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the other islands and coasts in the gulf and river of St. Lawrence ; and, in general every thing that depends on the said countries, lands, islands and coasts, with the sovereignty, property, possession, and all rights acquired by treaty or otherwise, which the most Christian King and the crown of France have had, till now, over the said countries, islands, lands, places, coasts and their inhabitants ; so that the most Christian King cedes and makes over the whole to the said King, and to the crown of Great Britain, and that in the inost ample manner and form without restriction, and without any liberty to depart from the aid cession and guarantee under any pretence, or to disturb Great Britain in the possessions abovementioned.”
River Missis “ In order to establish peace on solid and durable
sippi estafoundations, and to remove forever all subjects of blished as a dispute with regard to the limits of the British and boundary, French territories on the continent of America, it is agreed that for the future the confines between the dominions of his Britannic Majesty and those of his most Christian Majesty in that part of the world, shall be fixed itrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of the river Mississippi, from its source to and then the the river Iberville, and from thence by a line drawn Iberville and along the middle of this river, and the lakes Maure. lakes. pas and Pontchartrain, to the sea; and for this purpose the most Christian King cedes, in full right, and guarantees to his Britannic Majesty, the river and Cession of port of the Mobile, and every thing which he pos- and all the sesses or ought to possess on the left side of the river Mississippi, with the exception of the town of New sessions east Orleans, and of the island in which it is situated, of the Miswhich shall remain to France; it being well under sissippi, exstood that the navigation of the river Mississippi shall island of be equally free, as well to the subjects of Great Bri. New Ortain, as to those of France, in its whole breadth and leans. length from its source to the sea; and expressly, that of Mississip
Navigation part which is between the said island of New Or- pi to be free leans, and the right bank of that river, as well as the to both na
tions from passage both in and out of its mouth. It is further
source to the stipulated that the vessels belonging to the subjects of sea,
either nation shall not be stopped, visited or subjected to the payment of any duty whatsoever.
Florida and all Spanish
“In consequence of the restitution stipulated in possessions
the * preceding article, his Catholic Majesty cedes east of Mis- and guarantees in full right, to his Britannic Majesty, sissippi ceded Florida, with Fort St. Augustin, and the Bay of Pento England.
sacola, as well as all that Spain possesses on the continent of North America, to the east or to the southeast of the river Mississippi; and in general every thing that depends on the said countries and lands, with the sovereignty, property, possession and all rights acquired by treaties or otherwise, which the Catholic King and the crown of Spain have had till now, over the said countries, lands, places, and their inhabitants; so that the Catholic King cedes and makes over the whole to the said King and to the crown of Great Britain, and that in the most ample manner and form."
[It is necessary to observe, that the preliminary articles, which, so far as relates to the three articles here inserted, are verbatim the same with those of the detinitive treaty, were signed on the third day of November 1762, on which same day, as will hereafter appear, France ceded Louisiana to Spain.]
Proclamation of the King of Great Britain.
7th of Oct. 1763.
* Viz. the 19th in the treaty, which provides for the restoration of Cuba to Spain.
as well of our kingdoms as of our colonies in America, may avail themselves, with all convenient speed, of the great benefits and advantages which must accrue therefrom to their commerce, manufactures and navigation; we have thought fit, with the advice of our privy council, to issue this our royal proclamation, hereby to publish and declare to all our loving subjects, that we have, with the advice of our said privy council, granted our letters patent under our great seal of Great Britain, to erect within the countries and islands, ceded and confirmed to us by the said treaty, four distinct and separate governments, styled and called by the names of Quebec, East Florida, West Florida and Grenada, and limited and bounded as follows, viz :
First, the government of Quebec, bounded on the Labrador coast by the river St. John, and from thence by a line drawn from the head of that river, through the lake St. John, to the south end of the lake Ni. pissim ; from whence the said line, crossing the river St. Lawrence and the lake Champlain in 45 degrees of north latitude, passes along the High Lands, which divide the rivers that empty themselves into the said river St. Lawrence, from those which fall into the sea; and also along the north coast of the Baye des Chaleurs, and the coast of the gulf of St. Lawrence to cape Rosieres, and from thence crossing the mouth of the river St. Lawrence by the west end of the island of Anticosti, terminates at the aforesaid river St. John.
Secondly, the government of East Florida, bounded to the westward by the gulf of Mexico and the Apalachicola river; to the northward, by a line drawn from that part of the said river where the Catahouchee and Flint rivers meet, to the source of St. Mary's river, and by the course of the said river to the Atlantic ocean ; and to the east and south by the Atlantic ocean and the gulf of Florida, including all islands within sis leagues of the sea coast.
Thirdly, the government of West Florida, bounded to the southward by the gulf of Mexico, including all islands within six leagues of the coast, from the river Apalachicola to lake Pontchartrain ; to the westward by the said lake, the lake Maurepas, and the river Mississippi ; to the northward, by a line drawn due cast from that part of the river Mississippi which lies in thirty-one degrees north latitude to the river Apalachicola or Catahouchee, and to the eastward by the said river.
Fourthly, the government of Grenada, &c. comprehending the island of that name, together with the Grenadines, and the islands of Dominico, St. Vincent and Tobago.
And to the end that the open and free fishery of our subjects may be extended to, and carried on upon the coast of Labrador and the adjacent islands, we have thought fit, with the advice of our said privy council, to put all that coast, from the river St. John's to Hudson's streights, together with the islands of Anticosti and Madelaine, and all other smaller islands lying upon the said coast, under the care and inspection of our governor of Newfoundland.
We have also, with the advice of our privy coun. cil, thought fit to annex the islands of St. John and Cape Breton, or Isle Royale, with the lesser islands adjacent thereto, to our government of Nova Scotia.
We have also, with the advice of our privy council aforesaid, annexed to our province of Georgia, all the lands lying between the rivers Altamaha and St. Mary's.
And whereas it will greatly contribute to the speedy settling our said new governments, that our loving subjects should be informed of our paternal care for the security of the liberties and properties of those who are and shall become inhabitants thereof; we have thought fit to publish and declare, by this our proclamation, that we have, in the letters patent under our great seal of Great Britain, by which the said governments are constituted, given express power and direction to our governors of our said colonies respectively, that so soon as the state and circum. stances of the said colonies will admit thereof, they shall, with the advice and consent of the members of our council, summon and call general assemblies, within the said governments respectively, in such manner and form as is used and directed in those co. lonies and provinces in America, which are under our immediate government; and we have also given power to the said governors, with the consent of our said councils, and the representatives of the people, so to be summoned as aforesaid, to make, constitute and ordain laws, statutes and ordinances for the pub. lic peace, welfare and good government of our said colonies, and of the people and inhabitants thereof, as near as may be agreeable to the laws of England, and under such regulations and restrictions as are used in other colonies; and in the mean time, and until such assemblies can be called as aforesaid, all persons inhabiting in, or resorting to, our said colonies, may confide in our royal protection for the enjoyment of the benefit of the laws of our realm of England; for which purpose we have given power under our great seal to the governors of our said colonies respectively, to erect and constitute, with the advice of our said councils respectively, courts of judicature and public justice within our said colonies, for the hearing and determining all causes, as well criminal as civil, according to law and equity, and, as near as may be, agreeable to the laws of England, with liberty to all persons who may think themselves aggrieved by the sentence of such courts, in all civil cases, to appeal, under the usual limitations and restrictions, to us in our privy council.
We have also thought fit, with the advice of our privy council as aforesaid, to give unto the governors and councils of our said three new colonies
the continent, full power and authority to settle and agree with the inhabitants of our said new colonies, or to any other person who shall resort thereto, for such lands, tenements and hereditaments, as are now, or hereafter shall be, in our power to dispose of, and them to grant to any such person or persons, upon such terms, and under such moderate quit-rents, ser. vices and acknowledgments, as have been appointed and settled in other colonies, and under such other conditions as shall appear to us to be necessary, and expedient for the advantage of the grantees, and the improvement and settlement of our said colonies.
And whereas we are desirous, upon all occasions, to testify our royal sense and approbation of the conduct and bravery of the officers and soldiers of our armies, and to reward the same, we do hereby com