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each other, according to the stipulations of the said third article of the treaty of amity, commerce and navigation.
This explanatory article, when the same shall have been ratified by
King of Great-Britain and the United States of America, have
EXPLANATORY ARTICLE, to be added to the treaty of Amity, Com- March 15, 1798.
merce and Navigation, between the United States and his Britannic Majesty.
Whereas by the twenty-eighth Article of the Treaty of Amity, Com- The commismerce and Navigation, between his Britannic Majesty and the United sioners under States, signed at London the nineteenth day of November, one thou- released from sand seven hundred and ninety-four, it was agreed, that the contracting particularizing parties would from time to time, readily treat of and concerning such the latitude and further articles, as might be proposed, that they would sincerely en- source of the deavour so to form such articles, as that they might conduce to mutual river intended convenience, and tend to promote mutual satisfaction and friendship; by the St. and that such articles, after having been duly ratified, should be added to and make a part of that Treaty: And whereas difficulties have arisen with respect to the execution of so much of the Fifth Article of the said treaty, as requires that the commissioners, appointed under the same, should in their description particularize the latitude and longitude
the source of the river, which may be found to be the one truly intended in the treaty of peace between his Britannic Majesty and the United States, under the name of the river St. Croix, by reason whereof it is expedient, that the said commissioners should be released from the obligation of conforming to the provisions of the said article in this respect. The undersigned being respectively named by his Britannic Majesty and the United States of America, their plenipotentiaries for the purpose of treating of and concluding such articles as may be proper to be added to the said treaty, in conformity to the above-mentioned stipulation, and having communicated to each other their respective full powers, have agreed and concluded, and do hereby declare in the name of his Britannic Majesty and of the United States of America—That the commissioners appointed under the 5th article of the above-mentioned treaty shall not be obliged to particularize, in their description, the latitude and longitude of the source of the river, which may be found to be the one truly intended in the aforesaid treaty of peace, under the name of the river St. Croix, but they shall be at liberty to describe the said river, in such other manner, as they may judge expedient, which description shall be considered as a compleat execution of the duty required of the said commissioners in this respect by the article aforesaid. And to the end that no uncertainty may hereafter exist on this subject, it is further agreed, That as soon as may be after the decision of the said commissioners, measures shall be concerted between the government of the United States and his Britannic Majesty's
governors or lieutenant governors in America, in order to erect and A monument keep in repair a suitable monument at the place ascertained and deto be erected at scribed to be the source of the said river St. Croix, which measures the source of that river.
shall immediately thereupon, and as often afterwards as may be requi
site, be duly executed on both sides with punctuality and good faith. This article to This explanatory article, when the same shall have been ratified by be a part of the his Majesty and by the President of the United States, by and with the treaty of No. vember 19,
advice and consent of their Senate, and the respective ratifications mu1794.
tually exchanged, shall be added to and make a part of the treaty of amity, commerce, and navigation between his Majesty and the United States, signed at London on the nineteenth day of November, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four, and shall be permanently binding upon his Majesty and the United States.
GRENVILLE, (L. S.)
LETTER FROM THOMAS JEFFERSON TO GEORGE HAMMOND.
Philadelphia, September 5, 1793. SIR, I am honored with yours of August 30. Mine of the 7th of that month assured you that measures were taken for excluding from all further asylum in our ports, vessels armed in them to cruise on nations with which we are at peace, and for the restoration of the prizes the Lovely Lase, Prince William Henry, and the Jane of Dublin; and that should the meusures for restitution fail in their effect, the president considered it as incumbent on the United States to make compensation for the vessels.
We are bound by our treaties with three of the belligerent nations, by all the means in our power, to protect and defend their vessels and effects in our ports, or waters, or on the seas near our shores, and to recover and restore the same to the right owners when taken from them. If all the means in our power are used, and fail in their effect, we are not bound by our treaties with those nations to make compensation.
Though we have no similar treaty with Great Britain, it was the opinion of the president, that we should use towards that nation the same rule, which, under this article, was to govern us with the other nations ; and even to extend it to captures made on the high seas, and brought into our ports; if done by vessels which had been armed within them.
Having, for particular reasons, forbore to use all the means in our power for the restitution of the three vessels mentioned in my letter of August 7th, the president thought it incumbent on the United States to make compensation for them: And though nothing was said in that letter of other vessels taken under like circumstances, and brought in after the 5th of June, and before the date of that letter, yet when the same forbearance had taken place, it was and is his opinion, that compensation would be equally due.
As to prizes made under the same circumstances, and brought in after the date of that letter, the president determined, that all the means in our power should be used for their restitution. If these fail, as we should not be bound by our treaties to make compensation to the other powers in the analogous case, he did not mean to give an opinion that it ought to be done to Great Britain. But still, if any cases shall arise subsequent to that date, the circumstauces of which shall place them on similar ground with those before it, the president would think compensation equally incumbent on the United States.
Instructions are given to the governors of the different states, to use all the means in their power for restoring prizes of this last description found within their ports. Though they will, of course, take measures to be informed of them, and the general government has given them the aid of the custom house officers for this purpose, yet you will be sensible of the importance of multiplying the channels of their information as far as shall depend on yourself, or any person under your direction, in order that the governors may use the means in their power for making restitution.
Without knowledge of the capture they cannot restore it. It will always be best to give the notice to them directly; but any information which you shall be pleased to send to me, also, at any time, shall be forwarded to them as quickly as distance will permit.
Hence you will perceive, sir, that the president contemplates restitution or compensation in the case before the 7th of August ; and after that date, restitution if it can be effected by any means in our power. And that it will be important that you should substantiate the fact, that such prizes are in our ports or waters.
Your list of the privateers illicitly armed in our ports, is, I believe, correct.
With respect to losses by detention, waste, spoliation sustained by vessels taken as beforementioned, between the dates of June 5th and August 7th, it is proposed as a provisional measure, that the collector of the customs of the district, and the British consul, or any other person, you please, shall appoint persons to establish the value of the vessel and cargo, at the time of her capture and of her arrival in the port into which she is brought, according to their value in that port. If this shall be agreeable to you, and you will be pleased to signify it to me, with the names of the prizes understood to be of this description, instructions will be given accordingly, to the collector of the customs where the respective vessels are.
I have the honor to be, &c.
THOMAS JEFFERSON. Goorge Hammond, esq.
A TREATY OF PEACE AND AMITY
Between the Dey of Algiers and the United States of
A TREATY OF PEACE AND AMITY Concluded this present day Lima artasi, the twenty-first of the Sept. 5, 1795.
Luna safer, year of the Hegira 1210, corresponding with Satur-
Peace estasincere peace and amity between the President and citizens of the blished. United States of North America, and Hassan Bashaw, Dey of Algiers, his Divan and subjects; the vessels and subjects of both nations reciprocally treating each other with civility, honor and respect.
ARTICLE II. All vessels belonging to the citizens of the United States of North- Commercial America, shall be permitted to enter the different ports of the Regency, intercourse re
gulated. to trade with our subjects, or any other persons residing within our jurisdiction, on paying the usual duties at our custom-house that is paid by all nations at peace with this Regency; observing that all goods disembarked and not sold here shall be permitted to be reimbarked without paying any duty whatever, either for disembarking or embarking. All naval and military stores, such as gunpowder, lead, iron, plank, sulphur, timber for building, tar, pitch, rosin, turpentine, and any other goods denominated naval and military stores, shall be permitted to be sold in this Regency, without paying any duties whatever at the customhouse of this Regency.
ARTICLE III. The vessels of both nations shall pass each other without any impedi- Vessels of ment or molestation; and all goods, monies or passengers, of whatsoever each nation to nation, that may be on board of the vessels belonging to either party, pass unmolestshall be considered as inviolable, and shall be allowed to pass un
ARTICLE IV. All ships of war belonging to this Regency, on meeting with merchant-vessels belonging to citizens of the United States, shall be allowed to visit them with two persons only beside the rowers; these two only
(a) The treaties between the United States and Algiers have been:
permitted to go on board said vessel, without obtaining express leave ports of vessels from the commander of said vessel, who shall compare the passport, and and ships of war shall be ex.
immediately permit said vessel to proceed on her voyage unmolested. amined, and to All ships of war belonging to the United States of North America, on whom to be
meeting with an Algerine cruiser, and shall have seen her passport and granted.
certificate from the Consul of the United States of North America, resident in this Regency, shall be permitted to proceed on her cruise unmolested: no passport to be issued to any ships but such as are absolutely the property of citizens of the United States: and eighteen months shall be the term allowed for furnishing the ships of the United States with passports.
ARTICLE V. No Algerine
No commander of any cruiser belonging to this regency, shall be cruiser may
allowed to take any person, of whatever nation or denomination, out of take any person out of a vessel
any vessel belonging to the United States of North-America, in order to of the U. S. examine them, or under pretence of making them confess any thing
desired; neither shall they inflict any corporal punishment, or any way else molest them.
ARTICLE VI. Vessels of If any vessel belonging to the United States of North America, shall U. S stranded be stranded on the coast of this Regency, they shall receive every posto be relieved.
sible assistance from the subjects of this Regency: all goods saved from the wreck shall be permitted to be reimbarked on board of any other vessel, without paying any duties at the custom house.
Algerines not to sell vessels of war to the enemies of U. States.
ARTICLE VII. The Algerines are not, on any pretence whatever, to give or sell any vessel of war to any nation at war with the United States of NorthAmerica, or any vessel capable of cruising to the detriment of the commerce of the United States.
ARTICLE VIII. Any citizen of the United States of North-America, having bought any prize condemned by the Algerines, shall not be again captured by the cruisers of the regency then at sea, although they have not a passport; a certificate from the consul resident being deemed sufficient, until such time they can procure
ARTICLE IX. Other Barbary
any of the Barbary states at war with the United States of Northstates not to be America, shall capture any American vessel and bring her into any of allowed to sell prizes in Al
the ports of this Regency, they shall not be permitted to sell her, but giers. shall depart the port on procuring the requisite supplies of provision.
ARTICLE X. U.S. may send Any vessel belonging to the United States of North-America, when prizes into the at war with any other nation, shall be permitted to send their prizes ports of the Regency.
into the ports of the Regency, have leave to dispose of them, without paying any duties on sale thereof. All vessels wanting provisions or refreshments, shall be permitted to buy them at market price.
How ships of war of U. s. sh be treated in the ports of the Regency.
ARTICLE XI. All ships of war belonging to the United States of North-America, on anchoring in the ports of the Regency, shall receive the usual presents of provisions and refreshments, gratis. Should any of the slaves of this regency make their escape on board said vessels, they shall be immediately returned: No excuse shall be made that they have hid themselves amongst the people and cannot be found, or any other equivocation.
ARTICLE XII. No citizen of the United States of North-America, shall be obliged How slaves to redeem any slave against his will, even should he be his brother : shall be reneither shall the owner of a slave be forced to sell him against his will : when captured but all such agreements must be made by consent of parties. Should persons shall be any American citizen be taken on board an enemy-ship, by the cruisers lawful prize. of this Regency, having a regular passport, specifying they are citizens of the United States, they shall be immediately set at liberty. On the contrary, they having no passport, they and their property shall be considered lawful prize; as this Regency know their friends by their passports.
ARTICLE XIII. Should any of the citizens of the United States of North America, How the estate die within the limits of this Regency, the Dey and his subjects shall of citizens of not interfere with the property of the deceased; but it shall be under the Regency
in the immediate direction of the consul : unless otherwise disposed of by shall be settled. will. Should there be no consul, the effects shall be deposited in the hands of some person worthy of trust, until the party shall appear who has a right to demand them; when they shall render an account of the property. Neither shall the Dey or Divan give hindrance in the execution of any will that may appear.
ARTICLE XIV. No citizen of the United States of North-America, shall be obliged No citizen of to purchase any goods against his will; but, on the contrary, shall be U. S. to be allowed to purchase whatever it pleaseth him. The consul of the United
purchase goods States of North-America, or any other citizen, shall not be amenable or pay debts of for debts contracted by any one of their own nation; unless previously another. they have given a written obligation so to do. Should the Dey want to freight any American vessel that may be in the Regency, or Turkey, said vessel not being engaged, in consequence of the friendship subsisting between the two nations, he expects to have the preference given him, on his paying the same freight offered by any other nation.
ARTICLE XV. Any disputes or suits at law, that may take place between the sub- How disputes jects of the Regency and the citizens of the United States of North- shall be settled. America, shall be decided by the Dey in person, and no other. Any disputes that may arise between the citizens of the United States, shall be decided by the consul; as they are in such cases not subject to the laws of this Regency.
ARTICLE XVI. Should any citizen of the United States of North America, kill, How crimes wound, or strike a subject of this Regency, he shall be punished in the shall be punishsame manner as a Turk, and not with more severity. Should any citizen of the United States of North-America, in the above predicament, escape prison, the consul shall not become answerable for him.
ARTICLE XVII. The consul of the United States of North-America, shall have every Privileges of personal security given him and his houshold: he shall have liberty to the consul of
the U. S. exercise his religion in his own house : all slaves of the same religion, shall not be impeded in going to said consul's house, at hours of prayer. The consul shall have liberty and personal security given him to travel