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INDEX TO EVIDENCE.

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“ADA IREDALE,” long drift of, Jaffe, 162; was in South

Pacific, Bullock, 979. ADMIRALTY REGULATIONS FOR DEALING WITH DERELICTS,

Harris, 1007-1010. ADMIRALTY, DERELICTS DEALT WITH BY (see Appendix G.) (No. 1). ALMOND, CAPTAIN J. O. (analysis of his evidence):

Is nautical inspector of Peninsular and Oriental Company (865). Has been 45 years with the company, and has navigated all parts of the world except the Atlantic (867, 868). Knows no instances of derelicts, and does not consider them a danger to Peninsular and Oriental boats except in Bay of Biscay and on Portuguese coast (869-875). Notice of a derelict would be an approximate guide to a vessel in locality eight days later (876-880). Is doubtful as to practicability of vessels searching Atlantic route for derelicts, but has had no experience (881-883). As to need for clearing other routes than Atlantic, and difficulty in finding derelicts (884–895, 90.3–907). Has never seen a derelict, except a deserted junk (896–904). Company would not contribute to cost of rem

emoving derelicts (908). Blade of screw might break without striking floating log; tendency would

be to draw logs into screw (909-916). ANDREW, CAPTAIN E. H. (analysis of his evidence):

Has been for three years in command of sailing ship “ Cromdale,” London to Sydney, and has fallen in with one derelict (1522-1528, 1538-1511). Any wrecks fallen in with on outward voyage are reported to newspaper reporters in Australia

; any seen on homeward voyage are reported at Custom House through agents (1529–1537). Considers derelicts a source of danger, but has only seen one in 17 years (1542-1546, 1569–1571). Lloyd's forms for reporting wreckage are not always put on board ships; their form as to derelicts is only just issued (1550-1555). Does not see notices in " Shipping Gazette,'' but always gets Board of Trade Summary of Notices to Mariners (1556–1560). Thinks he could get latest notices at Sydney by applying at Custom House there, but has never done so; knows of no office there which is informed of newly-discovered dangers (1561-1568, 1585-1588). Has often seen ice, which he considers a very much greater danger than derelicts (1572, 1573). A list of derelicts would be very niseful; it would cause a sharper look-out to be kept, though he would not alter his course for a reported derelict (1575-1579). There would be no danger from a derelict reported half-way out from Sydney, unless she floated more than 30 days (1580–

1584). ATLANTIC PILOT CHARTS, derelicts laid down on,

Macdona, 2, 3, 63, 65, 151, 155; Jaffe, 162–165,

187-199, 234-239; Parsell, 701, 710-713. “ BAHAMA " became a derelict, Macdona, 8. “ BAYLESWOOD "struck a derelict, Macdona, 8. BEALL, CAPTAIN GEORGE (analysis of his evidence) :

Is Principal Board of Trade Examiner of Masters and Mates, and is in charge of compilation and distribution of Notices to Mariners (1880-1883). Details of system adopted (1881-1906). All information received by Consuls is at once sent by them to Board of Trade, but masters are not bound to report to Consuls (1907–1910). Derelicts included in Monthly Summary are only kept in for three months unless again reported (1911-1914). Masters of mercantile marine might be requested to sink all derelicts (1916, 1917). Distinction is made in notices between “derelicts” and “sunken wrecks (1919– 1928). All important notices are sent to Lloyd's, who distribute by telegraph or otherwise (1929–1934). Cannot suggest any improvement in mode of dis. tributing notices, except in some matters of detail (1936–1950). Puts information as to derelicts into Monthly Summary, but does not think information is of much use (1952, 1957–1960). Notices of ice are

marked " very important” (1953–1956). “ BOURGEOIS” became a derelict, Macdona, 9. BULLOCK, S. (analysis of his evidence):

Is Chief of the Casualties Branch of the Marine Department of the Board of Trade (967). Has

checked statements in the Report of the United States Commissioner of Navigation as to wrecks and casualties, with result that number of vessels and of lives lost as given in that statement appear excessive (970, 971). Only one case during last 10 years of loss of life through British vessel striking a wreck or wreckage (971). Of nine vessels said on Pilot Chart of January, 1894, to have been totally lost by striking derelicts, can only identify “ Crag.

and “ Glenrath " British. Of these Cragside" is believed to have struck S. W. Bull rock, while “ Glenrath” struck on Bibb shoal (972975). Most of vessels given as damaged by striking wreck seem to be small American coasters (976– 978). Particulars of British vessels referred to in evidence of Mr. Macdona, M.P. and Mr. Jaffe so far as they can be identified (979, 980). Board of Trade get reports of all collisions of British vessels with derelicts (981). Analysis of 103 casualties attributed to striking floating wreckage all over the world in three years ended June, 1893. Seven were attributed to striking a derelict and 96 to striking spars, &c. (982–985). Particulars of British vessels lost during 10 years through striking wreck (986). Figures show no great risk of striking derelicts, and breaking them up would increase risk (987). List of British timber laden vessels lost in 1893 (988). None of 13 floating derelicts marked on Pilot Chart for November 1893, are British (989). Does not think legislation is required to obtain fuller inforınaof derelicts (990, 991). Information as to system of reporting casualties to Receivers of Wreck (15901595). "Isle of Bardsey” was lost through striking

a rock (1597). “CARRIER Dove" became a derelict, Macdona, 12. " CARRICKS” became a derelict, Macdona, 12. CASUALTIES are all reported to Receivers of Wreck,

Bullock, 1590–1596 ; Williams, 1799. “ CELTIC

struck a derelict, Jaffe, 158-160; struck wreckage, Bullock, 979. “Chilian” struck a derelict, Macdona, 4, 5. Touched

a shoal or sunken wreck, Bullock, 979. “City of Boston” struck a derelict, Macdona, 110

114. Lost in a violent snowstorm, Bullock, 979. “ City of DUBLIN”struck part of a derelict, Macdona, 8.

Not mentioned by master in his deposition, Bullock,

980; Wharton, 1872. “ Countess DUFFERIN” became a derelict, Mocdonu, 12. “ CRAGSIDE” struck a derelict, Macdona, 8, 39, 41 ;

Juffe, 167-174, 395-397. Struck on S.W. Bull rock,

Bullock, 972-975; Wharton, 1871. CUNARD LINE, experience of captains, Macdona, 137

141 ; Jaffe, 394-395 ; Thomas (see analysis of his

evidence). “DAGMAR” became a derelict, Macdona, 12. CustomS, REPORTS TO, Froud, 1238–1242, 1249–1260;

Hozier, 1452-1456 ; Andrew, 1531–1537. Mode of

procedure, Williams, 1785-1800. “ David W. HUNT" became a derelict, Mucdona, 12. DECK-LOADING, important bearing on question, Parsell,

849-850. DERELICT, LIFE OF A. Timber ship may last 50 years,

Macdona, 153-155, U.S. Hydrographer gives an average of 30 days, Juffe, 162. Varies according to

her nature, Parsell, 729-737,832-839; Rea, 1097-1103. DERELICTS, DANGER FROM. Is much exaggerated, Kent, 492, 493.

Knows no case of damage, Thomas, 511, 521-527, 530, 531. Only knows of two cases, Thorp, 615-618. A probable cause of loss, Parsell, 690-696, 791-825. Knows no case, Almond, 869, 898–904. Case of collision, Goodrhan, 923–927. Has only seen one during whole experience, Harris, 1002–2006. Has seen about 20, but never struck one, Rea, 1052–1063, 1087–1089. Never saw one, but thinks danger great, Froud, 1326-1328, 1357-1369. Has only seen one in 17 years, Andrew, 1546. A serious danger, Ismay, 1605.

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DERELICTS, DIFFICULTY IN FINDING, Kent, 490, 491;

Thomas, 532; Thorp, 635-640; Parsell, 725, 790, 818, 849; Almond, 892, 895, 905; Goodrhan, 941-948;

Rea, 1185–1191 ; Froul, 1382-1381. DERELICTS, DRIFT OF, Macdona, 8-16 ; Jaffe, 162, 190

199, 347–351. DERELICTS, EXPENSE OF DEALING WITH (TRINITY HOUSE),

Kent, 172-482 ; Thorp, 604, 644, 649. DERELICTS, Loss of LIFE THROUGH COLLISION WITH. Has

no direct information, Macdona, 25, 26. Recollects no case, Kent, 451. Knows no case, Thomas, 526, 527. One British case through_striking wreckage, Bullock, 971. Knows no case, Froud, 1405; Hozier,

1458. DERELICTS, NOTICES OF. As to practical benefit to

sailors, Macdona, 129-136; Jaffe, 428, 429; Parsell, 710-713, 742, 743, 826-841; Goodrhan, 955-959; Hurris, 1025-10:32; Ret, 1067-7071, 1135–1150; Froud, 138.5–1404; Hozier, 1436–1444, 1472-1476 ;

Ismity, 1653-1656, 1705-1707 DERELICTS, REPORTS OF (see also under “Customs”);

form sent to Lloyd's, Thomas, 539-544; “ White Star” report to company, Parsell, 706-709; Froud, 1241. Steps taken by Lloyd's, Hozier, 1416–1427,

Lloyd's forms, Andrew, 1550-1555. DERELICTS, ROUTES TO BE CLEARED. All routes where

English commerce is jeopardised should be cleared, but would begin with North Atlantic, Macdonat, 30, 31. Special need in Atlantic, Parsell, 738–741, 757-763, 85:3-857, 863, 861. No need on Peninsular and Oriental route, Almond, 906. Recognised tracks in Atlantic call for special treatment, Ismay, 1607,

1711-1717. DERELICTS, SUGGESTIONS FOR DEALING WITH, Macdona, 3,

42-47, 58-68, 83-88, 101-108; Jaffe, 208, 245–257, 274–296; Thomus, 5:33–5:35, 574-579; Thorp, 648. 651-653 ; Parsell, 679-688, 764–773, 840-847; Harris, 1018-1022, 1033-1038; Rea, 1107-1112; Froud,

1261-1278; Hozier, 1477-1480; Ismıy, 1718-1728. DERELICTS. Vessels stated to have become, Macdonu,

8-16. DERELICTS. Vessels stated to have struck, Mucdonu,

4-8, 37-41, 69–73, 112–126. DERELICTS (REPORTS) BILL. Object of, Macdona, 3, 17–

21, 80-82, 89-100. Is not required, Bullock, 990,

991. “ETHEL M. Davis” became a derelict, Macdona, 12. " Fanny E. WOLSTON” became a derelict, Macdona, 8.

Long drift of, Ismay, 1604. " Fern,” (United States derelict destroyer), Jaffe, 164. FLOATING SPARS, a great danger to vessels, Jaffe,

220-224, 283-284. Not very dangerous, Thomus, 5:36–5:38, 546, 547, 554–557 ; Thorp, 619-623. Deck port smashed by, Pursell, 671-678. Would be drawn into screw, Almond, 911-916. Might foul propeller, Goodrhan, 934, 936. Casualties through striking, Bullock, 982–987. Depends on size of baulks, Harris, 1011-1014, 1023-1024. Would probably clear screw, Harris, 1043-1048. A danger if struck end on, and might draw into screw, Roa, 1072-1076. Not us dangerous as a derelict, Froud, 1279-1291, 1224-1225.

Would be thrown off, Ismay, 1607. “ FORKEST" became a derelict, Macdona, 8. "FLORENCE RICHARDS," life lost on board of, through

striking wreckage, Bullock, 971. “ FRANCIS L. GODFREY" struck a derelict, Macdona, 8.

Struck off Fenwick Island, pogxibly on sunken wreck,

Wharton, 1871.
FROUD, CAPTAIN A. G. (analysis of his evidence) :-

Is secretary of the Shipmasters' Society (1203). Proposes to give evidence collected from various sources, chiefly newspapers, but not verified by him (1204-1215). Has heard of, but does not use, Board of Trade Monthly Notices to Mariners (1216-1217). Object of Shipmasters' Society (1218). Would refer to case of collision with a derelict mentioned in evidence by Captain Goodrhan of the “ Wooloomooloo" (12181223). Has list collected from newspapers of ten collisions since 1st January last (1223-1230, 1292-1296). Also letter from captain of the “ Europe ” reporting that he had saved a crew (1231-1233). These cases are not all reported officially (1231-1237). Captains are asked no questions at the Custom House as to derelicts passed, and form issued by Lloyd's is not regularly

filled up (1238–1246, 1249-1260). Much of the information in Board of Trade Notices is necessarily old (1247-1248). Derelicts near coast might be towed in when found (1261-1266, 1274-1276, 1350-1356). Manof-war should search for derelict when reported (1267–1273). Derelict which cannot be towed should be blown up (1277, 1278). Any timber released would not be as dangerous as the derelict (1279-1291, 1224, 1225). Suggests that Notice to Mariners system should be improved by adopting American system (1299-1312). As to number of derelicts afloat was unaware that only seven British vessels all over the world have struck derelicts during last three years (1313-1323). Was in cominand for 27 years, but never saw a derelict (1326-1329). Knows that shores of British Isles are kept clear by Authorities, but not that they are so cleared within 50 or 60 miles (1330– 1338). Was unaware of difficulty experienced by Trinity House in finding derelicts reported (1339, 1340). Is not familiar with Removal of Wreck's Act, 1877, and was unaware that under it derelicts 150 miles off have been removed by Trinity House (13411349, 1412–1414). Still thinks danger from derelicts great though he never saw one (1357–1369). Thinky that underwriters take account of danger from derelicts (1370–1373). Trade would not be willing to pay expense of searching for and removing derelicts (1374-1376). One man-of-war might be sent to search as a beginning (1377–1381). Was unaware that Ad. miralty had occasionally sent a search vessel, and never successfully (1382-1384). Pilot Chart is of rery little value unless vessels can double their look-out (1385-1104). Knows no case of loss of life through striking a derelict, but has heard of great alarm

through fear of striking one (1405-1411). “ GARIBALDI ” became a derelict, Macdona, 9. " GLENRATH struck a derelict, Macdonal, 8, 39-41;

struck on Bibb Shoal, Bullock, 972. GOODRHAN, CAPTAIN H. (analysis of his evidence) :

Is now captain of - Wooloomooloo,” Lund Line to Australia, but has had experience of North Atlantic (917-922). In 1888 in North Atlantic while on board of “ Nerissa,” struck a derelict with serious damage to bows (923–927). With that exception has never seen or struck a derelict (928-932). À vessel would push à floating log aside, but it might foul the propeller (933–936). Thinks there would be great difficulty in either finding or removing derelicts (937-948). Has bad no personal experience of running into ice (949– 954). Does not think that fact of derelict being marked on Pilot Chart would help captains beyond

making them keep a better look-out (955-959). GREAT BRITAIN, ACTION

BY, TO Was unaware of it, Macdona, 52-58, 141-150; wrecks on coasts are speedily dealt with, Jaffe, 231, 418, 419; steps taken by Trinity House, Kent, 430-505; was unaware of extent of it, Parsell, 714-724; Froud, 1330-13338, 1341-1347; Ismay, 16711674. GULDREYN struck large fish, Wharton, 1872. “ HELENA ALMA ” became a derelict, Macdona, 8. HARRIS, COMMODORE R. H. (analysis of his evidence) :

Has been in command of training squadron since 1st June 1893 (992). During cruise of squadron, chiefly under sail, did not come across any floating derelicts (993–1001, 1039–1042). Has only seen one derelict during whole of experience at sea (1002-1006). Is aware of existing Admiralty regulations as to dealing with derelicts (1097-1010). Danger from floating timber depends on size of baulks (1011-1014, 1023, 1024). Look-out kept by squadron would cover double the view from ordinary merchantman (1015-1017). Suggests that derelicts should be blown up with gun cotton ; does not think floating derelicts would burn (1018–1022). Thinks that information as to position of floating derelict is of no value after three or four days and might produce alarm (1023– 1032). Work of blowing up derelicts must be done in calm weather (1033-1038). Floating wreckage would probably clear the screw of a ressel striking

it (1043-1048). “ HORN HE:) " struck i derelict, Joffe, 158, 32 4:28;

probally succumbed to gale, Bullock, 979. HOZIER, COLONEL H. (analysis of his evidence): -

Is secretary to Lloyd's (1415) who issue forins to masters of all ships 01 which to report to Llove's agent any derelict fallen with (1410-1420). Reports so received are published in Lloyd's list and

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to information as to derelicts, but it is diflicult to find out practical utility, looking to their drift (1653–1656, 1705-1707). Chief danger of derelicts is from timber-laden vessels (1659, 1600). Reasons for thinking that ice is a less danger than derelicts (1661-1667). Cannot say whether any other companies besides “White Star” would contribute towards cost of dealing with derelicts (1670). Was not aware of action of Lighthouse Authorities in dealing with wrecks near coasts of United Kingdom (1671-1674). Great Britain might arrange with United States as to removing derelicts near United States coasts. They come principally from Caradian ports (1675-1619). Does not know of any known derelict near position of “ Naronic” at time of her loss (1680–1683). Work of searching for derelicts would be continuous, but Government might send one vessel as an experiment (1681–1687). Agrees that range of searching vessel would not exceed tive or six miles (1688-1690). It is the exception for “White Star” captains to sight a derelict (1099– 1704). The chief maritime nations might come to an arrangement as to the destruction of derelicts without regard to its nationalty (1708-1710). Any arrangement should be confined to North Atlantic at any rate at first (1711-1717). Derelicts should be burnt or blown up according to circumstances (1718-1728). Bases his case on large number of derelicts shown in United States report, and on danger of striking a derelict (1729, 1730). Has not checked United States reports, but agrees that committee ought to do so (1731-1734). Certainly missing vessels should nou be included in list of reported derelicts (1735–1737). Existing evidence derived from cases of serious damage through collision with derelicts is not sufficient to justify assumption that large proportion of missing vessels are lost through derelicts (1739. 1744). Thinks that, in spite of large area of Atlantic, and experience of Trinity House and Admiralty as to difficulty of fiuding derelicts, one searching vessel

would effect some good (1745-1754). “James B. DRAVY” became a derelict, Macdona, (12).

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notified to owners and masters of vessels clearing in direction of derelict reported (1421-1427). From reports received, there appear to be from 10 to 20 collisions with floating, derelicts annually and about 250 reports of derelicts passed.

Collisions are chiefly within 200 or 300 miles of American coast, and generally not much damage is done (1430-1435). Thinks that steps should be taken to ensure that all derelicts should be reported in order that vessels might know of danger and keep good look-out (1436– 1444). Figures given above refer to Atlantic only (1445, 1446.) There is no strong feeling at Lloyd's as to derelicts which are not so great a danger as ice (1417-1450). Is aware of instructions to masters to report to Custom House, but these reports and those made to Consuls should be telegraphed (1452-1454). Lloyd's would pay expense (1455, 1456). Cannot give any instance of loss of life through striking a derelict

Thinks that danger from derelicts is a substantial item in insurance, but he is not an underwriter (1459-1468, 1501-1507). Does not know that derelicts have increased in number, but more attention has been drawn to them recently owing to action in America (1469-1 471). Seamen regard the information they get from Washington as valuable, but cannot say what use they make of it (1472–1476). Men of war muight go and find derelicts and blow them up with dynamite (1477-1480). Is aware of difficulty experienced by Trinity House in finding derelicts (1481-1483). Thinks that timber-laden wooden ships float for some time, and there must be a good many derelicts in Atlantic, but admits that chance of collision with them is very small (14841496). Does not think that shipping trade would pay a tax for purpose of laving derelicts destroyed (1497-1500). Nor that underwriters would reduce their rates if it was found that anxiety about derelicts was not well founded (1508-1513). Has no returns as to casualties to British vessels (1516). ICE, DANGER FROM. Thinks it can be guarded against

through warning given by change of temperature, Macdona, 27–29, 121-128; Jaffe, 205, 206, 301-312. Greater than from derelicts, Juffe, 309-312; Thomis, 528, 529, 592-586. More often struck than derelicts, Parsell, 690-696. Equally dangerous with derelicts, Reu, 1151-1176, 1192-1202. Greater than froin derelicts, Hozier, 1450; Andrew, 1573. Less than from derelicts, Ismay, 1608, 1661-1667,

1738. INSURANCE. Thinks that danger from derelicts is

specially insured against, Froud, 1370-1373; Hozier, 1459–1465. Danger from derelicts is not an extraordinary risk, it is included in the general risk,

Street, 1756-1767, 1769-1783. “ ISLE OF BARDSEY was lost through striking a rock,

Bullock, 1597.
ISMAY, Thomas HENRY (analysis of his evidence):-

ls Chairman of the Oceanic Steam Navigation Company (“ White Star” Line), whose vessels have been running between Liverpool and New York since 1871 (1,600), is much interested in question of floating derelicts; is aware of Resolution of Washington Marine Conference, 1889, and of authority given to President of the United States to make International agreement on subject. Summary of pamphlet published by l'nited States Hydrographer (16031605). “ White Star" commanders think derelicts a serious source of danger. History of“ Naronic”;

has little doubt her lose was due to a derelict (1605). Five large steamers were all missing in North Atlantic in one year. It is most desirable to remove or destroy floating derelicts in the recognised steam tracks adopted by all large steam ship companies. Thinks that one of Her Majesty's vessels which should carry a considerable amount of sail might be periodically told off for the purpose. Ship would probably throw off floating wreckage (1607). “White Star” Line would contribute towards cost of any scheme for dealing with derelicts. In case of derelicts towed in Government would obtain salvage. Derelicts are more dangerous than ice (1608). Derelicts are most common in Gulf Stream; would confine operations especially to that part, dividing the area amongst different nations acting in unison (1609-1616). " White Star” Line have for years cabled all derelicts seen (1618–1620). Has no case of any of their officers striking a derelict (1621). Reasons for believing that a derelict and not ice caused the loss of the "Naronic ” (1621–1652). Commanders attach value

JAFFE, Otto (analysis of his evidence) :

Is a ship-owner and a member of the Belfast Chamber of Commerce (156, 157) Took up subject of derelicts owing to loss of “Hornhead and “Naronic" (158). Struck a derelict while a pas. senger ou board the “Celtic” some 20 years ago (158-160). Letter received by him from United States Hydrographer, giving details of action oí United States Goverument (162–165). Case of the

Crangside" (167-174). Got up petition to First Lord of the Treasury which was willingly signed (175-180). A montbly list of derelicts is being published by the Liverpool Journal of Commerce (182-185, 225), but owing to the lapse of time the information is not of much practical use (186–188), as their drist is uncertain (189–199). Derelicts are chiefly in the drift of the Gulf Stream (200). Does not think that confusion could arise between collisions with derelicts and those with ice, as latter causes a fall in temperature (205, 2061. Suggests that one or two old trans-Atlantic steamers fitted with electric light be sent to search for derelicts (208). Thinks that British captains do rot report derelicts in this country, because they are not encouraged to do so (209-213). Hopes that British Government will cooperate with that of United States (214, 215), who seem, however, to search for derelicts chiefly in territorial waters (216–219). Floating spars, which he does not include in durelicts, are very dangerous to propellers (220–224). Considers that sunken wrecks in shallow waters are more dangerous than floating dierelicts (229, 230). Is aware that all sunken wrecks on coasts of Great Britain are speedily and effectually dealt with (231, 232). Allows that lists giren on Atlantic pilot charts, which include floating spars, &c., are apt to mislead the public and frighten coasters (234-239). It would be a step in the right direction if the United States would clear their own coasts as Great Britain does (240–244). Suggests that many derelicts in mid-Atlantic might be towed in (245-250). There would be much difficulty in burning them (251-255), but they might be sunk (256, 257). Considers letter from United States Hydrographer as opinion of his department, not of his Government (258–266). Has no knowledge of what “Kearsage” has done in destroying derelicts (267–273). A vessel detached for the purpose might

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try to burn or blow up any derelict fallen in with (274–285). Does not consider that danger would arise from spars, timber, &c., thus set free (283). Thinks it would be satisfactory if two special searching vessels each destroyed three derelicos in a year (286-291), but the probabilities of finding a derelict are not great (294-296). Allows that the chances that tho Naronic' struck ice are greater than that she struck a derelict, ice being a greater danger (297–323). No reason except sentiment for thinking

Horn Head” strook a derelict and not ice (324–328). Even though no case of loss of life through derelicts is known, thinks that action should be taken in the matter (329–346), but does not think tne Mercantile Marine would be willing to pay for it (352-363). The cost should be born by the general public (364–366). The difficulty of finding derelicts is very great, and the work would have to be done periodically (367–383). Was not aware that Admi. ralty had never succeeded in their searches for derelicts, but still thinks that two or three vessels should be sent (385-389). Did not take up question in response to any feeling amongst seamen (390-393). Case of “ Cragside” is an instance of damage through striking a derelict (395-398). Has had no experience as to vessel losing her screw (401-406). Should not have started subject of derelicts, but for statemeni that the United States had asked co-operation of Government (407-409). Is aware that United States have only begun removing derelicts within the year, while it has been done in Great Britain for many years (410-419). Large passenger traffic is a reason for taking exceptional measures, but carnot say as to probable result of collision by large passenger steamer with floating derelict (420-427). Marking dcrelicts on chart is useful for navigating purposes,

but not for sailors (428, 429). “ Jan PIETERSOON KOEN” strack a derelict, Macdona, 8. " JOHN HOLLAND" (derelict), destroyed by ** Kearsage,"

Jaffe, 164. " JOSEPH BAYMORE struck a derelict, Macdona, 8;

struck off coast of North Carolina, possibly on

sunken wreck, Wharton, 1871-1872. “ KEARS AGE” (United States derelict destroyer),

Macdona, 3, 58, 142, 143, 150; Jatje, 164, 267-273. KEXT, C. A. (analysis of his evidence): –

Is Secretary to the Trinity House (430). When floating derelicts are reported, steps are taken through district superintendent to deal with them under powers of the Remoral of Wrecks Acts, 1877 and 1889 (132-434). Operations generally confined to wrecks on British side of Channel or North Sea, but Trinity House have sent as far as 120 miles (435-439). Lighthouse vessels are used for the purpose, and the cost, some 3.6161. per annum, is borne by Mercantile Marine Fund (440–445). Coasts of cotland and Ireland dealt with by their own lighthouse authority (+19, 150). Cannot remember any case of loss of life or property through collision with derelict (451). Text of instructions issued to district superintendents (452-454). Crew of Trinity House vessels, removing derelic's, seldom get salvage (455-463). Coast; under Trinity House jurisdiction may be said to be clear of wrecks (46 +167). Many wrecks are dealt with outside territorial waters, and without i egard to their nationality (458-476). Very few are British (477). Expense of dealing with (472–482). Derelicts dealt with are chiefly timber ships in the North Sea (483-489). Experience great difficulty in tinding derelicts reported, and are often unsuccessful (490, 191). Consider that danger from, and number of, derelicts are much exaggerated (192, 493). Lighthouse vessels can only be used when they can be spared from their own work, and are not always available at once (494-500). No special instructions are given as to not destroying evidence of crime on

board a derelict (501-505). KERR, REAR-ADMIRAL LORD WALTER (Chairman of the

Committee). Personal experience as to losing blade ot a screw (960–964). And as to meeting derelicts

(964-966). “ LADY LINGAR ” became a derelict, Macdona, 8. · LAKEFIELD" became a derelict, Macdona, 9. “ LARNE,” alleged collision with a derelict, Macdona,

69-73. Nothing to show that she struck a spar,

Bullock, 979. LIVERPOOL JOURNAL OF COMMERCE. List of derelicts

pablished by, Jaffe, 182, 187-225; Froud, 1211-1214,

LLOYD's. Form for reporting derelicis, Thomas, 539.64+;

Froud, 1241-1241; Hozier, 1416-1420; Andrew, 1550-15-5. Circulation of information by Lloyd's

agents, Williams, 1818-1825, 1828. Macdona, J. CUMMING (Member of Parliament) (analysis of his evidence) :

Has had no personal contact with derelicts but has taken great interest in subject and has brought many cases before the House of Commons. Would refer to monthly charts published at Washington giving positions of derelicts reported (1,2). Thinks that Great Britain should not be behind other nations in looking after interests of the marine service; and as p'rsonally interested (having three miles of shipping in his constituency), has brought a Bill into Parliament to provide for reporting of all derelicts to Lloyd's as a preliminary step. America has fitted up two vessels, “Kearsage” and “ Vesuvius," for special purpose of destroying derelicts, and Great Britain should also set apart vessels for the purpose, which might also be used as experimental ships for practising new gans; they might also carry a large electric light at night so that passing vessels might report to them any derelicts seen (3). List of vessels known to have struck derelicts (4-8, 36–38). List of derelicts since 1887 (8-16). Main object of his Bill is to ensure reporting of all derelicts. Lloyd's is mentioned as being probably the quickest mode of obtaining information (17-21, 80-82, 89-100). Has no direct information as to collisions with derelicts but sug. gests it should be obtained from Hydrographer at Washington (22-26). Thinks that collisions with ice can be guarded against owing to warning given by change of temperature (27-29, 121–128). Would first try and clear North Atlantic and aiterwards other routes (30-35'. Quotes cases of “ Glenrata" and “Cragside” (39-41). Thinks that two ships, not men-of-war, would be sufficient to destroy derelicts (42-47, 101-106). Was not aware of the decision of the Washington International Marine Conference in the matter, but thinks that Great Briiain might reopen question (43–51, 74-79). Was unaware that America is only now doing what has been done on the coasis of Great Britain for many years (52-58, 144-150). Views as to best mode of dealing with derelicts when found and the danger arising from releasing cargoes of timber (58-68, 8388, 107-108). As to ihe case of the “ Larne (6973). Expense of searching for derelicts should be incurred even if only one ship is sived in 20 years (109–113. Case of the City of Boston" (110 aud 114), of the Naronic" (110–126). If a sailor was warned of a derelict in the locality he would keep a better look-out (128-136. Cunard vessels take a more southerly route than others and might there. fore see fewer derelicts (137-141). As to the American vessels

Kearsage and “Vesuvius” (142-150). As to the life of a floating derelict (152

155). “ MANANTICO” became a derelict, Mucdona, 12. “NARONIC” struck a derelict, Maclonu, 6, 7, 115-126

Joffe, 158, or more probably, ice, Jaffe, 297–323; Court of Inquiry doubt her striking a dorelict, Bul. lock, 979. Has little doubt she struck a derelict,

Ismıy, 160.), 1621-1632, 1680-1683. “NORMAN struck a derelict, Macdona, 8; struck a

wreck on Brigantine shoal, Bullock, 976-978. Norti Sea, many derelicts in, Kent, 483-48); Rea 108 3–

1114. NOTICES TO MARINERS, BOARD OF TRADE SYSTEM OF, see

Beall (analysis of his evidence). ORIFLAMME,” long drift of, Jaffe, 162; was in South

Pacific, Bullock, 979. " ORRIE V. DRISCO ”struck a derelict, Macdona, 8. PARSELL, CAPTAIN HENRY (analysis of his evidence) :

Is commander of " Majestic,” White Star Line( 654). During 20 years' service in Atlantic has seen six or seren floating derelicts, but has no record of them (655–66 t). Has nerer struck either a derelict or ice (665-668). In certain circumstances collision with a derelict might damage “ Majestic” seriously (670). Ordinarily displacement wave would throw off any floating, spars, but on one occasion had a deck port rammed and broken by spar (671-678). A derelict with musts standing might be towed in when found (679-686). Submerged derelict might be blown up with dynamite (687, 688,764-773). Does not fear con

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sequent danger from releasing cargo of timber (689). Thinks that unknown cause of loss of vessels is more likely to be derelicts than ice, though he has heard of more cases of striking ice than striking derelicts (690-696). American Government take great interest in question of derelicts. They publish chart showing all derelicts in Atlantic, and are talking of removing them (699-705). Any derelict seen by White Star" captains is reported to their company, and if on passage out is at once telegraphed to Liverpool (706-709). Considers American Pilot Chart a very great guide on voyages (710-713, 742, 743, 826-831). Was aware that in Great Britain endeavours are made to remore obstructions to navigation within 20 miles of coast, but not, that they sometimes send 100 miles in search of derelicts (714_724). Special vessel sent to patrol and look for derelicts in Atlantic would probably not see more than six or seven in 20 years (725). Life of a derelict would vary according io her nature; would make special case of special derelicts (726–737). Thinks there is more need to patrol Atlantic than other trade routes (738-741, 757– 763, 853-857, 803, 864). Considers Board of Trade notices to mariners nearly equivalent to American chart (748–756). Does not think there is risk of the same derelict being reported over again as a different derelict (775-782). Oiving to uncertainty of drift, actual position of derelict reported from New York could not be depended on by vessel starting from Liverpool (783-790). Has never been in collision with a derelict, or heard of such a collision, but thinks it more than probable that they are a cause of logs of ships (791-825). Has never turned “Majestic” an inch out of her way on account of derelicts marked on chart (826-831). If a derelict only lasts for 20 to 30 days, as estimated by U. S. IIydrographer, it is scarcely worth while to search for her (832-839). Searching resgels might find derelicts through information supplied by passing ships, but one vessel would not be of much use (810-847). Was not aware of result of searches made by British men-of-war (818). Importance of legislation as to deck-loading (819, 850). Mail steamers consider safety before specd (851, 852). Agrees that before spending public money on derelicts, government should have authentic information as to loss of life and property caused by them (858, 859). Damage from derelicts would probably be caused by the masts, &c sticking up (860-862). Paz (LA)” struck a derelict, Marcelona, 8; struck a

rock, Wharton, 1871. " PETTY" became a derelict, Macdond, 12. REA, Captain Wm. (analysis of his evidence) :

Is in command of “Martello,” Wilson Line, running to New York (1049-1051). During the 18 years he has been on that line has seen about 20 floating derelicts, but has nerer struck one (1032-1063, 1090 1096, 1113-1123). Gets information as to derelicts from Board of Trade monthly notices, and from United States monthly wreck chart and weekly bulletin (1061-1066). Effect of information is to cause look out to be doubled when in vicinity of danger mentioned (1067-1071, 1085, 1086). Floating baulks would damage a vessel if struck end on, and might be drawn into screw (1072-1076). Has not had much experience of ice (1077, 1078). Known no case in Wilson Lire of damage through striking wreckage (1079, 1087-1089.) Has seen derelicts in North Sea, but never struek one (1081-1081). Timber laden derelict would float for sereral months, but ordinary cargo vessel not more than two or three weeks (10971103). Cannot say whether owners would permit delay on royage in order to destroy a derelict (1104– 1106). Only way their vessels could destroy a derelict would be by fire, which has not been found successful (1107-1112). Cuard Line would probably see fewer derelicts owing to their track being further North (1125-113-4). Always tries to steer clear of derelicts marked on chart, making allowance for drift, but knowledge of them is no advantage to practical sailor, and creates anxiety (1135-1150). Considers that ice and derelicts are equally dangerous (11511176, 1192-1202). Derelicts seem to be partial (11771184). It would be difficult for search vessel to find a particular derelict on information a week old (1185–

1191). REMOVAL OF WRECKS Act, 1877. Provisions of,

governing action of general Lighthouse Authorities, Kent, 431; Froud, 1341-1344. "RIVIERE” probably struck bottom, Wharton, 1872.

" ROBERT P. CHANDLER became & derelict, Mac

dona, 8. “St. Enoca” struck wreckage or large fish, Wharton,

1872. “SAN FRANCISCO.” Derelict destroyed by, Jaffe, 16 l. SEAGULL” struck a derelict, Macdona, 8. SHIPPING &c. GAZETTE AND Lloyd's List. Reports of

derelicts are published in, Hozier, 1421-1427 ; paper

is not seen by all masters, Andrew, 1556–1558. “Star of India ” became a derelict, Macdona, J. STREET, J. E. (analysis of his evidence) :

Is Deputy Chairman of Lloyd's (1755). N: additional premium is charged for insurance of vessels owing to the risk arising from derelicts (17561767, 1769-1783). Lloyd's would be glad to see Derelicts (Reports) Bill passed, but there is no general agitation on subject amongst underwriters,

1768. “ TARIFA ” struck a derelict without receiving damage,

Thomas, 508-510.

TELEM AQUE" became a derelict, Macdona, 12. Thomas, BENJAMIN (analysis of his evidence) :

Is Marine Superintendent of Cunard Line, and has been crossing the Atlantic for 12 or 13 years (506, 507); in 1886, while on board of “ Tarifa," ran into a derelict, but without receiving any damage (508510; has never known of any damage from such a collision from experience (511). Has fallen in with fire derelicts in all during 19 years (558-566), the " W. L. White" (512,513) and some unknown vessels (514-520, 523). Collision with wreckage would probably damage ordinary ressels, but knows of no authenticated case (521-527). Ice is a thousand times more dangerous than derelicts (528, 529, 582586). Derelicts are not dangerous in the ocean, but only near land (530, 531). Vessel in Atlantic looking for derelicts would not find them, and steamers would not stop to report to it (532, 533). Suggests giving bonus to any vessel which destroys a derelict (533, 53+).

Derelict might be destroyed by dynamite (53», 574 577). Does not think much danger would be caused by freeing cargo of timber (536-538, 516, 517). Cases of sighting derelicts are reported on a proper form to Lloyd's, not to the Custom Houss (539-51-4). Blade of propeller may be lost without striking wreckage (518, 549). Searching vessel could not see more than four miles (552, 553). Thinks that spars would be thrown away from propeller (55+-557). Cunard captains signed memorial because they consider derelicts a source of anxiety (567-572). They cannot be more vigilant even if they receive notice of a derelict (573). A water-logged timber

ship would not barn (578,579). THORP, JOSEPH (analysis of his evidence):

Iy Trinity House Superintendent at Yarmouth, and has experience in dealing with derelicts (589– 590). Particulars of some derelicts dispersed (591014). Work of dispersing a wreck is very difficnlt 1999, 600) and can only be done in fine weather (609). Only knows of two cases of damage through striking a derelict (615–618). Knows of no authenticated case of loss of propeller through contact with floating spars; tendency of water to throw spars off from stern of vessel (619-623). Vessels used for dispersing derelicts are about 300 tons, and can only work in fine weather (624-633). It would be very difficult to find a derelict in the Atlantic. Trinity House only find about one in every three they look for (635-640). Does not consider whether derelict has been scuttled (645). Derelicts are generally too saturated for burning (648). Particulars of some derelicts towed in (649, 650). Towing in the Atlantic would be very difficult, and can only be done in fine weather (051

653). TRINITY HOUSE, ACTION OF, IN REMOVING DERELICTS.

See Rent, analysis of his evidence; See Thorp, analysis of his evidence. UNITED STATES, ACTION OF, FOR DESTRUCTION OF DERELICTS,

Macılonu, 3, 52, 58, 141-150; Jaffe 162-165, 267–27'),

410-414; Parsell, 702-705; Wharton, 1872. UNITED STATES PUBLICATION, (WRECKS, &c., IN NORT!!

ATLANTIC, 1887–1893) examination of, see Whartor:

(analysis of his evidence). “ VESTA LINDEN” became a derelict, Macdona, 12.

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