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of the books is prefixed a prologue, and at the end of Exodus and Deuteronomy are " tables expounding certaine words."
Notes were placed in the margin, and the whole was adorned with tеn wood cuts.
Tyndal afterwards translated the book of Jonah, which translation was printed in 1531.
Efforts to suppress Tyndal's translation having thus far proved vain, complaints were made to the king, Henry VIII, who took the matter into consideration. The king conferred with the prelates on the subject; and as the result of this conference, he determined that "the translation of Scripture corrupted by William Tyndal, as well in the Old Testament as in the New, should utterly be expelled, rejected and put away out of the hands of his people and not be suffered to get abroad among his subjects.”'
In 1534, Tyndal's own second edition of his New Testament was printed. Before it was quite finished, he was betrayed and made a close prisoner in the castle of Villefort, near Brussels, where he continued about a year and a half. In 1536, he was, after being strangled, publicly burnt to ashes.
In the same year in which Tyndal was put to death, six editions of his Testament are said to have been printed, of various sizes, from large quarto to duodecimo.
$ 6. CONTINUED EFFORTS AT TRANSLATION. A short time previous to the death of Tyndal, the Psalms in English were twice printed, translated from the Latin by different persons. The prophecy of Jeremiah was also translated and printed.
In 1534, at a convocation of the clergy in the province of Canterbury, archbishop Cranner roved, that there should be a translation of the whole Bible into English. Accordingly it was voted that a petition should be presented to the king, Henry VIII, praying that the existing English translations might be suppressed by law, and " that the Scriptures might be translated into the vulgar tongue by some honest and learned men to be nominated by the king." It is probable that archbishop Cranmer, not being pleased with the former part of the petition, did not present it to the king. He endeavored, however, to
procure a correct translation of the New Testament. For this purpose he divided an English translation, probably Tyndal's, into nine or ten paris, and sent them to the most learned bishops and to others for their correction, directing them to return their respective parts to him by an appointed time. They all complied, excepting one who absolutely refused to take any part in this work. No important results, however, seem to have been effected by this measure.
§ 7. COVERDÁLE's Bible. The next translation worthy of note is that by Myles Coverdale. He was a native of Yorkshire; but finding himself in danger on account of his religious opinions, he fled to the continent, where he applied himself to the study and translation of the Scriptures. This translation of the Bible was printed in the year 1535. The author called it a special translation, as being different from the other English translations. He availed himself of the labors of preceding translators.
This work was, doubtless, a splendid one. It was ornamented with various cuts, and was furnished with Scripture references. In 1550, and 1553, two other editions were published.
In Coverdale's dedication to Henry VIII, it appears that the royal permission had been given for possessing and reading the Holy Scriptures in English. In conformity with this, among certain injunctions to the clergy proceeding from the king's authority, was the following: " That every person or proprietary of any parish churche within this realm shall provide a boke of the whole Bible, both in Laten and also in English, and lay the same in the quire for every man that will to loke and read thereon. And shall discourage no man from the reading any parte of the Bible either in Latin or English, but rather comfort, exhort, and admonish every man to read the same as the very word of God and the spiritual foode of manne's soul, whereby they may the betier knowe their duties to God, to their soveraigne Lord the King, and their neighbor: ever gentilly and charitably exhorting them, that, using a sober and a modest behavioure in the reading and inquisition of the true sense of the same,
they doo in no wise stifly or eagerly contend or stryve one with another aboute the same, but refere the declaration of those places that be in controversie to the judgment of them that be better learned."
The Bible thus allowed to be used was Coverdale's.
$ 8. Matthewe's BIBLE. In 1537, another edition of the Bible in English was printed, which passed under the name of Matthewe's Bible. It is uncertain on what part of the continent it was printed. The name Thomas Matthewe is considered a fictitious one; as the translation was made by several persons, and the editor, from motives of prudence, chose to conceal himself under this name. It is principally a compilation from the two preceding editions, -Tyndal's and Coverdale’s. As the celebrated martyr, John Rogers, had some connection with it, it is sometimes denominated Rogers' Bible. Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, by his interest with lord Cromwell, procured for this edition the royal license, and an order that copies should be placed in the churches for the use of those who wished to read.
In the succeeding year, this edition was revised, and permission was obtained of the king of France to print it in Paris. But when the work was nearly finished, the Inquisition interfered, prohibited its further progress, and confiscated the whole impression, consisting of 2,500 copies. By the encouragement of Cromwell, the presses, types and printers were conveyed to London, where the work was resumed, and completed in 1539.
9. CRANMER'S, OR THE GREAT BIBLE.—Taverner's BIBLE.
GENEVA BIBLE.-Bishops' BIBLE.
In 1539 was published Cranmer's Bible, or the Great Bible. This was merely a revision of Matthewe's Bible, with a few alterations and corrections. The portions of Scripture in the English Liturgy are, with very little variation, according to this translation.
The next edition, worthy of notice, was that by Richard Taverner, printed also in 1539. This was neither a bare revisal of the preceding, nor yet a new version; it rather VOL. XIII. NO. L.
held an intermediate rank. It is a correction of what is called Matthewe's Bible, in such places as the editor thought required correction.
The Great Bible went through several editions; and in 1540, there was issued a proclamation by Henry VIII, requiring the curates and parishioners of every parish to provide themselves with this Bible, under penalty of forty shillings for every month that they should be without it. This proclamation, the people were given to understand, came forth not as an act of duty on the part of the king, but as an act of liberality and kindness. The Bible was required to be placed in a situation convenient for the people to read it; but as yet, the priests were not required to read it to the people.
This proclamation was not so well received by the ecclesiastical authorities as ought to have been expected. The papal party were strenuously exerting themselves, and the state of things was beginning to change. Since, however, the king resolutely favored the circulation of the English translation among his subjects, the adherents of the pope did not fully avow their opposition, but complained of the translation as being erroneous and heretical. Accordingly, at an ecclesiastical convocation in 1542, the archbishop, in the king's name, required the bishops and clergy to revise the translation of the New Testament.
After assigning to the bishops their different portions of the New Testament, it became manifest that the intention of the papal party was, not to amend the version, but entirely to get rid of it. Among other less grave proposals, Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, proposed to retain in the Latin language several words, said to be ninety-nine in number. The majesty of the matter signified by these words, it was argued, required that they should not be translated into English. Among these words, we find ecclesia, poenitentia, pontifex, elementa, baptizare, simulacrum, idolum, episcopus, confessio, hostia, etc. The design of the Romish party being so evident, Cranmer proposed to the king, that the matter should be taken out of the hands of the convocation and referred to the two universities. Still, when parliament assembled, it was found that the papal party in parliament had the ascendancy. An act was passed, which, after condemning Tyndal's
translation as crafty, false and untrue, required that all the books of that translation should be utterly abolished, extinguished, and forbidden to be read in the king's dominions. This act was so artfully frained, that the opposers of the translation might either condemn, or acquit, an accused person, according to their pleasure.
No more editions of the Bible were printed till after Henry's decease. This occurred in 1546. Early in the reign of his successor, Edward VI, the act passed in the latter part of Henry's life against Tyndal's translation, was repealed. In consequence, several editions of the Scriptures were printed. Churches were again required to be supplied with copies of the Bible; and even the public reading of the Scriptures in English, as a part of divine worship, was enjoined on the priests.
In 1553, king Edward died, and was succeeded by Mary. An entire change, as to religious matters, was at once produced, and the Romish service was restored. As a consequence, many of the gentry and clergy left the country, and sought refuge abroad where they might be free from the yoke of popery. Several settled at Geneva; and from them proceeded what is named the Geneva Bible.
The Geneva Bible passed through several editions. It seems to have been commonly used in families, though not employed in churches.
In the reign of queen Elizabeth, who succeeded Mary in 1558, complaints began to be made, even by those who favored English translations, of errors in Cranmer's, or the Great Bible. Archbishop Parker, therefore, formed the design of revising this translation. For this purpose, he divided the whole Bible into several parts, as Cranmer had done, and distributed them among several learned divines. As those whom he employed were for the most part bishops, this revision was denominated the Bishops' Bible. Archbishop Parker was occupied principally in directing, examining, and completing the work. His design succeeded ; and in 1568, the work was ready for the press. It was printed in a splendid folio, and was embellished with many cuts and maps. For forty years this edition was used in the churches.