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is not Taste a concomitant of the imagination, rather than a constituent part of it? The connection seems to us to be accidental rather than necessary. The sublimest creations of the Imagination, however, are accomplished only when this power is directed by correct and exalted Taste or Judgment. Again : Imagination and Conception seem to be confounded. Now when we read about houses, trees or groves, and some particular house, tree or grove which we have seen, is conceived of-or, when we read a description of rural scenery, and the scenes of our early childhood appear before our “mind's eye”— these are not the effects of the Imagination; there is no analysis or combination here. Yet Mr. Stewart gives essentially the same cases as these, as illustrations of the workings of the Imagination. But when a description of a landscape or of any rural scenery leads one to picture to himself groves, forests, pleasure-grounds, ruins and mansions, and then to combine these into one harmonious whole, unlike any he had ever witnessed; this is a creation of the Imagination. We must also totally differ from Mr. Stewart, when he says that "the Imagination is not an original gift of nature," but is acquired by habits, aided by favorable circumstances.”
Is it possible that the sublime, immortal conceptions of the world's great poets, painters and sculptors, were the result of "acquired habits”? The accidental eircumstances that sometimes arouse the latent imagination of obscure genius into powerful activity, the adverse rather than «favorable” influences to which many have been subjected, who have attained the loftiest eminence in pursuits where success depends upon strength of imagination—the severe yet unsuccessful struggles of artists to give expression to the images of beauty, of loveliness or of grandeur, which this wonder-working, faculty creates-these facts prove to us conclusively, that the imagination is the direct gift of the Creator, and that its conceptions well up from an original source. The maxim of the ancients, " Poëta nascitur, non fit," substantiates this view. Hence the strange enthusiasm which artists always manifest in their favorite pursuits.
The remainder of this chapter is less exceptionable. The relation which the Imagination sustains to the Fine Arts is very happily illustrated. The influence of the
Imagination on human character and happiness, is also clearly shown. But the part which this faculty plays in suggesting scientific hypotheses to the philosopher, and its agency in leading to important discoveries, are passed by almost without notice.
Almost the whole of volume second of Mr. Stewart's “Elements" is devoted to the subject of Ratiocination. The power of ratiocination and Conscience are the great distinguishing faculties of man. The former makes him intelligent, the latter makes him moral and accountable. Hence it is of the first importance to understand correctly the principles of each, their connection with one another, and with the powers of the human mind. As the mechanical philosopher must develop the laws of the mechanical powers, and must also show what is the essential principle on which the force of steam, wind, and gunpowder depends; so when the intellectual philosopher investigates ihe “ Elements of the human mind,” a just and entire view of the subject of reasoning in all its parts should be presented. All its principles should be clearly developed, and every point, to use the quaint, expressive language of Locke, should be "bottomed.” All its divisions should be genuine and ultimate. The query, whether the principles of reasoning be changeable, or whether the materials about which we reason be alone the variable quantity, should be distinctly answered. The relative degrees of certainty with which we may rely upon our conclusions, and the ultimate law on which every result must at last be based, should be clearly pointed out. But upon examining this volume, we do not find these just requisitions complied with. The book exhibits more learning than discrimination-more refined verbal criticism than just pbilosophical distinction. Common mistakes are frequently alluded to; but the principles which reveal those mistakes are seldom brought to view. The writer plans edifices which are truly magnificent ;'but he does not, like a wise masterbuilder, first lay a sure foundation, so that the reader may rely upon the stability of the superstructure. To do this should be the first care of every philosophical writer. For if we yield full assent to the truth of the fundamental principles of any subject, we are ready to follow with bold assurance wherever the principles lead.
But we will now examine this volume more minutely.
engraved portrait of Lamartine. This treatise has received the bighest praise as a comprehensive and thorough survey of the various departments of Modern French Literature. It contains biographical and critical notes of all the prominent names in Philosophy, Criticism, History, Romance, Poetry, and the Drama ; and presents a full and impartial consideration of the Political Tendencies of France, as they may be traced in the writings of authors equally conspicuous as scholars and as statesmen. The original treatise of De Vericour has been highly praised as a comprehensive and thorough survey of the various branches of modern French literature. Mr. Chase has resided in Paris, and for some time was the Paris correspondent of some of our leading journals. He has given zealous attention to modern French literature, and will unquestionably present an interesting and valuable volume.
Ticknor & Co., of Boston, propose to issue, the present month, the narrative of the “ Rise and Fall of Louis Phillipe,” by Mr. Ben Perley Poore.
B. H. Greene, of Boston, is about to publish another volume of Sermons by the late Rev. W. B. 0. Peabody, of Springfield, Mass.
A volume of great interest is announced, to be published in August, simultaneously in New York and Cincinnati. It is the long expected work entitled, “ Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley ; comprising the results of Extensive Original Surveys and Explorations. By E. G. Squier and E. H. Davis, M. D. This work constitutes the first volume of the “ Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge," published under the auspices of the Smithsonian Institute. It is to be printed in imperial quarto, comprising 500 pages of letter-press, upwards of 50 plates, and more than 200 wood-engravings. It will be sold only to subscribers, and at ten dollars a copy.
From an article in the London Atheneum, we gather the following interesting statistics of European Libraries. • The number of public libraries in Europe is 383 ; of these, 107 are in France, 41 in the Austrian States and in the kingdom of Lombardy and Venice, 30 in the Prussian States, 28 in Great Britain and Ireland, including Malta, 17 in Spain, 15 in the Papal States, 14 in Belgium, 13 in Switzerland, 12 in the Russian empire, 11 in Bavaria, 9 in Tuscany, 9 in Sardinia, 8 in Sweden, 7 in Naples, 7 in Portugal, 5 in Holland, 5 in Denmark, 5 in Saxony, 4 in Baden, 4 in Hesse, 3 in Wurtemburg, and 3 in Hanover. Comparing the aggregate number of volumes in these libraries with the aggregate population of the cities which contain them,
we have in Great Britain and Ireland 43 volumes to every 100 inhabitants ; in Russia, 80 to every 100; in Spain, 106; in France, 125 ; in the Austrian Empire, 159; in the Prussian States, 196 ; in Parma, 204 ; in Mecklenburg, 238 ; in Hesse, 256 ; in the Papal States,
266 ; in Nassau, 267; in Tuscany, 268 ; in Modena, 333; in Switzerland, 340 ; in Bavaria, 347; in Saxony, 379 ; in Saxe-Meiningen, 400 ; in Denmark, 412; in Baden, 480 ; in Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, 551 ; in Hesse Darmstadt, 660 ; in Wurtemburg, 716 ; in Saxe-Weimar, 881 ; in Hanover, 972 ; in Oldenburg, 1,078 ; and in Brunswick, 2,353 volumes to every 100 inhabitants of the cities containing libraries (of 10,000 volumes and upwards). Comparing the number of volumes in the libraries of the chief European capitals with their respective populations, there are, in Weimer, 803 volumes to every 100 inhabitants ; in Munich, 750 ; in Darmstadt, 652; in Copenhagen, 465 ; in Stuttgard, 452 ; in Dresden, 432 ; in Hanover, 335 ; in Florence, 313 ; in Rome, 306 ; in Parma, 278; in Prague, 168; in Berlin, 162 ; in Madrid, 153; in Paris, 143; in Venice, 142; in Milan, 135; in Vienna, 119 ; in Edinburgh, 116 ; in Petersburgh, 108; in Brussels, 100 ; in Stockholm, 98 ; in Naples, 69 ; in Dublin, 49; in Lisbon, 39 ; in London, 20. We see, therefore, that Brussels is 5 times better provided in this respect than London ; Paris, 7 times ; Dresden, 21 times; Copenhagen, 23 times ; Munich, 37 times ; and the little city of Weimar, 40 times. The average annual sum allotted to the support of the Royal Library at Paris, is 16,5751. ; of the Arsenal Library, 1,7901. ; of St. Geneviève, 3,4001. ; of the Mazarine, 1,7901. ; of the Royal Library of Brussels, 2,7001. ; of Munich, about 2,0001. ; of Vienna, 1,9001. ; of Berlin, 1,4601. ; of Copenhagen, 1,2501. ; of Dresden, 5001. ; of the Grand Ducal Library of Darmstadt, 2,0001. ; of the Library of the British Museum, 26,5521. The present average number of volumes annually added to the Royal Library at Paris, is stated to be 12,000; to that of Munich, 10,000; to that of Berlin, 5,000 ; to that of Vienna, 5,000; to that of Petersburgh, 2,000 ; to the Ducal Library of Parma, 1,800; to the Royal Library of Copenhagen, 1,000 ; tu the Library of the British Museum, 30,000.”
As a matter of record we present the following statistics of benevolent societies.
The American Baptist Missionary Union held its annual meeting at Troy, N. Y., May 18, 1848. The whole number of Missions in connection with the Missionary Union is 16 ; of stations 52, and out-staVOL. XIII.-NO. L.
tions 87; of missionaries and assistants, 105; native preachers and assistants, 158; whole number of laborers, 263 ; churches 123, with 10,020 members, of whom 689 were baptized the last year ; aod 44 schools with 1,472 pupils. These missions are distributed as follows: The Maulmain (Burman) mission, with 3 stations (including Rangoon), 7 missionaries and 7 female assistants, and 16 native preachers and assistants, reports 3 Burman churches and i English, to which 11 have been added by baptism ; whole number about 200 ; 3 schools with 160 pupils, including boarding and theological ; and 26,182 copies, or 6,566,450 pages of Scriptures, tracts, etc., printed. In the Maulmain (Karen) mission, with one station and twenty-one out-stations, are five missionaries and six female assistants; about thirty native preachers and assistants ; twenty or more churches, including those of Rangoon and Bassein, with 1,800 members, including 106 baptisms reported the past year, and two schools, one a theological school, containing sixty-five pupils, exclusive of schools temporarily taught. A revision of the Sgau Karen New Testament is in progress, with a parallel version into the Pgho Karen dialect ; also the Sgau Karen Old Testament. The Peguan Testament has been completed. Tavoy mission, with two stations and thirteen or more out-stations, has four missionaries and four female assistants ; three schools, with eighty-four pupils, one for native preachers ; some of the churches and out-stations repeatedly visited, and thirty-seven added by baptism. The number of pages printed was 482,159. In the Arracan mission, Burmese department, with one missionary and ten native preachers and assistants, are two stations and two out-stations, with two churches, to which fifteen have been added by baptism ; whole number, 55;also, in the Karen department, with one station and five out-stations in Arracan, are two missionaries and one female assistant, with thirty-one native preachers and assistants, including those in Burmah Proper. The number of Karen churches is thirty, with 3,523 members as last reported. A boarding-school of thirty pupils has been taught at Akyab, and a day-school of twelve. Siam mission, Siamese department, has two missionaries, and three female assistants. The principal labor has been in the foundry and the printing department, or in Scripture and tract distribution. In the Chinese department, at the same station and one out-station, are two missionaries and two female assistants, and three native assistants, with a church of twenty-three members, one baptized the last year. 78,370 pages have been printed. In the China mission, the Hong-Kong station has been greatly blessed within the year. Religious meetings have been well attended. Eleven have been added to the church by baptism, of whom two are Chinese