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IMMIGRATION.-"We hold that the most efficient way of protecting American labor is to prevent the importation of foreign pauper labor to compete with it in the home market, and that the value of the home market to our American farmers and artisans is greatly reduced by a vicious monetary system which depresses the prices of their products below the cost of production and thus deprives them of the means of purchasing the products of our home manufactories, and as labor creates the wealth of the country so demand the passage of such laws as may be necessary to protect it in all its rights.'
LABOR.-"We are in favor of the arbitration of differences between employers engaged in interstate commerce and their employes, and recommend such legislation as is necessary to carry out this principle."
RAILROADS.-"The absorption of wealth by the few, the consolidation of our leading railroad systems and the formation of trusts and pools require a stricter control by the Federal Government of those arteries of commerce. We demand the enlargement of the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission and such restrictions and guarantees in the control of railroads as will protect the people from robbery and oppression.'
ECONOMY.-"We denounce the profligate waste of the money wrung from the people by oppressive taxation and the lavish appropriations of recent Republican Congresses, which have kept taxes high, while the labor that pays them is unemployed and the products of the people's toil are depressed in price till they no longer repay the cost of production. We demand a return to that simplicity and economy which befit a Democratic Government, and a reduction in the number of useless officers, the salaries of which drain the substance of the people."
FEDERAL COURTS.-"We denounce arbitrary interference by Federal authorities in local affairs as a violation of the Constitution of the United States and a crime against free institutions, and we especially object to government by injunction as a new and highly dangerous form of oppression by which Federal Judges, in contempt of the laws of the States and rights of citizens, become at once legislators, judges and executioners; and we approve the bill passed at the last session of the United States Senate and now pending in the House of Representatives relative to contempts in Federal courts, and providing for trials by jury in certain cases of contempt.'
PACIFIC RAILROAD DEBT.-"No discrimination should be indulged in by the Government of the United States in favor of any of its debtors. We approve of the refusal of the LIIId Congress to pass the Pacific Railroad Funding bill; denounce the effort of the present Republican Congress to enact a similar measure."
PENSIONS.-"Recognizing claims of deserving Union soldiers, we heartily indorse the rule of the present Commissioner of Pensions that no names shall be arbitrarily dropped from the pension list, and the fact of enlistment and service should be deemed conclusive evi
dence against disease and disability before enlistment."
STATEHOOD.-"We favor the admission of the Territories of New-Mexico, Oklahoma and Arizona into the Union as States, and we favor the early admission of all the Territories having the necessary population and resources to entitle them to Statehood, and, while they remain Territories, we hold that the officials appointed to administer the government of any Territory, together with the District of Columbia and Alaska, should be bonafide residents of the Territory or District in which the duties are to be performed. The Democratic party believes in home rule, and that all public lands of the United States should be appropriated to the establishment of free homes for American citizens."
ALASKA.-"We recommend that the Territory of Alaska be granted a Delegate in Congress, and that the general land and timber laws of the United States be extended to said Territory."
MONROE DOCTRINE.-"The Monroe Doctrine, as originally declared and as interpreted by succeeding Presidents, is a permanent part of the foreign policy of the United States, and must at all times be maintained."
CUBA.-"We extend our sympathy to the people of Cuba in their heroic struggle for liberty and independence."
CIVIL SERVICE.-"We are opposed to life tenure in the public service. We favor appointments based upon merit, fixed terms of office, and such an administration of the Civil Service laws as will afford equal opportunities to all citizens of ascertained fitness."
THIRD TERM.-"We declare it to be the unwritten law of this Republic, established by custom and usage of 100 years and sanctioned by the examples of the greatest and wisest of those who founded and have maintained our Government, that no man should be eligible for a third term of the Presidential office."
WATERWAYS.-"The Federal Government should care for and improve the Mississippi River and other great waterways of the Republic, so as to secure for the interior States easy and cheap transportation to tidewater. When any waterway of the Republia is of sufficient importance to demand aid of the Government, such aid should be extended upon a definite plan of continuous work until permanent improvement is secured. "Confiding in the justice of our cause and the necessity of its success at polls, we submit the foregoing declaration of principles and purposes to the considerate judgment of the American people. We invite the support of all citizens who approve them and who desire to have them made effective through legislation for the relief of the people and the restoration of the country's prosperity."
The platform reported by the minority (signed by David B. Hill, New-York: William F. Vilas, Wisconsin; George Gray, Delaware; John Prentiss Poe, Maryland; Irving W. Drew, New-Hampshire; P. J. Farrell, Vermont; Lynde Harrison, Connecticut; David S. Baker, Rhode Island; C. O. Holman, Maine; Thomas A. C. Weadock, Michigan; James E. O'Brien, Minnesota; John E. Russell,
Massachusetts; Robert E. Wright, Pennsylvania; William R. Steele. South Dakota: Allan L. McDermott, New-Jersey, and Charles D. Rogers, Alaska) was as follows:
To the Democratic National Convention: Sixteen delegates, constituting the minority of the Committee on Resolutions, find many declarations in the redoctrine as to demand a distinct statement of what they hold to as the only just and true expression of Democratic faith upon this important issue, as follows, which is offered as a substitute for port of the majority to which they cannot give their assent. Some of these are #holly unnecessary. Some are ill-considered and ambiguously phrased, while others are extreme and revolutionary of the well-recognized principles of party. The minority content themselves with this general expression of their dissent without going into a specific statement of these objectionable features of the report of the majority.
"But upon the financial question, which engages at this time the chief share of public attention, the views of the majority differ so fundamentally from what the minority regard as vital Democratic the financial report of the majority:
"We declare our belief that the experiment on the part of the United States alone of free silver coinage and a change in the existing standard of value independently of the action of other great nations would not only imperil our finances, but would retard or entirely prevent the establishment of international bimetallism, to which the efforts of the Government should be steadily directed. It would place this country at once upon a silver basis, impair contracts, disturb business, diminish the purchasing power of the wages of labor, and inflict irreparable evils upon our Nation's commerce and industry.
"Until international co-operation among leading nations for the coinage of silver can be secured, we favor the rigid maintenance of the existing gold standard as essential to the preservation of our National credit, the redemption of our public pledges, and the keeping inviolate of our country's honor. We insist that all our paper currency shall be kept at a parity with gold. The Democratic party is the party of hard money, and is opposed to legal-tender paper money as a part of our permanent financial system, and we therefore favor the gradual retirement and cancellation of all United States notes and Treasury notes, under such legislative provisions as will prevent undue contraction. We demand that the National credit shall be resolutely maintained at all times and under all circumstances.
The majority also feel that the report of the majority is defective in failing to make any recognition of the honesty, economy, courage and fidelity of the present Democratic Administration, and they therefore offer the following declaration as an amendment to the majority report: "We commend the honesty, economy, courage and fidelity of the present Democratic National Administration."
The vote on the financial planks of the minority was: Yeas, 303; nays, 626. On
The platform, adopted on September 3, was as follows:
"This Convention has assembled to uphold the principles upon which depend the honor and welfare of the American people, in order that Democrats throughout the Union may unite their patriotic efforts to avert disaster from their country and ruin from their party. The Democratic party is pledged to equal and exact justice to all men of every creed and condition; to the largest freedom of the individual consistent with good government; to the preservation of the Federal Government in its Constitutional vigor, and to the support of the States in all their just rights; to economy in the public expenditures; to the maintenance of the public faith and sound money; and it is opposed to paternalism and all class legislation. The declarations of the Chicago Convention attack individual freedom, the right to private contract, the independence of the judiciary and the authority of
the President to enforce Federal laws. They advocate a reckless attempt to increase the price of silver by legislation, to the debasement of our monetary standard, and threaten unlimited issues of paper money by the Government. They abandon for Republican allies the Democratic cause of tariff reform, to court the favor of protectionists to their fiscal heresy. In view of these and other grave departures from Democratic principles, we cannot support the candidates of that convention nor be bound by its acts. The Democratic party has survived defeats, but could not survive a victory won in behalf of the doctrine and policy proclaimed in its name at Chicago. The condition, however, which made possible such utterances from a National Convention are the direct result of class legislation by the Republican party. It still proclaims, as it has for years, the power and duty of Government to raise and maintain prices by law, and it proposes no remedy for existing evils except oppressive and unjust taxation."
TARIFF.-"The National Democracy here convened, therefore, renews its declarations of faith in Democratic principles, especially as applicable to the conditions of the times. Taxation tariff, excise or direct, is rightfully imposed only for public purposes, and not for private gain. Its amount is justly measured by public expenditures, which should be limited by scrupulous economy. The sum derived by the Treasury from tariff and excise levies is affected by the state of trade and volume of consumption. The amount required by the Treasury is determined by the appropriations made by Congress. The demand of the Republican party for an increase in tariff taxation has its pretext in the deficiency of the revenue, which has its causes in the stagnation of trade and reduced consumption, due entirely to the loss of confidence that has followed the Populist threat of free coinage and depreciation of our money, and the Republican practice of extravagant appropriations beyond the needs of good government. We arraign and condemn the Populistic conventions of Chicago and St. Louis for their co-operation with the Republican party in creating these conditions, which are pleaded in justification of a heavy increase of the burdens of the people by a further resort to protection. We therefore denounce protection and its ally, free coinage of silver, as schemes for the personal profit of a few at the expense of the masses, and oppose the two parties which stand for these schemes as hostile to the people of the Republic, whose food and shelter, comfort and prosperity are attacked by higher taxes and depreciated money. In fine, we reaffirm the historic Democratic doctrine of tariff for revenue only. We demand that henceforth modern and liberal policies toward American shipping shall take the place of our imitation of the restricted statutes of the eighteenth century, which have been abandoned by every maritime Power but the United States, and which, to the Nation's humiliation, have driven American capital and enterprise to the use of alien flags and alien crews, have made the Stars and Stripes an almost unknown
emblem in foreign ports, and have virtuy extinguished the race of American Beamen. We oppose the pretence that discriminating duties will promote shipping; that scheme is an invitation to commercial warfare upon the United States, un-American in the light of our great commercial treaties, offering no gain
whatever to American shipping, while greatly increasing ocean freights on our agricultural and manufactured products." MONEY-The experience of mankind has shown that, by reason of their natural qualities, gold is the necessary money of the large affairs of commerce and business, while silver is conveniently adapted to minor transactions, and the most beneficial use of both together can be insured only by the adoption of the former as a standard of monetary measure, and the maintenance of silver at a parity with gold by its limited coinage under suitable safeguards of law. Thus the largest possible enjoyment of both metals is gained with a value universally accepted throughout the world, which constitutes the only practical bimetallic currency, assuring the most stable standard, and especally the best and safest money for all who earn their livelihood by labor or the produce of husbandry. They cannot suffer when paid in the best money known to man, but are the peculiar and most defenceless victims of a debased and fluctuating currency.
which offers continual profits to the money changer at their cost. Realizing these truths, demonstrated by long and public inconvenience and loss, the Democratic party, in the interests of the masses and of equal justice to all, practically established by the legislation of 1834 and 1853 the gold standard of monetary measurement, and likewise entirely divorced the Government from banking and currency issues. To this longestablished Democratic policy we adhere, and insist upon the maintenance of the gold standard, and of the parity therewith of every dollar issued by the Government, and are firmly opposed to the free and unlimited coinage of silver and to the compulsory purchase of silver bulHon. But we denounce also the further maintenance of the present costly patchwork system of National paper currency as a constant source of injury and peril. We assert the necessity of such intelligent currency reform as will confine the Government to its legitimate functions, Completely separated from the banking business, and afford to all sections of our country uniform, safe and elastic bank Currency under Governmental supervision, measured in volume by the needs of busi
CLEVELAND.-"The fidelity, patriotism and courage with which President Cleveland has fulfilled his great public trust, the high character of his Administration, its wisdom and energy in the maintenance of civil order and the enforcement of the laws, its equal regard for the rights of every class and every section, Its firm and dignified conduct of foreign affairs and its sturdy persistence In upholding the credit and honor of the Nation are fully recognized by the Democratic party, and will secure to him a place in history beside the fathers of the Republic."
CIVIL SERVICE.-"We also commend the Administration for the great progress made in the reform of the public service, and we indorse its effort to extend the merit system still further. We demand that no backward step be taken, but that the reform be supported and advanced until the un-Democratic spoils system of appointments shall be eradicated."
ECONOMY.-"We demand strict economy in the appropriations and in the administration of the Government." ARBITRATION.-"We
favor arbitration for the settlement of international disputes."
PENSIONS.-"We favor a liberal policy of pensions to deserving soldiers and sailors of the United States.'
COURT.-"The Supreme Court of the United States was wisely established by the framers of our Constitution as one of the three co-ordinate branches of the Government. Its independence and authority to interpret the law of the land without fear or favor must be maintained. We condemn all efforts to degrade that tribunal or impair the confidence and respect which it has deservedly held. The Democratic party ever has maintained, and ever will maintain, the supremacy of law, the independence of its judicial administration, the inviolability of contracts and the obligations of all good citizens resist every illegal trust, combination or attempt against the just rights of property and the good order of society, in which are bound up the peace and happiness of our people.
"Believing these principles to be essential to the well-being of the Republic, we submit them to the consideration of the American people."
The second National Convention of the Populist party met at St. Louis, Mo., on July 22, 1896. Senator Marion C. Butler, of North Carolina, was temporary chairman, and Senator William V. Allen, of Nebraska, was permanent chairman. William J. Bryan, the Democratic nominee for President, was indorsed, and Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia, was nominated for Vice-President.
The convention reversed the order of procedure in nominations, by a vote of 785 to 615, to nominate the candidate for Vice-President first. The names presented were Congressman Harry Skinner, of North Carolina; Thomas E. Watson, of Georgia; Frank Burkitt, of Mississippi; A. L. Mimms, of Tennessee; Mann Page, of Virginia, and Arthur Sewall, of Maine. The balloting began after midnight, July 24, and the result of the first ballot gave Watson 4694; Sewall, 257%, and the others ranging lower. A motion to declare Watson the nominee was carried.
On the following day William J. Bryan, nominee of the Democratic Convention, was made the head of the Populist ticket, notwithstanding he had telegraphed to Senator Jones to withdraw his name if Sewall, Democratic nominee for VicePresident, was not indorsed for VicePresident. James B. Weaver nominated Mr. Bryan; Henry W. Call nominated S. F. Norton, of Chicago; Mr. Livingston nominated J. S. Coxey, but withdrew the
name later. The ballot showed the following result: Bryan, 1,042; Norton, 321; Eugene V. Debs, 8; Ignatius Donnelly, 3; J. S. Coxey, 1.
"The People's party assembled in National Convention, reaffirms its allegiance to the principles declared by the founders of the republic, and also to the fundamental principles of just government as enunciated in the platform of the party in 1892 We recognize that, through the connivance of the present and preceding administrations, the country has reached a crisis in its national life, as predicted in our declaration four years ago, and that prompt and patriotic action is the supreme duty of the hour.
We realize that while we have political independence, our financial and industrial independence is yet to be attained by restoring to our country the constitutional control and exercise of the functions necessary to a people's government, which functions have been basely surrendered by our public servants to corporate monopolies. The influence of European money changers has been more potent in shaping legislation than the voice of the American people. Executive power and patronage have been used to corrupt our Legislatures and defeat the will of the people, and plutocracy has thereby been enthroned upon the ruins of democracy. To restore the Government intended by the fathers, and for the welfare and prosperity of this and future generations, we demand the establishment of an economic and financial system which shall make us masters of our own affairs and independent of European control, by the adoption of the following:
NATIONAL MONEY.-"We demand a national money, safe and sound, issued by the general Government only, without the intervention of banks of issue, to be a full legal tender for all debts, public and private; a just, equitable, and efficient means of distribution direct to the people and through the lawful disbursements of the Government.'
SILVER. "We demand the free and unrestricted coinage of silver and gold at the present legal ratio of sixteen to one, without waiting for the consent of foreign nations."
CIRCULATION.-"We demand the volume of circulating medium be speedily increased to an amount sufficient to meet the demands of the business and population, and to restore the just level of prices of labor and production."
BOND ISSUE.-"We denounce the sale of bonds and the increase of the public interest-bearing debt made by the present Administration as unnecessary and without authority of law, and demand that no more bonds be issued except by specific act of Congress. We demand such legislation as will prevent the demonetization of the lawful money of the United States by private contract. We demand that the Government, in payment of its obligations, shall use its option as to the kind of lawful money in which they are to be paid, and we denounce the present and preceding Administrations for surrendering this option to the holders of Government obligations."
INCOME TAX.-"We demand a graduated income tax, to the end that aggregated wealth shall bear its just proportion of taxation, and we regard the recent decision of the Supreme Court relative to the Income Tax law as a misinterpretation of the Constitution and an invasion of the rightful powers of Congress over the subject of taxation."
POSTAL BANKS.-"We demand that postal savings banks be established by the Government for the safe deposit of the savings of the people and to facilitate exchange."
RAILROADS.-"Transportation being a means of exchange and a public necessity, the Government should own and operate the railroads in the interest of the people and on a non-partisan basis, to the end that all may be accorded the same treatment in transportation, and that the tyranny and political power now exercised by the great railroad corporations which result in the impairment, if not the destruction, of the political rights and personal liberties of the citizen, may be destroyed. Such ownership is to be accomplished gradually in a manner corsistent with sound public policy."
PACIFIC RAILROAD DEBTS.—"The interest of the United States in the public highways built with public moneys, and the proceeds of extensive grants of land to the Pacific railroads, should never be alienated, mortgaged, or sold, but guarded and protected for the general welfare as provided by the laws organizing such railroads. The foreclosure of existing liens of the United States on these roads should at once follow default in the payment thereof by the debtor companies; and at the foreclosure sales of said roads the Government shall purchase the same if it becomes necessary to protect its interests therein, or if they can be purchased at a reasonable price; and the Government shall operate said railroads as public highways for the benefit of the whole people, and not in the interest of the few, under suitable provisions for protection of life and property, giving to all transportation interests equal privileges and equal rates for fares and freights. We denounce the present infamous schemes for refunding these debts, and demand that the laws now applicable thereto be executed and administered according to their interest and spirit."
TELEGRAPH.-"The telegraph, 'like the postoffice system, being a necessity for the transmission of news, should be owned and operated by the Government in the interest of the people."
LAND.-"True policy demands that the National and State legislation shall be such as will ultimately enable every prudent and industrious citizen to secure a home, and therefore the land should not be monopolized for speculative purposes. All lands now held by railroads and other corporations in excess of their actual needs should by lawful means be reclaimed by the Government and held for actual settlers only, and private land monopoly, as well as allen ownership, should be prohibited. We condemn the land grant frauds by which the Pacific railroad companies have, through the connivance of the Interior Department, robbed multitudes of actual bona fide set