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with more or less clearness, that certain actions will produce enjoyment-others, sufferings. Our foresight of the consequences of our actions, is a warning given us how we are to act; and we find such consequences uniformly follow. Hence we infer, that we are under the divine government, and that God rewards and punishes us.

To preserve us, we foresee pain from fire and a wound,—this pain is punishment, as really as if a voice from heaven declared it to be so, Thus the whole course or analogy of nature shows us, that there is nothing incredible in that doctrine of religion that God will reward and punish men according to their works.

There are natural punishments; that is, uniformly, pain and pleasure follow certain actions.

Sickness and untimely death, are the consequences of intemperance, though accompanied with the highest mirth. These punishments often exceed the preceding pleasures; and these punishments are often delayed, a long time after the crimes, or actions which occasioned them are forgotten. Hence from the constitution of nature, delay of punishment, admits of no kind or degree of presumption, of final impunity. After such delay, these natural punishments or miseries often come, not by degrees, but suddenly, violently, and at once.

If youth, thoughtless and rash, do not foresee the consequences of evil actions, they nevertheless follow them. Habits contracted in youth, are often destructive of the health and comfort of age.

The general laws of nature also afford some advantageous opportunities which never return. As youth, unteachable and selfwilled, suffers in future life. If the husbandman loses his seed-time, the advantages of that year, are lost for ever. So the effects of folly and extravagance carried to a certain degree, may in some measure be removed, as loss of health and character.

No. CXX.


(Written soon after the Loss of the Missionary Ship, Duff.)

If ever there was one subject of greater magnitude than another, it is that of human redemption. It is here we behold means used, which display, most fully, the character of their author, and the grandeur of his design. The redemption of man! lapsed, ruined, miserable and helpless man! how encouraging the theme! how delightfully interesting to his anxious and foreboding breast.-Come then, O man! turn thy attention to this scheme of infinite Deity and

learn what it unfolds to the teachable and awakened mind. Redemption ! A word big with meaning, importing, that man is bought off from his captivity to Satan, to justice, to the law, to sin and death. From all penal evil is he redeemed ;-and every possible good must follow to the soul who receives it." Redeemed us to God," to his favour, image and glory. The end must be worthy of the God of perfect wisdom, and perfect love. It must speak the god-like counsel, purpose, grace, covenant and promise of the greatest of beings, towards the vile, the guilty, the hell-deserving. It must exhibit the most confounding aspect towards Satan, in his artifice to destroy man by sin, and his cruelty, to promote his despair of mercy.

And who is the author of this august, this gracious work. No mere man; for all such need redemption. No, he who alone is God,— for he has not the nature which has sinned, or can suffer for sin. No angel in light has love or worth enough to undertake this work. Jesus, the God-man, can atone by his sufferings and purchase souls by his blood. His love to undertake, to endure, to die, shall carry him through the task: for, "he is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working." Jesus, who felt interested in the honours of God-head, and the happiness of lost souls; he is the great Redeemer! And who but he could perform the work, or bear the burden of this unspeakable office? The character and works, of IMMANUEL, prove him to be "The wonderful," O more than wonderful, being! How can a finite understanding, however illuminated, enlarged and refined, fully comprehend him, who is in one person, “the man of sorrows," and the creator of the ends of the earth." Silence all my reasoning powers ;-silence my pride-my senses and my will,--be lost in adoring faith, in this commanding truth of revelation, and "give glory to God in the enjoyment of thy own personal redemption!" Realise with christian pleasure, one pagan converted, putting the word of God into the hand of another, saying, "Take fast hold of this instruction; let it not go; keep it; for it is thy life!" Think you hear him add, Do not covet the mere curiosities of the christians -nor even their money; this book contains their greatest treasure, the revelation of a SAVIOUR for us who dwell in the uttermost parts of the earth-This, this is the treasure for which we ought to long; "for the merchandise of it is better than the merchandise of silver, and the gain thereof than fine gold."

Whilst some friends of the Gospel have been preaching it, with the feeble efficacy of a winter's sun, and many enemies are opposing it with united and repeated efforts; may this society, by a constant and vigorous perseverance which nothing shall obscure or impede, shed upon the minds of Pagans, darkened by mists and clouds of the foulest passions, the most destructive errors and the most barbarous rites, the illuminating and enlivening beams of revealed truth. "So let all" sin and error "perish, O Lord, with every

attempt of thine enemies to pervert the Gospel, or obstruct its progress; "but let" the Missionary Society, that is, the men who "love thy name, be as the sun when he goeth forth in his strength!"

The work of a missionary is of the first importance, and blended with peril, labour, and honour. It demands the faithful vigilance, the zealous exertion, the undaunted fortitude and patient selfdenial of a soldier-“A good soldier of Jesus Christ." They, in an especial manner, must "meet their enemies in the gate." Enemies, whose name is legion, for they are many. Nor is their power less formidable than their number. Their leader is called " a roaring lion, the adversary, the strong man armed, the prince of the power of the air, the god of this world." Their sagacity and malignity, and their experience of success, stimulated by pride, envy, and raging despair, united with their number, power, and restless activity, should lead the Christian missionary to expect opposition from them, corresponding with their nature. The empire of Satan is fortified by ignorance and error; unbelief and carnal reasonings; sensual desires and rooted prejudices; impenitence and enmity against God; strengthened by fabulous traditions, absurd and cruel ceremonies, and long established customs.

These are the enemy's STRONG-HOLDS, and not to be battered down with the carnal weapons of human learning and eloquence, nor by vain philosophy, worldly policy, and formal piety; but by "THE TRUTH as it is in JESUS," faithfully preached; by believing, ardent, persevering prayer-by the union of meekness and wisdom in conversation, by patient fortitude in suffering, and by purity of character, shining through the whole. These weapons of our warfare, are "mighty through God, to the pulling down strong-holds."

Before these, Satan's fortifications are demolished, with every barrier raised to obstruct the entrance of the Saviour;-his garrisons disperse, his captives yield in voluntary, affectionate, humble and confidential subjection to Jesus, as the conqueror, the deliverer, and the prince! Before him every system of false doctrines, of evil passions, and of mere formal duties, is destroyed, sceptical, deistical, and atheistical thoughts are expelled; and those doctrines which concealed or excused sin, which represented God too indifferent or to kind to inflict just punishment on the sinner, and induce him to entertain haughty notions of his own natural or moral excellence, and confide presumptuously in his own wisdom, strength, righteousness and worthiness, and rendered Christ's salvation needless, are now supplanted by the humbling doctrines of grace. His vain objections are silenced, God in Christ is become amiable, he feels the irresistible demonstrations of saving love, which overpower the native enmity of his heart. His illusions are dissipated, and the understanding and the heart, the soul and the body, surrender to Immanuel, and take law from the conqueror. The system of evil passions,

no longer reigns. His ambitious purpose,-the self-devised plans of happiness,-proud independence and self-sutficient efforts, with every thought which exalted itself against the knowledge, or gospel of Christ, is taken captive; and the soul is made willing," all-conquering Saviour!" in the day of thy power."

The value of the soul, in the estimation of the God of infinite knowledge, appears in the establishment of the Gospel ministryin which the various ordinary and extraordinary gifts have been exercised in beautiful variety. A succession of extraordinary messengers from God, is seen in the dispensation of types and of prophecy. Next follow those endowed with miraculous powers, called Apos tles. And, after them, pastors and teachers, for the work of the ministry, and the edification of the body of Christ,-pastors and teachers,-men after God's own heart, are promised to the church, and the presence of Christ with them to the end of the world! Every degree of influence which accompanies the messages of these ambassadors from God to men, to warn, illuminate, comfort, purify, and exalt the heart-gives additional force to this demonstration of the worth of human souls. But still more does their importance appear, in their being the subjects of angelic ministry. "Are not all the innumerable company of ANGELS," ministering spirits to the heirs of salvation? Is there not " joy in the presence of the AxGELS of God" over ONE sinner that repenteth? And are we not charged-not" to offend," by unkindness or seduction," one of Christ's little ones, from the consideration, that," in heaven their ANGELS do always behold the face of his father;" enjoy his complacent smiles and divine countenance in their benevolent attention to his little ones?

Add to the ministry of men and angels, the ministry of THE SON OF GOD, on the behalf of souls, and the evidence of their worth becomes stronger.

Did he, who is Lord of all the worlds, assume a nature, endowed with every natural and moral perfection, that he might come into our world" to seek and to save them that are lost?" Did he" condescend to become a missionary from the bosom of the father to our apostate world, to invite sinners to repentance, and gather them under his wings for safety?-Blush! my soul,-blush ye ministers, parents, relatives, friends, and neighbours, at the recollection of careless indifference towards the souls of men. Here, my wealthy hearers, learn to turn the stream of your wealth, into the same. channel as a Saviour's ministry. Ministers, parents, brothers, sisters, friends, let the same mind be in you, which was in Christ Jesus, and direct your talents, your property and your prayers, to seek and save them that are lost! Can that person have the mind of Christ, who thinks of the awful condition of fallen souls, without sympathy; or professes to feel without labouring to promote their salvation?

Many of us who see the seed-time of missionary efforts, may live to enjoy but few even of its first-fruits. "We have gone forth weeping," in our late loss of the ship, and the obstruction of our progress in the south-seas; but we shall doubtless, sooner or later, return with rejoicing, bringing our sheaves with us. If we labour, and other men enter into our labours; if one should sow and another reap, yet, "when all the chosen seed shall meet around the throne," from every land, tongue, kindred, and people, then "those who sowed," and the poor pagans "who reaped, shall rejoice together." It is no small honour to be instrumental in "preparing the way of the Lord," for his glorious progress through the Pagan world.

The period is rapidly approaching, when our missionaries, instead of the intimidations of Otaheite, shall experience the most friendly recommendations from the Pagan tribes, presenting their offerings in the spirit of Abimelech to Abraham; they shall add, "Behold! our land is before thee; dwell where it pleaseth thee."

Difficulties in the way of converting the Pagans present themselves; and they are very great ones: indeed, to every principle but faith, they seem insurmountable. But when I think of Israel's deliverance from Pharaoh, from Egypt, from Babylon; when I consider the miraculous interpositions of God on their behalf, when their condition was almost hopeless; when I contemplate the accomplishment of the first promise in the incarnation of a Saviour, the millions of Pagans already converted, justified and glorified; when I dwell on the creation of a world, the agonies of a Saviour, the promises of that God, whose love, wisdom, and power are equal to the accomplishment of all his purposes, I tread firm, my gracious prospects extend, I see no difficulties, I dread no obstruction, I feel no doubts: No! I see mountains levelled, vallies exalted, crooked things made straight, rough places plain, and the way of the Lord prepared: I. hear the voices of the messengers of grace, in the uttermost parts of the earth, crying, "Behold the Lamb of God who taketh away the sins of the world!" I behold lost sinners, in the Pagan world, listening to the glad tidings of redemption, weeping, believing, rejoicing, and admiring! I behold prodigals returning, lost sheep found, captives liberated; and, in all, wretchedness exchanged for happiness. For "Blessed are the people, in every place, who know the joyful sound; they shall walk, O Lord, in the light of thy


Tell me why this world is preserved-why day and night are not come to an end? Surely! that the redeemed may be born, quickened and saved. I can sooner, believe the covenant of the day and night will be broken-that heaven and earth will pass away-than one prophecy or promise of the conversion of the heathen should fail. God is not a man, that he should lie, in making promises, nor the son of man, that he should repent of making them. Those Scriptures cannot be broken. The mercy, power, and faithfulness

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