, and x, it must come alone ; as, glu-y, faw-y, Dox-y.
RULE VI. Q. What is the Sixth general Rule for Division of Syllables?
A. Let compound Words be reduced into their primitive. Parts..
Q. What is the First Consequence of this Rule ?
A. A Preposition; as, ad-, in-, un-, fub-, per-, dil-, re-, pre-, must be pronounced by itself; as, ad-e-guate, in-i-qui-ty, un-e-qual, Sub-urhs, per-ad-ven-ture, dif-2-nite, re-pro-bate, pre-vi-ous, Yet we fay pe-rufe, instead of per-use.
Q. What is the Second Consequence of this Rule ?
A. Beib will be the firit Syllable in Beth-a-ny, Betb-el, Beth-a-ba-ra, Beth-el-da, &c.
e Wha is the Third Consequence of this Rule? Ā. The Termination -ham will go by itself, at the end: of proper Names; as, Chat-ham; Fe-vers-ham, Buck-ing-bam,. Elt-ham ; except South-am and Wro-than.
RULE VII. Q. When three Consonants meet in the Middle of a Word, bow must they be divided?.
A. 1. If they begin a Word, they must also begin a Syllable together; as, il-lu-strate.
2. If they be proper to end a Word, they may all end the Syllable; as, laich-et. 3.
Ifthe two last be proper to begin a Word, orthe last of all bel, they begin the Syllable together; as, Kin-dred, Thim-ble.
4. If the two first of them he proper to end a Word, the : third may go to the latter Syllable; as, Bank-rupta
Q. Wäat is a Diphthong ?
A. A Diphthong is the uniting of tive Vowel in one -Syllable; as, .ai in laid.
Q. What is a Triphthong ?
1. A Tripbrhovg is the uniting of three Vowels in one Syllable ; as, jeu, in A-dieu.
Of WORD s.
A. Words duly joined together in Construction, make a Sentence ; as, Pride is a very remarkable Sin.
Q. What Things are necesary for the true Writing and Reading of Sentences ? A. Stops, and Marks of Distinction.
Of Stops and MARK S. Q. Which are the Stops, and Marks of Distinction used in a Sentence ?
A. They are a Comma, Semicolon, Colon, Period, and Notes of Interrogation and Admiration : To which may be added the Parenthesis, Parathesis, Hyphen, Apostrophe, Diærefis, Caret, Asterism, Index, Obelik, and Quotation.
Q. What is a Comma?
A. The Comma, marked thus (,) is a Note of Respiration, at which we may take Breath, but must not tarry,
Q. What is the Use of the Comina ? 4. It is of Use for distinguishing Words of the same Kind; as, Nouns, Verbs, and Adverbs, coming together in the same Sentence ; for dividing long Sentences into short Parts, and for the taking away Ambiguities.
Q. Give me an Example.
A. Nature clothes the Beasts with Hair, the Birds with Feathers, and the Fishes with Scales.
Q. What is a Semicolon ?
A. A Semiccion, marked thus (;) notes a middle Breathing between the Comma and the Colon.
Q. What is the life of the Semicolon ?
Ħ. Its chief Use is in distinguishing Contraries, and frequent Divisions.
Q. Give an Example.
A. The Colon, marked thus (:) is a Note of long Breathing, as is exemplified below.
Q. What is the U! of a Colon ?
Å. It distinguitivech a perfect Part of a Sentence, which has a full Meaning of its own; but yet leaves the Mind in
und Expectation to know what follows.
» Q. What