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bargaining, abuse, and poisy objection. On the morning of the next day, Dec. 21st, I proceeded to Badrabar market, or rather markets, one on each side of the river. We arrived about eleven o'clock, and continued our labours in several places in both markets till evening. The people heard very well, and readily took books. The ininds of many were awed by the presence of a Bengallee devotee, who proclaimed himself exempt from death: he said he had ever lived, and should never die. I told the people his tale admitted of too easy a refutation in his own country, and therefore he had come to practise bis impositions upon them. They worshiped him with great fear. In the evening I rode on to Assureswara, a large and populous zilla. The idol of the place, however, is named Doddebaban, a form of Jagannath. They had pitched my tent close to his gooudicha temple, on the bank of a fine pool, and here I slept. The next morning the market collected early, and our labours commenced as soon as we had taken a little breakfast, and continued till late at night, almost without interruption. I remained at Assureswara till the morning of the 24th, when I proceeded towards Kunderapara. On the way thither I visited and preached in the market of Baalee, and obtained very serious bearing and a large congregation. I arrived at Kundera para at night. On the morning of the 25th, we commenced our labours in a large market, and continued till ten in the forenoon, when we set out for upper Kypurra. On our way we came to a very large market, never before visited, at a place called Pekelee. We remained three hours among the people, preaching, disputing, and distributing tracts. We reached Kypurra about four in the afternoon. At tbis place the people were most unobliging; being unwilling, for love or money, to give us either straw, handies, wood, or aught else, and my hackery not coming up, I was obliged to sleep at a tree root in my horse cloth; the dew was cold and heavy, but I escaped cold. We sat by a fire made of various materials till midnight, and thus whiled away the time. Next day my traps got up by the aid of coolies, and I breakfasted and set out for Bhurree, where I arrived in the evening. This is a large place, filled with Mahommedans. Here again I was obliged, without food or clothing, to betake myself to a tree root. I obtained, however, a few bundles of grass, and wrapped myself in my horse's cloth. Here are no cart roads, and hence the difficulty of travelling by hackeries. From Bhurree we proceeded to Bhorwa, twelve miles on the lanks of Brahamunee, and I reached it by three in the afternoon of Lord's-day. We made some stay at a large village on the road, and spoke the word of life to a number of people, and left books with them. After waiting at Bhorwa till ten o'clock at night, Abraham came staring up, and said, The hackery is broken, the driver's feet are cracked, and the bullocks tongues hang out, and they cannot come up. In order, therefore, to avoid another night at a tree root, I hired a masalcbee and set out for Becher-naggur, at Khunditia, where I arrived by one o'clock the next morning. Bonamalie's wife rose and cooked me some rice, and I lay down and slept soundly on the foor of our little Bungalow. Rama and Doitaree remained till next day, and preached and distributed tracts in the market of Hurreepoor. Some part of the district I have visited is very populous, and bas never before been trodden by a missionary's foot. We have our Conference on the 25th of February, and expect all the brethren. We are tolerably well, and I am,
Yours very affectionately,
C. LACEY. BIRMINGHAM MISSIONARY ANNIVERSARY. On Lord's day, March 14th, 1811, sermons were preached for the benefit of the institution in Lombard-street meeting-house; in the morning by the Rev. J. Hoby, D. D.; and in the evening by the Rev. H. Smith, A. M. An interesting and pumerously at. tended public meeting was held on the following Tuesday evening. The minister of the place in the chair. Resolutions were moved and seconded by the Revds. T. Griffith, G. Chamberlain, J. G. Pike, J. A. James, J. Karn, J. Alsop, J. T. Bannister, and H. Morgan. The income of the year amounts to the sum of £49, 4s. 78d. G. C.-B.
JOURNAL OF MR. STUBBINS.
October 24th.—Went again this morning it? Yes. Well : thus the King of kings into the bazar. Balaji first addressed the bas sent us to make known his will to you, people (about 300); after him, I com. and according to our ability we have done menced by observing, It was necessary that so. We have shown bis nature, wisdom, the sun should rise to disperse the darkness; power, love, &c.; that you have broken his as the darkness was universal, so must the commands, are sioners, need a Saviour, &c.; light be ; thus in order to abandon spiritual that your own gods cannot save you, but darkness, it was necessary spiritual light are all refuges of lies; that Jesus Christ should arise ; as this darkness covered the alone is able to save you. Have told you whole earth, so must the light. Noticed which is the true word of God; the wis. that the Holy Scriptures, revealing the na- dom, happiness, and blessedness you will ture of God, man's need of salvation, point. enjoy if you receive it, become the wor. ing to the Lord Jesus Christ the true shipers of the true God, believers in the Saviour, had partially enlightened some true and only Saviour, &c. We have earcountries, &c. Spoke of what England nestly prayed that God would bless you, once was-worshiping idols, &c. ; but this and turn your sinful hearts from sin to light had shined upon her inhabitants, and holiness; and now, to.day, we leave your their darkness was dispersed. Shewed what village, but we leave you loving your souls, they now are; what they are doing to im. and earnestly desiring their eternal welfare. part this light to others; adverted to their And now, if you will not regard, will it be sorrow and distress at hearing of the dark. our fault? No. At that great day, the day ness which covers the whole face of India; of judgment, shall you be able to say, “ ir their contributions, &c., to send the Gospel we had ever heard of the true God we would and missionories to this, and every other have forsaken our false ones and worshiped part of the heathen world; their earnest him, but we never heard of him ?” No. prayers, &c.
Observed, we had now True, indeed, you cannot, for if you did brought that light to their town, and if our Omnipresent God would charge you they would receive it, what incalculable with falsehood. He might say, I heard iny benefits they would be made to enjoy. word faithfully preached to you; I saw Mentioned and enlarged on some of the hearts burning with love and anxious desire leading doctrines of Scripture. Pooroo. for your salvation ; I opened my ears, and sootum theo addressed them; and after heard the prayers that were offered up on him I gave another short address, and at your behalf, but ye refused to regard ; now last, with great difficulty, distributed a depart from me into everlasting sorrow and good number of tracts, and left some in the anguish. O, my dear brethren, I could houses. Went thence to my tent for the agonize in the thought of your being at last remainder of our books, and started for cast into hell, Tears, during this address, another street, where we had a congrega. stood in many eyes; a deep and serious tion of about 200 people. After singing a feeling appeared to pervade the whole as. piece from the “Jewel Mine," concluding, sembly. I kuow not that ever I enjoyed “Is it a mind that's freed from sin
more freedom and happiness than I have
dove this morning on both occasions. I You seeking supplicate ?
could have said, God is with us of a truth. O come, then come to Jesus,
in the afternoon we left for Icherpore, on He will purify your heart."
our return home. Arrived at hoine on Fri. I observed that they had now an impure or day morning: found brother and sister W., old heart (the passage refers to Ezekiel native christians, &c., all well. We were xii. 19); enlarged upon what it is, as sinful, of course very much fatigued, but well. the seat of sin, as lying, malice, envy, &c. Here, then, we review the unspeakable and Then showed what the new mind is-pure, unmerited mercy of God. We stand with holy, &c. ; how this might be obtained; ex. admiring astonishment, that that Being who patiated on the purity of real religion, the is infinite in holiness and glory, should recharacter of its author, the reward connected gard such depraved creatures as we. Surely with it, &c. After me, Pooroosootum and he needs not our services, they can never Balaji addressed. In conclusion I observed, promote his happiness, yet, blessed be his if a king should send his messengers tó name, he condescends to employ and bless make known his will to his subjects, but us in our work. Thanks be to God that we they, when they heard, refused to regard, have this treasure in earthen vessels ; but could they offer any excuse ? could they while we labour in the cause of our Resay they did not know it? No. Would deemer, may we ever feel that the power is they not be punished if they did not regard of God, and not of man.
SUBSTANCE OF AN ADDRESS.
(Concluded from page 102.) II. Having briefly and imperfectly pointed out some of the leading features of the apostolic Churches, I purpose to glance at a few of the claims which they have on us as a model for our imitation.
One, and the principal of these, obviously is, its divine and inspired authority. If the Churches formed by the apostles were separate and independent; if they elected their own officers, and administered their own displine; and if their order was so simple that a child might understand it, and so spiritual as to refer only to the professed followers of Christ, who had been baptized into bis name, and voluntarily united themselves in Church communion; we are bound to observe this pattern, and to conform to it, by our respect for the inspiration of the apostles, by our regard for the authority of Christ, and by our character and profession as his disciples. No change in the external condition of the Church of God; no smiles from earthly monarchs ; no plea, however specious; no object, however seemingly ex. cellent, can warrant our departure from this form. We have here a divine rule, and to forsake it is to wander from Christ.
But if we examine the spirit and tendency of this constitution and order, we shall discover that it has every claim to our regard which a sincere friend of true religion can desire. What are its tendencies ? The most palpable of these are, to secure internal purity and harmony, to prevent anti-christian domination, and to exhibit and extend vital godliness. Let us have a wori on each of these.
Their form and order tends to secure internal purity. No person becomes connected with such a community but by bis own desire-he is received by the general consent of the members, who admit him on the exhibition of evidence that he has a renewed and gracious mind; and he then becomes a part of the body, and is interested and engaged with his brethren in the preservation of order and purity, and in obedience to the will of Christ. In such a community there is a oneness of character, feeling, and purpose. Their fellowship is one of affection, sympathy, and brotherhood. From them the ungodly will be expelled, and the disaffected and unsanctified retire.
Anti-christian domination cannot be established and perpetuated among Churches of this order. The power of election to office, which is vested in Vol. 3,- N.S.
ibem, involves that of expulsion when the lives or doctrines of their pastors do not accord with divine truth. Their principles, if they are true to them, will secure affection, deference, and respect to those whom they have called 10 office. But the fact of the ultimate appeal being to the body of the faithful, will ever operate as a useful stimulus, and a salutary check, on those who superintend the interests of a Church, and constitnte the executive.
While there is nothing in the independent and apostolic order of Churches that is unfriendly to a general union, there is every thing to prevent prelatical domination. An affectionate recognition, a mutual interchange of sympathies and kind offices, and a co-operation in affairs tending to the general welfare of true piely, may and will exist: bui long as Christian Churches retain their independent, congregational form, there is little en.. couragement given to the love of power, and less opportunity for its exercise. Governing synods, authoritative councils, will not exist; and if any assemblies evince a desire to lord it over the Churches, they will not be tolerated. One is their master, even Christ.”
The exhibition and extension of true religion is another obvious tendency of this system. Our Lord, in addressing his disciples, said, "ye are the light of the world—let your light shine.” This is what every godly mau is, and does, in his measure, in a private capacity. But the union of christians into distinct and organized communities, their separation from the world, their attention to the ordinances of Christ, renders ibeir character more conspicuous. It separates the precious from the vile, it establishes a broad distinction between the godly and the ungodly, it fixes a brand on a wicked and worldly spirit, and proclaims aloud the necessity of repentance and conversion. The direct tendency of this association on the minds of others, is to lead them to enquiry, to penitence, and to Christ.
Churches of this order are most adapted for the use of efforts, of every kind, for the spread of the Gospel. Where all love the Saviour, and are devoted to him, every one in his own sphere may, and, indeed, is bound, to exert himself for Christ. Every Church, every minister, and every member, is at liberty to use the utmost efforts, wherever there is opportunity and encouragement, for the diffusion of true piety.
In these communities there will also constantly arise such as will be disposed and qualified, by gifts and graces, to devote themselves to the minisiry of the word, and spend and be spent for Christ.” And while the Churches, as directed of Christ, pray for “ labourers to enter the harvest,” and uses them, when they are sent, ás Scripture and reason dictate, he who “received gifts for men, and who cherishes a constant solicitude for his people, will give them “ pastors according to his own beart, who will feed ihem with knowledge and understanding.”
Will it be out of place to refer for evidence of the efficacy of the apostolic order of Churches to the early history of Christianity? The brief accounts given us in the acts of the apostles, and in the epistles, show that in their time Christianity was widely extended. Theirs, it is true, was the age of miracles and inspiration. But the order of Church government we have set forth, was that which they then established. It was under this order and form that, through divine grace, Christianity was preserved and extended, amid the fires of persecution and opposition.
Glance at the following times. Pliny, writing to the emperor Trajan, from his government in Bithynia, about sixty-five years subsequent to the crucifixion, says of Christianity, "Nor has the contagion of this supersti
tion seized cities only, but the lesser towns, and the open country.” He moreover intimates, that it had so spread that the temples were deserted, and sacrifices were neglected, because none came to offer;" and that he was Feary of putting the Christians to death.
Justin Martyr, about thirty years afterwards, bears testimony to its increasing and rapid extension.
Tertullian, about sixty years after him, in his apology for Christians to the Roman emperor, has tiese remarkable expressions. We were but of yesterday, but we have filled your cities, islands, towns, and boroughs; the camp, the senate, and the forum.“ In almost every city we form the greatest part.” He also says, “in Africa, Gaul, Spain, Germany, parts of Britain, inaccessible to the Romans, Christians abound.”
Thirty years from this time Origen speaks of “innumerable and immense multitudes,” “ in every part of the world,” who had forsaken idolatry and become Christians ;” and says, “it is wonderful to observe bow in so short a time the religion has increased, amidst punishment, and death, and every kind of torture.”
All this happened before a single state church existed, and under the order appointed by the apostles of our Lord. Christianity flourished most when left to its own resources, even though pagan persecution was experienced. By the voluntary offerings of the faithful the ministry was sustained, the aflicted, destitute, and imprisoned were relieved, and in the face of persecution “so mightily grew the word of God, and prevailed.” These were the days when the Church “looked forth as the morning, fair as the moon, clear as the sun, and terrible as an army with banners." These are the witnesses that beacon us from far, to “contend earnestly for the faith and order once delivered unto the saints." But,
III. The evils which have resulted from a disregard to this pattern are so multiplied, that time would fail to set them forth in all their number and enormity. Changes in the order of Church government had imperceptibly and gradually crept in during the second century. As the Churches had extended, various congregations were formed belonging to the same community; and these, instead of being constituted distinct Churches, as soon as they were able to sustain themselves, were served by junior elders, or presbyters, and the senior, on account of age or character, exercised a kind of jurisdiction over them. This, which at first seemed very natural, and apparently harmless, in combination with other causes, and the relaxed piety of the times, corrupted the Christian ministry. The title of bishop became restricted to the senior, or presiding presbyter; and thus was gradually formed the nucleus of diocesan episcopacy. The power and influence which the bishops acquired, and the funds they bad at command, by the accumulated bequests and gifts of wealthy professors, injured their character, and rendered their office acceptable to carnal and ungodly men. Towards the end of the second century, provincial synods, or meetings of the bishops in each province, were held; at these the bishop of the chief city was called to preside, and bence was denominated, the Metropolitan. These synods gradually assumed a legislative power, and at length claimed to rule by divine right. The Metropolitans, still advancing in wealth and splendour, and being acknowledged superior to other bishops, contended amongst themselves for pre-eminence; which mighty conflict at length ended in the triumph of the bishop of Rome. The way was thus prepared for what followed.