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distinction which is not permanent. The preference might create disgust and perhaps an injurious collision.

I shall be glad to know speedily the result of your further consideration of the subject.

P. S. In a scene so near the seat of government as that in which the late insurrection has existed, and so perfectly within its command, the policy of stationing, for any length of time, a small body of foot soldiers, with the manifest intention to awe the spirit of insurrection, appears to me questionable. Were I at liberty to pursue my own inclination, I should now order the troops to their destinations to which they have been assigned.

Under this impression, I inclose an order for Capt. Henry's company to proceed to Powles Hook, on his way to his ultimate destination in the eastern quarter. If you approve, you will please to forward it. Capt. Freeman's company at West Point, which is to form part of the battalion for the field, is ordered to New-York, whence, if you think proper, it can march to replace Capt. Henry's company.


New-YORK, May 26th, 1799. DEAR SIR:

The Secretary of War has instructed me to digest and propose a plan for the organization and arrangement of the volunteer corps throughout the United States. As this subject has particularly occupied your attention, I shall be glad to be assisted with your ideas at large concerning it.

You will be sensible that it is necessary to order, that every part of our military system should, as nearly as may be, correspond, and that consequently the establishment of the army ought to form the base of every plan; yet so as to have due regard to any peculiarities which ought to discriminate corps of a distinct .and particular nature.


New-YORK, May 27th, 1799. SIR:

The returns from every quarter show that desertion prevails to a ruinous extent. For this the natural remedies are: 1st, greater attention to discipline; 2d, additional care in furnishing the supplies due to the soldiery, of such quality and with such exactness as will leave no real cause of dissatisfaction; 3d, the for. bearance to enlist foreigners; and lastly, energy in the punishment of offenders.

To promote the first will be my peculiar care. The second, I doubt not, will have from you all the attention due to a matter of primary importance. The third I hope soon to receive your instruction to put in execution. As to the fourth, I must en. treat that you will make such a representation to the President as will convince him of the absolute necessity, where his agency must intervene, of giving effect to the sentences of the courts His determination upon one some time since reported to you has not yet been received, and I expect it with great solicitude; there cannot occur a more fit case for exemplary punishment. If this culprit escapes, the example of his impunity will have a most malignant aspect towards the service. I repeat it, sir, this is a point of such essential consequence, that you cannot bestow too much pains to satisfy the President that severity is indispensable. It is painful to urge a position of this kind, especially where life is concerned; but a military institution must be worse than useless, it must be pernicious, if a just severity does not uphold and enforce discipline.


WAR DEPARTMENT, 28th May, 1799. SIR:

I have received your letter dated 25th instant. The experiment of enlisting none but native citizens or naturalized foreigners at present in our army, I am much disposed to have fully made; the criterion of the latter to be either a residence in this country anterior to the Revolution, to be proved to the satisfaction of the recruiting officer, or a certificate of naturalization.

You will, therefore, be pleased to cause an explanatory article upon this subject to be duly promulgated to the recruiting officers.

My own impressions would have inclined me to maintain a regular force in the country late the scene of insurrection, for some time to come, had it been compatible with the public service in other respects; but it is exclusively confided to your judgment to continue or remove the whole or any part of the regular force now stationed in that country.

I shall forward your letter to the commanding officer at Reading, directing him to order Capt. Cochrane to march his company to Fort Mifflin.


New-York, May 29th, 1799. SIR:

You having been appointed assistant to the Adjutant-General, and he being at this time absent, I think it proper to indicate to you a general outline of the duties which you are to perform.

The duties of Adjutant-General, who unites the capacity of Deputy Inspector-General, are various and extensive. In the two characters he may be regarded as the assistant of the commander of the army and of the Inspector-General in whatever relates to the police and tactics of the army.

He is to receive from the commanding general, and issue to the army, the general orders, for which purpose he is to attend the commanding general daily. He is to regulate the detail of officers and men for guards, fatigue service, commands, &c., and to see that they are regularly furnished. All returns of the troops, including those relating to the inspectorship, and, when the Paymaster-General or his deputy is not at head-quarters, the muster and pay rolls, are to be made to him. From the returns of the troops which he receives he is from time to time to make out abstracts for the commander of the army and the Secretary of War.

For the present, a monthly return for each will suffice. The returns relating to the inspectorship are to be handed over to the Inspector-General, with such remarks as may occur from an examination of them.

The muster and pay rolls must be transmitted to the accountant of the Department of War, unless when the PaymasterGeneral shall be at the seat of the government, in which case they must be sent to him.

Practice will point out better than a letter can define the modes of executing the duties of the office.

To understand them perfectly, it is essential to be well acquainted with the “Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Army," established under the auspices of the Baron de Steuben during our Revolution war, “The Articles of War," and the "Rules and Regulations respecting the Recruiting Service.”



Mount VERNON, June 6, 1799. DEAR SIR:

I have duly received your letter of the 3d of May, and am glad to find that the recruiting service is likely to progress without further delay. To facilitate this, nothing will contribute more than clothing

It is certainly necessary to push on this business with proper energy, and be provided with an ample and timely supply of every article wanted, if it is expected that such troops as we have, should be in any degree respectable. This, I trust, will be done. And I should hope, ere this, that the field officers for the regiment to be raised in New Hampshire, &c., have been appointed.

It is very desirable that the selection of characters to officer the regiments, eventually to be raised, should be such as will do credit to the service, if they should be called into the field. The Secretary of War has requested me to furnish him with a list of names for the quota from Virginia, which I am taking measures to do; but owing to my long absence from this State, I have so little personal knowledge of characters, that I must rely very much on the information of others in whom I can confide. With very sincere regard, I am, dear sir,

You affectionate humble servant, &c.



New-YORK, June 6th, 1799. DEAR SIR:

I duly received your private letters of the and the 25th of January last, to which a very extraordinery pressure of busi

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