« EdellinenJatka »
17 feet of water, about 600 yards N.W. by N. from McCries Shoal buoy; No. 253, sunken wreck showing stern out of water, 15 miles S. by W. 1 W. from Fen. wick Island Lightship; and No. 251, a sunken wreck with one mast showing, 8 miles E. I S. from Cape Henry Light. The Vesuvius will then proceed to Hampton Roads to await further orders. (Hydro. graphic Bulletin 230, 24th January 1894.)
9th Decembr 1889.—Lieut. Cowles, in the Despatch, tried to blow up a derelict vessel, bottom up, about 35 miles east of the Virginia capes, but could not on account of her cargo of lumber. He cut holes in the hull and made fast a chain to tow her by, but she was held by her anchors. 12th December he went out to her again two wrecking tugs had towed her a mile or two. Then the tug Argus and the Despatch together made fast to the derelict and towed her slowly to within 6 miles of the Capes by the evening of the 13th. Heavy weather delayed them some, and a diver had to cut the derelict's chains. By sunset, December 15, all were snugly berthed at Newport News. (Hydrographic Bulletin No. 16.) This proved to be the schooner Joseph Souther of Thomaston, Me. (Hydrographic Bulletin No. 17.)
3rd September 1890.-U.S.S. Petrel, Lieut. Commander W. H. Brownson, U.S. Navy, commanding, took in tow a derelict schooner, supposed to be the Henrietta, of Portland, Conn., and allowed her to ground about 300 yards sonth-east from Duck Island, Long Island Sound, in about 3 fathoms at half tide. (Hydrographic Bulletin 54, 12th September 1890.)
22nd October 1893.-The abandoned American threemasted schooner Drisko, of 218 tons, lumber-laden and waterlogged, was sighted by the U.S.S. San Francisco. It having been fonnd impossible to tow the derelict, the next morning three 34-pound gun-cotton torpedoes were attached to her keel and exploded, doing great damage, but leaving her still afloat. Five more torpedoes were exploded under her keel, which broke ber back and frames. The San Francisco then rammed the Drisko violently amidships. The blow broke her in two parts, released her cargo, and she commenced to sink. As it was getting dark and the derelict sinking, the San Francisco fired a few shell into her stern, scattering her fragments, and resumed her conrse to Key West. When last seen, the remains of the derelict were in latitude 28° 15' N. and longitude 79° 17' W.
w (Hydrographic Bulletin 218, 1st November 1893.)
This number is constantly changing. There is a list of 3.033 persons who co-operate, but these do not all send in reports regularly. In some cases there have been long intervals of several years between reports, owing to the vessel being laid up under repairs, &c.
The number of observers whose barometer cards are kept on file for constant use is 2,136.
XVII.-NUMBER OF HYDROGRAPHIC BULLETINS AND
Pilot CHARTS ISSUED. The edition of Weekly Bulletins is constantly being increased to meet the demands, from branch offices cbiefly. The edition published at present is 2,040 every week, of which 2,000 are issued from this office, the remainder being kept on file.
The edition of the Pilot Chart has also been constantly increasing, and is now 4,000 every month; 3,419 were issued last month.
XVIII.- EstimATE AS TO THE SOURCES OF REPORTS RELATING TO WRECKS AND DERELICTS RECEIVED BY THIS OFFICE.
Out of 500 reports, 216, or 43.2 per cent. were from newspapers; 147:. or 294 per cent., were from Form No. 105; 62, or 12:4 per cent., were from telegrams to maritime exchanges ; 53, or 10.6 per cent., were from branch Hydrographic offices direct; and 22, or 4.4 per cent., were from letters and special reports.
XIX.-AN ACCOUNT OF THE SYSTEM OF REGISTERING,
XIX.-AN ACCOUNT op
FILING, PUBLISHING, AND ACTING UPON REPORTS
OF WRECKS AND DERELICTS, WITH SPECIMEN REPORT
OF A DERELICT, ILLUSTRATING THE VARIOUS STEPS
TAKEN BY THIS OFFICE. A serial number is immediately attached to each wreck and derelict report. It is then plotted on a blackboard (which shows the North Atlantic to 60° N.) When the name of the derelict is not recognised by the reporting authority, it may nevertheless frequently be identified by comparing it with other reports. This is always atteinpted before publication.
The report, with serial number annexed, is then published in the Hydrographic Bulletin and shown graphically on the next Pilot Chart. After publication the report is entered in one of two registers. The first register contains only those reports in which the name of the derelict is known ; the other book contains those whose names are not known, and these are further separated according to rig, &c., and entered under the following heads :
(n.) Ships and steamers.
(.) Barks and barkentines.
(c.) Brigs and brigantines.
id.) Schooners and small craft.
(e.) Unidentified rigs.
(f.) Bottom up.
(g.) Miscellaneous. In order to trace the complete track of a derelict whose name is unknown and facilitate finding it in the register, each report is registered with an “identifi. cation number” in addition to its serial number, such identification number to be the same as the first serial number of that particular derelict.
Each derelict whose name is known has a separate place or page in the register, devoted to that vessel alone.
To return to the day on which a report is received. Should a wreck or derelict be within striking distance of an available naval vessel, a memorandum of the report is sent by the Hydrographer to the Chief of the Bureau of Navigation, whereupon the proper orders for search and destruction issue.
A typical report is selected to illustrate the course of proceedings, viz. :
Pinkham ; reported by second officer Frederiksen, on Form 105."
This report was received during the weck ending 13th December; the serial number 154 was assigned to it; it was plotted on the “derelict blackboard,” a memorandum was sent to the Chief of Bureau on 13th December, the report was published on the Hydrographic Bulletin No. 224, 13th December, and shown graphically on the January Pilot Chart, together with path of drift ; and entered in the register of known derelicts, page 410. It was expected that the Depart. ment would order the Kears ge to search for and destroy the obstruction on her voyage to the West Indies.
Specimen Report. “154. Nov. 6, 1893. Lat. 38° 28' N., long. 68° 34' W., saw the abandoned tern schooner Charles E. Young, with bowsprit and masts standing.–Urbino (Br. S.S.),
ADDITIONAL REPORTS OF COLLISIONS WITH DERELICTS,
Damage slight. April 4th, 1889, schooner Lizzie Carr struck a dere. lict or wreckage 40 miles east of Bodie Island, N. C., and received slight damage.
June 15th, 1889, barge Galatea struck a sunken wreck near the Chesapeake capes, causing her to leak.
Juue 25th, 1889, schooner J. F. Becker struck a sunken wreck off Fenwick Island, with little damage.
September 25th, 1892, steamship Massilia collided with a large derelict in latitude 36° 55' N., longitude 45° 15' W., and damaged one of her bow plates.
Damage considerable. March 4th. 1889. schooner Wm. B. IVood struck a sunken wreck and had to be beached on the Delaware coast.
January 7th, 1891, schooner Helen G. King struck a sunken wreck near Rockland, Me., and had to put into Eastport in a sinking condition.
November 30th, 1891, steamer St. Enoch struck a submerged derelict in latitude 48° N., longitude 33° W., and had to return to Queenstown with all the blades of her propeller broken.
December 28th, 1891, schooner Riviere struck a derelict on the voyage from Dublin to Bangor and had to beached on arrival.
October 25th, 1892, steamship Britannia struck a sunken wreck off Cape Sable and had to be beached for temporary repairs.
April 23rd, 1893, schooner A. T. Coleman struck a sunken obstruction on the voyage from Baltimore to the Bahamas and was towed into Norfolk with a hole in her bottom.
Damage not known. June 23rd, 1899, steamship Ville de Monterideo was damaged by striking a derelict on the voyage from Rio Janeiro to Havre.
May 11th, 1891, brig Arthur was damaged by striking a derelict on the royage from Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, to Martinique.
July 25th, 1891, steamship Castlegate was damaged by striking a wreck near Boston.
December 22ud, 1893, schooner Theodore Dean, on a coastirg voyage to New York, arrived damaged by having struck a wreck.
December 26th, 1893, bark Guldreun was damaged by striking a derelict on the voyage from Canada to Fleetwood, England.
“ADA IREDALE," long drift of, Jaffe, 162; was in South
• Pacific, Bullock, 979.
ADMIRALTY REGULATIONS FOR DEALING WITH DERELICTS,
ADMIRALTY, DERELICTS DEALT WITH BY (see Appendix G.)
ALMOND, CAPTAIN J. C. (analysis of his evidence):-
Is nautical inspector of Peninsular and Oriental
Company (865). Has been 45 years with the com-
pany, and has navigated all parts of the world
except the Atlantic (867, 868). Knows no instances
of derelicts, and does not consider them a danger to
Peninsular and Oriental boats except in Bay of
Biscay and on Portuguese coast (869-875). Notice of
a derelict would be an approximate guide to a vessel
in locality eight days later (876-880). Is doubtful as
to practicability of vessels searching Atlantic route
for derelicts, but has had no experience (881-883).
As to need for clearing other routes than Atlantic,
and difficulty in finding derelicts (884–895, 90.-907).
Has never seen a derelict, except a deserted junk
of removing derelicts (908). Blade of screw might
break without striking floating log; tendency would
be to draw logs into screw (909-916).
ANDREW, Captain E. H. (analysis of his evidence):-
Has been for three years in command of sailing
ship “ Cromdale,” London to Sydney, and has fallen
in with one derelict (1522-1528, 1538-1511). Any
wrecks fallen in with on outward voyage are reported
to newspaper reporters in Australia; any seen on
homeward voyage are reported at Custom House
through agents (1529–1537). Considers derelicts a
source of danger, but has only seen one in 17 years
(1542–1546, 1569–1571). Lloyd's forms for reporting
wreckage are not always put on board ships; their
form as to derelicts is only just issued (1550-1555).
Does not see notices in “Shipping Gazette," but
always gets Board of Trade Summary of Notices to
Mariners (1556–1560). Thinks he could get latest
notices at Sydney by applying at Custom House
there, but has never done so; knows of no office
there which is informed of newly-discovered dangers
(1561-1568, 1585–1588). Has often seen ice, which
he considers a very much greater danger than
derelicts (1572, 1573). A list of derelicts would be
very niseful; it would cause a sharper look-out to be
kept, though he would not alter his course for a
reported derelict (1575-1579). There would be no
danger from a derelict reported half-way out from
Sydney, unless she floated more than 30 days (1580-
ATLANTIC PILOT CHARTS, derelicts laid down on,
Macdona, 2, 3, 63, 65, 151, 155; Jaffe, 162–165,
187–199, 234-239; Parsell, 701, 710-713."
“Bahama” became a derelict, Macdona, 8.
“BAYLESWOOD” struck a derelict, Macdona, 8.
BEALL, Captain GEORGE (analysis of his evidence):-
Is Principal Board of Trade Examiner of Masters
and Mates, and is in charge of compilation and
distribution of Notices to Mariners (1880-1883).
Details of system adopted (1884-1906). All informa-
tion received by Consuls is at once sent by them
to Board of Trade, but masters are not bound to
report to Consuls (1907-1910). Derelicts included in
Monthly Summary are only kept in for three months
unless again reported (1911-1914). Masters of
mercantile marine might be requested to sink all
derelicts (1916, 1917). Distinction is made in notices
between • derelicts” and “sunken wrecks” (1919-
1928). All important notices are sent to Lloyd's,
who distribute by telegraph or otherwise (1929-1934).
Cannot suggest any improvement in mode of dis.
tributing notices, except in some matters of detail
(1936-1950). Puts information as to derelicts into
Monthly Summary, but does not think information
is of much use (1952, 1957-1960). Notices of ice are
marked “very important” (1953-1956).
“ BOURGEOIS” became a derelict, Macdona, 9.
BULLOCK, S. (analysis of his evidence):-
Is Chief of the Casualties Branch of the Marine
Department of the Board of Trade (967). Has
checked statements in the Report of the United
States Commissioner of Navigation as to wrecks
and casualties, with result that number of vessels
and of lives lost as given in that statement appear
excessive (970, 971). Only one case during last
10 years of loss of life through British vessel striking
a wreck or wreckage (971). Of nine vessels said on
Pilot Chart of January, 1894, to have been totally
lost by striking derelicts, can only identify “ Crag.
side” and “Glenrath” as British. Of these
“ Cragside” is believed to have struck S. W. Bull
rock, while “ Glenrath” struck on Bibb shoal (972–
975). Most of vessels given as damaged by striking
wreck seem to be small American coasters (976–
978). Particulars of British vessels referred to in
evidence of Mr. Macdona, M.P. and Mr. Jaffe so far
as they can be identified (979, 980). Board of Trade
get reports of all collisions of British vessels with
derelicts (981). Analysis of 103 casualties attributed
to striking floating wreckage all over the world in
three years ended June, 1893. Seven were attributed
to striking a derelict and 96 to striking spars, &c.
(982–985). Particulars of British vessels lost during
10 years throngh striking wreck (986). Figures
show no great risk of striking derelicts, and
breaking them up would increase risk (987). List
of British timber laden vessels lost in 1893 (988).
None of 13 floating derelicts marked on Pilot Chart
for November 1893, are British (989). Does not
think legislation is required to obtain fuller inforına.
of derelicts (990, 991). Information as to system of
reporting casualties to Receivers of Wreck (1590-
1595). "Isle of Bardsey” was lost through striking
a rock (1597).
“CARRIER Dove” became a derelict, Macdona, 12.
“CARRICKS” became a derelict, Macdona, 12.
CASUALTIES are all reported to Receivers of Wreck,
Bullock, 1590–1596 ; Williams, 1799.
“ CELTIC” struck a derelict, Jaffe, 158-160 ; struck
wreckage, Bullock, 979.
“Chilian” struck a derelict, Macdona, 4, 5. Touched
a shoal or sunken wreck, Bullock, 979.
“City Or BOSTON” struck a derelict, Macdona, 110-
114. Lost in a violent snowstorm, Bullock, 979.
“City of Dublin” struck part of a derelict, Macdona, 8.
Not mentioned by master in his deposition, Bullock,
980; Wharton, 1872.
"COUNTESS DUFFERIN” became a derelict. Mocdona, 12.
“CRAGSIDE” struck a derelict, Macdona, 8, 39, 41 ;
Juffe, 167-174, 395-397. Struck on S.W. Bull rock,
Bullock, 972–975; Wharton, 1871.
CUNARD LINE, experience of captains, Macdona, 137–
141 ; Jaffe, 394-395 ; Thomas (see analysis of his
“DAGMAR” became a derelict, Macdona, 12.
CustomS, REPORTS TO, Froud, 1238–1242, 1249–1260 ;
Hozier, 1452-1456 ; Andrew, 1531–1537. Mode of
procedure, Williams, 1785-1800.
“ David W. HUNT" became a derelict, Mucdona, 12.
DECK-LOADING, important bearing on question, Parsell,
DERELICT, LIFE OF A. Timber ship may last 50 years,
Macdono, 153-155. U.S. Hydrographer gives an
average of 30 days, Juffe, 162. Varies according to
her nature, Parsell, 729-737,832-839; Rea, 1097–1103.
DERELICTS, DANGER FROM. Is much exaggerated, Kent,
492, 493. Knows no case of damage, Thomas, 511,
521-527, 530, 531. Only knows of two cases, Thorp,
615-618. A probable cause of loss, Parsell, 690-696,
791-825. Knows no case, Almond, 869, 896–904.
Case of collision, Goodrhan, 923–927. Has only seen
one during whole experience, Harris, 1002–2006.
1052–1063, 1087-1089. Never saw one, but thinks
danger great, Froud, 1326-1328, 1357-1369. Has
only seen one in 17 years, Andrew, 1546. A serious
danger, Ismay, 1605.
DERELICTS, DIFFICULTY IN PINDING, Kent, 490, 491;
Thomas, 532; Thorp, 635-640 ; Parsell, 725, 790, 848.
849; Almond, 892, 895, 905; Goodrhan, 941-948;
Red, 1185–1191 ; Froud, 1382-1381.
DERELICTS, DRIFT OF, Macdona, 8-16; Jaffe, 162, 190-
DERELICTS, EXPENSE OF DEALING WITH (TRINITY HOUSE),
Kent, 472–482 ; Thorp, 604, 644, 649.
DERELICTS, Loss Of LIFE THROUGH COLLISION with. Has
no direct information, Macdona, 25, 26. Recollects
no case, Kent, 451. Knows no case, Thomas, 526,
527. One British case through striking wreckage,
Bullock, 971. Knows no case, Froud, 1405; Hozier,
DERELICTS, NOTICES OF. As to practical henefit io
sailors, Macdona, 129-136; Jaffe, 428, 429; Parsell,
710-713, 742, 743, 826-841; "Goodrhan, 955-959;
Harris, 1025-1032; Reo, 1067-1071, 1135–1150;
Froud, 138.5-1404; Hozier, 1436–1444, 1472-1476 ;
Ismay, 1653-1656, 1705-1707.
DERELICTS, REPORTS OF (see also under“ Customs '');
form sent to Lloyd's, Thomas, 539-544; “ White
Star” report to company, Parsell, 706-709; Froud,
1241. Steps taken by Lloyd's, Hozier, 1416-1427,
Lloyd's forms, Andrew, 1550-1555.
DERELICTS, ROUTES TO BE CLEARED. All routes where
English commerce is jeopardised shculd be cleared,
but would begin with North Atlantic, Macdonut, 30,
31. Special need in Atlantic, Parsell, 738-741,
757-763, 853-857, 863, 861. No need on Peninsular
and Oriental route, Almond, 906. Recognised tracks
in Atlantic call for special treatment, Ismay, 1607,
DERELICTS, SUGGESTIONS FOR DEALING WITH, Mucilona, 3,
42-47. 58-68. 83-88, 101-108; Jaffe, 208, 245-257,
274-296; Thomas, 5:33–535, 574-579; Thorp, 648.
651-653 ; Parsell, 679-688,764–773, 840-847; Harris,
1018-1022, 1033-1038; Rea, 1107-1112; Froud,
1261-1278; Hozier, 1477-1480 ; Ismry, 1718-1728.
DERELICTS. Vessels stated to have become, Macdona,
DERELICTS. Vessels stated to have struck, Mucdonu,
4-8, 37-41, 69-73, 112-126.
DERELICTS (REPORTS) Bill. Object of, Macdona, 3, 17–
21, 80-82, 89-100. Is not required, Bullock, 990,
“ ETHEL M. Davis” became a derelict, Macılona, 12.
“ Fanny E. WOLSTON” became a derelict, Macdona, 8.
Long drift of, Ismay, 1604.
"Fern,” (United States derelict destroyer), Jafe, 164.
FLOATING SPARS, a great danger to vessels, Jaffe,
2:20-224, 283-284. Not very dangerous, Thomas,
5:36-5:38, 546, 547, 554-557; Thorp, 619-623. Deck
port smashed by, Pursell, 671-678. Would be drawn
into screw, Almond, 911-916. Might foul propeller,
Goodrhan, 934, 936. Casualties through striking,
Bullock, 992–987. Depends on size of baulks, Harris,
1011-1014, 1023-1024. Would probably clear screw,
Horris, 1043–1048. A danger if struck end on, and
might draw into screw, Rea, 1072-1076. Not :18
dangerous as a derelict, Froud, 1279-1291, 1224-1225.
Would be thrown off, Ismay, 1607.
"FORREST " became a derelict, Mardona, 8.
" FLORENCE RICHARDS," life lost on board of, through
striking wreckage, Bullock, 971.
“ FRANCIS L. GODFREY" strick a derelict, Macdona, 8.
Struck uff Fenwick Island, pogribly on sunken wreck,
FROUD, CAPTAIN A. G. (analysis of his evidence):
Is secretary of the Shipmasters' Society (1203).
Proposes to give evidence collected from various
sources, chiefly newspapers, but not verified by him
(1204-1215). Has heard of, but does not use, Board
of Trade Monthly Notices to Mariners (1216-1217).
Object of Shipmasters' Society (1218). Would refer to
case of collision with a derelict mentioned in evidence
by Captain Goodrhan of the “ Wooloomooloo " (1218-
1223). Has list collected from newspapers of ten col-
lisions since 1st January last (1223-1230, 1292-1296).
Also letter from captain of the “Europe ” reporting
that he had saved a crew (1231-1233). These cases are
not all reported officially (1231-1237). Captains are
asked no questions at the Custom House as to derelicts
passed, and form issued by Lloyd's is not regularly
filled up (1238–1246, 1249-1260). Much of the infor-
mation in Board of Trade Notices is necessarily old
(1247-1248). Derelicts ncar coast might be towed in
when found (1261-1266, 1274-1276, 1350-1356). Man.
of-war should search for derelict when reported
(1267-1273). Derelict which cannot be towed should
be blown up (1277, 1278). Any timber released would
not be as dangerous as the derelict (1279-1291, 1224,
1225). Suggests that Notice to Mariners system
should be improved by adopting American system
(1299-1312). As to number of derelicts afloat was
unaware that only seven British vessels all over the
world have struck derelicts during last three years
(1313-1323). Was in comunand for 27 years, but never
saw a derelict (1326-1329). Knows that shores of
British Isles are kept clear by Authorities, but not
that they are so cleared within 50 or 60 miles (1330–
1338). Was unaware of difficulty experienced by
Trinity House in finding derelicts reported (1339,
1340). Is not familiar with Removal of Wreck's Act,
1877, and was unaware that under it derelicts 150
miles off have been removed by Trinity House (1341-
1349, 1412–1414). Still thinks danger from derelicts
great though he never saw one (1357-1369). Thinks
that underwriters take account of danger from dere-
licts (1370-1373). Trade would not be willing to pay
expense of searching for and removing derelicts
(1374-1376). One man-of-war might be sent to search
as a beginning (1377–1381). Was unaware that Ad-
miralty had occasionally sent a search vessel, and
never successfully (1382–1384). Pilot Chart is of very
little value unless vessels can double their look-out
(1385--1404). Knows no case of loss of life through
striking a derelict, but has heard of great alarni
through fear of striking one (1405-1411).
“ GARIBALDI ” became a derelict, Macdona, 9.
GLENKATU" struck a derelict Macdona 8 30.11.
struck on Bibb Shoal, Bullock, 972.
GOODRHAN, CAPTAIN H. (analysis of his evidence):-
Is now captain of " Wooloomooloo,” Lund Line to
Australia, but has had experience of North Atlantic
(917-922). In 1888 in North Atlantic while on board
of “Nerissa,” struck a derelict with serious damage to
bows (923-927). With that exception has never seen
or struck a derelict (928-932). A vessel would push
a floating log aside, but it might foul the propeller
(933-936). Thinks there would be great difficulty in
either finding or removing derelicts (937–948). Has
bad no personal experience of running into ice (949–
954). Does not think that fact of derelict being
marked on Pilot Chart would help captains beyond
making them keep a better look-out (955-959).
GREAT BRITAIN, ACTION TAKEN BY, TO CLEAR HER
OWN COASTS. Was unaware of it, Macdona, 52-58,
141-150; wrecks on coasts are speedily dealt with,
Jaffe, 231, 418, 419; steps taken by Trinity House,
Kënt, 430-505; was unaware of extent of it, Parsell,
714-724; Froud, 1330-1338, 1341-1347; Ismay, 1671-
“GULDREYN” struck large fish, Wharton, 1872.
“ HELENA ALMA” became a derelict, Macdona, 8.
Harris, COMMODORE R. H. (analysis of his evidence):--
Has been in command of training squadron since
1st June 1893 (992). During cruise of squadron,
chiefly under sail, did not come across any floating
derelicts (993–1001, 1039-1042). Has only seen one
derelict during whole of experience at sea (1002-1006).
Is aware of existing Admiralty regulations as to deal-
ing with derelicts (1097-1010). Danger from floating
timber depends on size of baulks (1011-1014, 1023,
1024). Look-out kept by squadron would cover double
the view from ordinary merchantman (1015-1017).
Suggests that derelicts should be blown up with
gun cotton ; does not think floating derelicts would
burn (1018–1022). Thinks that information as to
position of floating derelict is of no value after
three or four days and might produce alarm (1023-
1032). Work of blowing up derelicts must be done
in calm weather (1033-1038). Floating wreckage
would probably clear the screw of a vessel striking
“ HORN HE" struck a derelict, Jaffe, 158, 321328;
probally succumbed to gale, Bullock, 979.
HOZIER, COLONEL H. (analysis of his evidence): -
HOZIER, COLONEL H. (analysis of his er
Is secretary to Lloyd's (1415) who issue forms to
masters of all ships on which to report to Llove's
agent any derelict fallen On with (1410-1420).
Reports so received are published in Lloyd's list and
notified to owners and masters of vessels clearing
in direction of derelict reported (1421-1427). From
reports received, there appear to be from 10 to 20
llisions with floating dorelicts annually and about
250 reports of derelicts passed. Collisions are
and generally not much damage is done (1430-1435).
derelicts should be reported in order that vessels
might know of danger and keep good look-out (1436–
1444). Figures given above refer to Atlantic only
(1445, 1446.) There is no strong feeling at Lloyd's as
to derelicts which are not so great a danger as ice
(1417-1450). Is aware of instructions to masters to
report to Custom House, but these reports and those
made to Consuls should be telegraphed (1452-1454).
Lloyd's would pay expense (1455, 1456). Cannot give
any instance of loss of life through striking a derelict
(1458). Thinks that danger from derelicts is a
substantial item in insurance, but he is not an under-
writer (1459-1468, 1501-1507). Does not know that
derelicts have increased in number, but more
attention has been drawn to them recently owing to
action in America (1469-1171). Seamen regard the
information they get from Washington as valuable,
but cannot say what use they make of it (1472-1476).
Men of war ruight go and find derelicts and blow
them up with dynamite (1477-1480). Is aware of
difficulty experienced by Trinity House in finding
derelicts (1481-1483). Thinks that timber-laden
wooden ships float for some time, and there must be
a good many derelicts in Atlantic, but admits that
chance of collision with them is very small (1484-
1496). Does not thiuk that shipping trade would
pay a tax for purpose of liaving derelicts destroyed
(1497-1500). Nor that underwriters would reduce
their rates if it was found that anxiety about
derelicts was not well founded (1508-1513). Has no
returns as to casualties to British vessels (1516).
ICE, DANGER FROM. Thinks it can be guarded against
through warning given by change of temperature,
Macdona, 27–29, 121-128; Jaffe, 205, 206, 301-312.
Greater than from derelicts, Jaffe, 309-312;
Thomis, 528, 529, 592-586. More often struck than
derelicts, Parsell, 690-696. Equally dangerous
with derelicts, Reu, 1151-1176, 1192-1202. Greater
than from derelicts, Hozier, 1450; Andrew, 1573.
Less than from derelicts, Ismay, 1608, 1661-1667,
to information as to derelicts, but it is difficult to
find out practical utility, looking to their drift
(1653-1656, 1705-1707). Chief danger of derelicts is
from timber-laden vessels (1659, 1600). Reasons for
thinking that ice is a less danger than derelicts
(1661-1667). Cannot say whether any other com-
panies besides “White Star” would contribute
towards cost of dealing with derelicts (1670). Was
not aware of action of Lighthouse Authorities in
dealing with wrecks near coasts of United Kingdom
(1671-1674). Great Britain might arrange with
United States as to removing derelicts near United
States coasts. They come principally from Caradian
ports (1675-1619). Does not know of any known
derelict near position of "Naronic” at time of her
loss (1680-1683). Work of searching for derelicts
would be continuous, but Government might send
one vessel as an experiment (1684–1687). Agrees
that range of searching vessel would not exceed tive
or six miles (1688-1690). It is the exception for
“ White Star" captains to sight a derelict (1099–
1704). The chief maritime nations might come to an
arrangement as to the destruction of derelicts without
regard to its nationalty (1708-1710). Any arrange.
ment should be confined to North Atlantic at any
rate at first (1711-1717). Derelicts should be burnt
or blown up according to circumstances (1718-1728).
Bases his case on large number of derelicts shown in
United States report, and on danger of striking a
derelict (1729, 1730). Has not checked United States
reports, but agrees that committee ought to do so
(1731-1734). Certainly missing vessels should nou
be included in list of reported derelicts (1735–1737).
Existing evidence derived from cases of serious
damage through collision with derelicts is not
sufficient to justify assumption that large proportion
of missing vessels are lost through derelicts (1739-
1744). Thinks that, in spite of large area of Atlantic,
and experience of Trinity House and Admiralty as to
difficulty of finding derelicts, one searching vessel
would effect some good (1745-1754).
“ JAMES B. DRAVY" became a derelict, Macdona, (12).
INSURANCE. Thinks that danger from derelicts is
specially insured against, Froud, 1370-1373; Hozier,
1459-1465. Danger from derelicts is not an extra-
ordinary risk, it is included in the general risk,
Street, 1756-1767, 1769-1783.
“ ISLE OF BARDSEY” was lost through striking a rock,
ISMAY, THojas HENRY (analysis of his evidence):-
Is Chairman of the Oceanic Steam Navigation
Company (“ White Star” Line), whose vessels have
been running between Liverpool and New York since
1871 (1,600;, is much interested in question of floating
derelicts; is aware of Resolution of Washington
Marine Conference, 1889, and of authority given to
President of the United States to make International
agreement on subject. Summary of pamphlet
published by l'nited States Hydrographer (1603–
1605). “White Star" commanders think derelicts a
serious source of danger. History of “ Naronic”; has
little doubt her loss was due to a derelict (1605). Five
large steamers were all missing in North Atlantic in
one year. It is most desirable to remove or destroy
floating derelicts in the recognised steam tracks
adopted by all large steam ship companies. Thinks
that one of Her Majesty's vessels which should carry
a considerable amount of sail might be periodically
told off for the purpose. Ship would probably throw
off floating wreckage (1607). “White Star” Line
would contribute towards cost of any scheme for
dealing with derelicts. In case of derelicts towed in
Government would obtain salvage. Derelicts are
more dangerous than ice (1608). Derelicts are most
common in Gulf Stream; would confine operations
especially to that part, dividing the area amongst
different nations acting in unison (1609-1616).
“White Star ”Line have for years cabled all derelicts
seen (1618-1620). Has no case of any of their officers
striking a derelict (1621). Reasons for believing
that a derelict and not ice caused the loss of the
"Naronic” (1621-1652). Commanders attach value
JAFFE, OTTO (analysis of his evidence):-
Is a ship-owner and a member of the Belfast
Chamber of Commerce (156, 157) Took up subject
of derelicts owing to loss of “Hornhead" and
“Naronic" (158). Struck a derelict while a pas..
senger ou board the “Celtic” some 20 years ago
(158-160). Letter received by him from United
States Hydrographer, giving details of action oỉ
United States Goverument (162–165). Case of the
• Cragside" (167-174). Got up petition to First
Lord of the Treasury which was willingly signed
(175-180). A montbly list of derelicts is being
published by the Liverpool Journal of Commerce
(182-185, 225), but owing to the lapse of time the
information is not of much practical use (186-188),
as their drift is uncertain (189-199). Derelicts are
chiefly in the drift of the Gulf Stream (200). Does not
think that confusion could arise between collisions
with derelicts and those with ice, as latter causes a
fall in temperature (205, 2061. Suggests that one or
two old trans-Atlantic steamers fitted with electric
light be sent to search for derelicts (208). Thinks
that British captains do rot report derelicts in this
country, because they are not encouraged to do so
(209-213). Hopes that British Government will co-
operate with that of United States (214, 215), who
seem, however, to search for derelicts chiefly in
territorial waters (216-219). Floating spars, which
he does not include in durelicts, are very dangerous
to propellers (220-224). Considers that sunken
wrecks in shallow waters are more dangerous than
floating derelicts (229, 230). Is aware that all sunken
wrecks on coasts of Great Britain are speedily and
effectaally dealt with (231, 232). Allows that lists
given on Atlantic pilot charts, which include floating
spars, &c., are apt to mislead the public and frighten
coasters (234-239). It would be a step in the right
direction if the United States would clear their own
coasts as Great Britain does (240-244). Suggests that
many derelicts in mid-Atlantic might be towed in
(245–250). There would be much difficulty in
burning them (251-255), but they might be gunk
(256, 257). Considers letter from United States
Hydrographer as opinion of his department, not of
his Government (258-266). Has no knowledge of
what “Kearsage” has done in destroying derelicts
(267–273). A vessel detached for the purpose might