« EdellinenJatka »
28 months. months. months. months. months. months. months. months. months. months, months. months.
1871. That is in corroboration of what you have just given us P-Yes, that is for the figures I have just given —it is an abstract.
(6.) The list of derelicts reported but once, 350 in number, is made up in rather a remarkable manner, 29 of them are vessels stated to have been never heard from ; that is, missing vessels ; 18 are stated to have foundered or been lost at sea ; 49 were abandoned and may be presumed to have been in a sinking state ; one was seen ashore. Why these 87 vessels are classed as derelicts I do not understand, and I should reduce the list at once to 263. Of these, 117 are within 200 miles of the American coast and in the Gulf of Mexico, the other 146 being scattered all over the Atlantic.
I do not understand a discrepancy between the two parts of the report. The abstract list gives the total number of identified derelicts as 482, while the two lists I have quoted make the number 562.
(c.) Besides these it is stated that 1,146 unidentified abandoned vessels were seen on the North Atlantic. It is evident that many of these would certainly be reports of the same vessele, and that many would be already included in the list of identified derelicts given. This figure of 1,146 cannot be taken to mean 1,146 separate ships, but it is impossible to say how many there really were. Taking the figures as they are, one out of every 44 reports appears to be a ship floating for over three months.
(d.) The number of vessels given as totaily lost from collision with wrecks and derelicts is 10, as follows :February 23rd, 1887, schooner“ Bayliss Wood ” struck wreck of steamship “ Brinkburn” off Fenwick Island, and was capsized ; June 13th, 1887, schooner Joseph Baymore” struck a derelict off the coast of North Carolina, became water-logged, and was abandoned ; June 8th, 1889, Spanish gunboat Paz" struck a derelict off Tarifa and sunk; March 18th, 1890, schooner “ Francis L. Godfrey struck a derelict off Fenwick Island, stove in her bow, and filled ; October 1st, 1890, steamship “Glenrath” struck á wreck off Cape Lookout and sunk; February 10th, 1891, schooner “ Seagull” struck a wreck off the coast of New Jersey and suuk; December 22nd, 1891, schooner “ Orrie V. Drisco struck a derelict in the Gulf of Mexico, and was wrecked on the coast of Florida ; February 24th, 1892, barque “Jan Pieterzoon Koen” struck an unknown object, filled, and was abandoned in latitude 24° 10' N., longitude 69° 28' W.; May 20th, 1893, steamship"Cragside" struck a derelict off Whitehead, Nova Scotia, and sunk; December 1st, 1893, schooner “Manitou " struck on the sunken Five Fathom Bank Lightship and sunk.
As four of these are cases of vessels having struck wrecks, that is, wrecks on the bottom, we have no concern with them, but the distinction is not at all marked in the pamphlet.
Of the six losses said to be due to derelicts, I find as follows :—The Spanish gunboat “ La Paz” is given as striking a derelict off Tarifa. Now this vessel struck a well-known rock off Cadiz, as a court-martial found. The “ Cragside” is given as striking a derelict off Nova Scotia, whereas the Court of Inquiry held on her case came to the conclusion that she had probably struck the well-known Bull Rock. Another is given in the Gulf of Mexico and is outside our inquiry. Two are given as striking derelicts off the coast of North Čarolina and Fenwick Island respectively, that is very near the American shores. Off Fenwick Island, a long low island forming the coast for many miles between Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, is a great flat of shallow water some eight miles wide traversed by a large local trade. A great many wrecks on the bottom have been reported in this position during the past seven years as well as cases of vessels striking on them, one of which is given as causing a fatal loss. Seeing the mistakes which bave crept in, one would like to have further information as to the evidence on which these two cases rest before accepting them as collisions with derelicts.
1872. (Mr. Trevor.) Are thoge cases the “ 'Joseph Baymore” and the “ Francis L. Godfrey” P-Yes. The analysis of this most important list, so far as tho subject of our inquiry goes, shows how necessary it is to examine the statements made in this pamphlet. These 10 cases may be tabulated thus: Wrecks on the bottom, 4 ; cases in the Gulf of Mexico, 1; lost on the rocks, 2-total 7; leaving two cases of reported colJision with derelicts close to the American shore, and one near the Bahama Islands. There are none out of American waters or in great international trade routes.
(e.) 23 vessels are given as receiving considerable dawage, as follows:-January 16th, 1887, barge “Gardner Colby” struck a derelict off Fenwick Island, causing a leak; November 29, 1888, barque “Patagonia" struck a derelict in latitude 39° 50' N., longitude 71° W., causing a leak; May 26th, 1889, schooner “ Arabella” struck a derelict off Sandy Hook, and had to be towed in, leaking; October 15th, 1889, schooner Forest Fairy” struck and passed over a derelict in latitude 40° 59' N., longi. tude 33° 40' W.; December 16th, 1889, schooner “ Cornelius Hargreaves struck a derelict off Cape Henry, put into Norfolk and discharged coal; January 1st, 1890, steamship “Seminole" struck a derelict off Charleston, and had to return to port;.. January 29th, 1890, schooner “W. B. Merrick struck a derelict in latitude 34° 40' N., longitude 71° 25' W., and sacrificed decklond to
ship; July 18th, 1890, schooner “J. N. Harlow” struck a derelict off Fenwick Island, and was towed into Norfolk; Septen ber 13th, 190, schooner“ Joseph I. Pharo struck a derelict off F nwick Island, and was towed into Norfolk ; October 13th, 1890, steamship “Grace” struck a wreck off Cape Henry, and was towed into Hampton Roads ; August 30th, 1891, steamship
“Dubbeldam "struck a derelict in latitude 49° N., longi- June 15th, 1889, barge 66 Galatea” struck & sunken J. L. Wharton. tude 24° W., and put back to Plymouth for repairs ; May wreck near the Chesapeake capes, causing her to leak;
30th, 1891, bark - San Giovanni E.” struck wreckage June 25th, 1889, schooner " J. F. Becker” struck a 15 June 1894. in latitude 40° 30' N., longitude 67° W., broke rudder sunken wreck off Fenwick Island, with little damage; gear, and came near sinking; October 28th, 1892, September 25th, 1892, steamship
“ Massilia" collided steanıship "Empire" struck a submerged derelict off with a large derelict in latitude 36 55' N., longitude Frying Pan Shoals, and nearly listed her cargo ; 45° 15' W., and damaged one of her bow plates. December 12th, 1893, steamship “ Iris” struck what I have not attempted to check all these. Two are was believed to be a derelict in latitude 43', longitude stated to be on sunken wrecks on the American shore, 24°, which caused her to leak in the bows; December
Fenwick Island again appearing. Six were off the 18th, 1893, schooner “ Max” cut through a submerged American coast, one struck a spar, two were in open derelict off Cape Hatteras, rudder broken, leaking badly; Atlantic. One of these cases is interesting, the French December 31st, 1893, steamship "Managua
mail steamer Massilia.” This vessel struck a large wreckage in the night, latitude 28°40', longitude
derelict and merely damaged one bow plate slightly. 74° 44', and lost a propeller blade ; December, 1893, bark “ Mazatlan” struck a derelict at sea, and received
(g.) There are 17 cases of collisions in which the dam
age is stated not to be known. They are as follows :extensive damage ; March 4th, 1889, schooner “ Wm. B. Wood” struck a sunken wreck, and had to be beached
May 12th, 1888, bark “ Virgo” passed between the
masts of a derelict in latitude 38° 40' N., longitude on the Delaware coast; January 7th, 1891, schooner
73° 50' W; July 26th, 1888, steamship “ Allentown" “ Helen G. King” struck a sunken wreck, near Rock
struck a submerged wreck off Cape May; April 20th, land, Me., and had to put into Eastport, in a sinking
1889, steamship * Cuban” ran into a derelict in latitude condition; November 30th, 1891, steamer “ St. Enoch
38° 10' N., longitude 66° 30' W., penetrating 13 feet. struck a submerged derelict in latitude 48° N., longitude 33' W., and had to return to Queenstown with all the
June 1st, 1889, schooner “ William A. Marbury” ran
into wreckage off Davis South Shoal; July 5th, 1889, blades of her propeller broken ; December 28th, 1891, schooner“ Riviere” struck a derelict on the voyage from
bark“ Falmouth” grounded on a submerged wreck on
Nantucket Shoals, and afterwards came off ; December Dublin to Bangor, and had to be beached on arrival;
28th, 1890, tug
“ Schaubel” struck a wreck off October 25th, 1892, steamship “ Britannia” strack a
the Delaware Capes ; February 20th, 1891, bark sunken wreck off Cape Sable, and had to be beached
"Ellas struck a wreck near Port Royal, S.C. for temporary repairs; April 23rd, 1893, schooner “ A. T. Coleman " struck a sunken obstruction on the
August 12th, 1891, schooner “Maria Pierson” struck
& wreck off Hog Island, Virginia; February 14th, 1893, voyage from Baltimore to the Bahamas, and was towed
schooner - Two Brothers ran into a sunkeu schooner into Norfolk with a hole in her bottom.
off Cape Charles, Va.; May 18th, 1893, steamship Of these only 4 are given as wrecks on the bottom, but Norman” carried away the spars of sunken schooner, as 8 are quoted as occurring off various points along “ Booth Brothers” on Brigantine Shoals, New Jersey, the American shores, not less than 3 off Fenwick but cleared the hull; September 27th, 1893, steamship Island amongst this number, it appears doubtful “Dago” struck wreckage with propeller off the whether they are all derelicts. Being American
Virginia Capes ; November 11th, 1893, steamship" City vessels, however, as are five other cases further off, of Dublin” in latitude 39° 30' N., longitude 53° W., but still near their own coasts, they cannot be checked. struck part of a vessel's deck or deck house; June There are actually five in what we may consider the 23rd, 1889, steamship.“ Ville de Montevideo's open Atlantic. One British vessel
recognised damaged by striking a derelict on the voyage from Rio amongst these, the “St. Enoch.” The official papers Janeiro to Havre ; May 11th, 1891, brig - Arthur” was say : Supposed to have struck wreckage or large fish, damaged by striking a derelict on the voyage from “ lost propeller blades.” The “ Managua” is stated Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, to Martinique ; July 25th, to have lost a propeller blade, that is scarcely 1891, steamship Castlegate" was damaged by siderable damage. The schooner Riviere,” given striking a wreck near Boston; December 22nd, 1893, here as striking a derelict, was shown by the court of schooner “ Theodore Dean” on a coasting voyage to inquiry to have struck something on the bottom in New York, arrived damaged by having struck a wreck; the narrow passage into the Menai Strait, about 18
December 26th, 1893, bark“ Guldreyn" was damaged feet deep at low water, and she probably struck the by striking a derelict on the voyage from Canada to bottom itself,
Fleetwood, England. The table will stand thus :--On the bottom, 1; wrecks Of these 17 collisions, 12 were on the American on bottom, 4; on American seaboard, some in shallow coast, many of them apparently on submerged wrecks water, 8; in American waters, 5; in Atlantic, 5. Of
the bottom, The report of the inquiry held these five the
Forest Fairy passed over a derelict, on the bark Guldreyn,” stated in this list to damage not stated. The Dubbeldam” returned have struck a derelict
, says nothing about any to Plymouth with rudder damaged. The “Iris derelict, but the ship struck a large fish which was struck what was supposed to be a derelict and leaked afterwards seen. An examination of the inquiry into in the bows. The Mazatlan” struck a derelict, the case of the steamship · City of Dublin," said in this neither exact date nor place being mentioned, and it list to have struck part of a vessel's deck or deck house, is said to have received considerable damage. The shows that there was not even a report of striking any. “ St. Enoch ” lost her propeller blades, perhaps, by thing; a heavy soa struck the ship and washed the striking a fish.
boatswain overboard and the deck house was washed In these two most important lists, therefore, it is away, which appears to have been translated as above. shown that in seven years, in the open Atlantic, with These two are the only cases I have tried to check. which we have to do, there are no total losses from (h.) I may mention that the appendix containing & collisions with floating derelicts, and only five cases in further table of accidents is entitled : “Additional which damage worth speaking of has resulted, and some Reports of Collision with Derelicts,” but out of the 16 of these are doubtful.
cases there given, seven are stated to be cases of vessels (f.) Eleven vessels are stated to have received slight
striking sunken wrecks near the shore. Such a title is damage. They are as follows :-November 12th, 1887,
therefore misleading. I have in my inquiries included schooner “ Jacob Reed” struck a derelict in latitude 10°
both lists. 12' N., longitude 73° 27' W., and broke her centre-board; (i.) A list is given of the work done by the United May 10th, 1889, steamship - Myrtle” struck a derelict States vessels in destroying wrecks and derelicts. Of off Isle of Shoals, little damage ; June 28th, 1889, the latter there are only three; two were near the land schooner“ John S. Davis” collided with a derelict in and were towed into shallow water, and one was latitude 34° 42' N., longitude 64 18' W., damage destroyed by ramming by a vessel that accidently slight. January 18th, 1890, ship Antoinette encountered her. The principal work was blowing up struck a derelict in latitude 32° 20' N., longitude
the wreck accumulated on the United States coast 68° 32' W., and lost copper on forefoot; December 4th, during many years, the work which has been systema1890, steamship “Katy” struck a derelict in latitude tically performed on the coast of the United Kingdom 34° 37' N., longitude 71° 50' W., slightly damaged. by the lighthouse authorities for a long period, and November 17th, 1891, steamship "Cascapedia” struck which keeps onr coast so well cleared of these obstruca derelict in latitude 49° 45' N., longitude 13° 15' 15" tions. It is stated in the report that 72 derelicts W., slight damage; April 22nd, 1893, schooner Allen were destroyed by fire, but by whom or where is not Green” struck a spar attached to a wreck off Barnegat,
mentioned and no detail of any kind is given. no serious damage; April 4th, 1889, schooner “ Lizzie 1873. (Chairman.) The number of derelicts set on Carr" struck a derelict or wreckage 40 miles east of fire is given as 76 P-Yes. It says: “thereby destroyed Bodie Island, N.C., and received slight damage; 72,” and the failures to destroy are given as four.
1874. (Mr. Trevor.) It is for four years only ?_Yes.
The analysis of this pamphlet, combined with my own knowledge of the groundless nature of many reports as shown by subsequent investigatio!), leaves on my mind the impression ihat very little inquiry has been made in compiling it. Taking, however, the figures given, which are shown to be excessive, the average number of derelicts afloat at any one time in what is called the North Atlantic is stated to be 19. The great majority of these are off the American coast. As to the 19, the total area of sea over which these derelicts are scattered is 11,000,000 square miles.
1875. (Chairman.) You have shown that the report describes 72 vessels to have been destroyed by fire. Are any details given as to how this was done or with what result ?-No details of any kind are giren* except that an attempt was made on the vessel “Fanny E Wolston ” which is known to have been afloat for over two years and it failed. This vessel has been off the American coast for many months and no reference is made to any further attempt to destroy her.
1876. Do not you think that destroying a vessel by Captain W. fire, as described, means that she is burnt to the water's J. L. Wharton. edge, and so remains P--It appears most probable, but no information is given. That is all one can say. As the
15 June 1894. word “ derelict” is distinctly used in this report, occasionally, as meaning wrecks on the bottom, it is possible that the vessels here said to have been destroyed were some of them aground.
1877. Do you not think that a vessel burnt to the water's edge, as I have suggested, would constitate a greater danger to navigation than if she had been left intact P_If she floais, most certainly.
1878. On the whole, the impression you have formed, after having read this pamphlet, is that the danger to navigation has been very much exaggerated, and that it has had the result of suggesting dangers which do not really exist to anything like the extent suggested ?That is precisely the conclusion that I have come to.
1879. (Sir Courtenay Boyle.) Does the report show danger from spars P-No definition is given of the word “ derelict" as used, but I understand it to mean ship, or large part of a ship.” Some of the vessels recorded struck spars. Of course a spar upright in the water on the bottom is a nasty thing to meet with.
* Details since received. See Appendix G., No. 2, p. 115.
REAR-ADMIRAL LORD WALTER KERR IN THE CHAIR. Sir GEORGE NARES, K.C.B., F.R.S.
| Captain W. J. L. WHARTON, R.N., F.R.S.
J. WADDON Martyn, Esq., Secretary.
Captain GEORGE BEALL called and examined.
Captain G. Beall.
1880. (Chairman.) Will you tell us what office yon notices on separate slips was defective, and that mariners hold under the Board of Trade ?—Principal Examiner rarely, if ever, got them, a committee was appointed to of Masters and Mates.
consider the best means of dealing with them. It was 1881. Have you any other special daties ?-I take then decided to compile the notices, and publish thein charge of the notices to mariners, and edit the Monthly collectively in the form of a monthly summary, each Summary for the Board of Trade ander Sir George summary to contain all the notices issued during the Nares.
previous eight months, so as to insure that the summary 1882. You are the principal agent for distriouting
—a copy of which is given to each foreign-going vessel information R-Yes, and compiling it.
before sailing-should contain all the information pub1833. That is information as to wrecks, derelicts, ice,
lished subsequent to the date of the summary lying at
the consulates, &c., abroad, and thus not break the and, in fact, anything that is reported:-Yes.
continuity of information in the case of long-voyage 1884. Will you tell us shortly what the procedure at
vessels, in the event of their not having got the notices present is with regard to the dissemination of informa
from any other source. tion ?-Prior to 1885 Notices to Mariners, published by the Admiralty, were distributed by the Hydrographic 1885. Have you got a sample of the summary PDepartment, Admiralty, to superintendents of shipping Yes. offices, custom houses, chart sellers and correctors,
1886. We should like to see an example of the Monthly and other authorities in the United Kingdom interested in and connected with merchant shipping. In the be
Summary!—This (handing in same) is one for the home
trade, and this (handing in another) is one for foreignginning of that year (1885), at the request of the Hydro
going ships. At present all the Admiralty slips are graphic Department, the distribution to these offices
distributed at once, as published, to all shipping oflices, and authorities was undertaken by the Board of Trade,
custom houses, and other anthorities interested in the Adruiralty continuing to distribute the notices to
shipping in the United Kingdom. the various officials, &c., interested in naval matters. About July 1885, it having been gradually forced upon 1887. (Captain Wharton.) Is that the single ones P - The the Board of Trade that the system of distributing single slips. They are also distributed to a few foreign
3 July 1894.
ports, in all about 116 addresses (but I may say that one of those addresses is the Custom House, London, and they distribute it to about 103 other Custom Houses, so that practically we have 219 addresses), those notices relating to foreign parts by the Board of Trade, and those relating to the coasts of the United Kingdom by the Trinity House (at their special request, as they wished to take part in the work). In very important and urgent cases, such as newly-discovered rocks, shoals, &c., these notices are sent abroad at once, marked
very important,” to the consuls at all the principal foreign ports, and the colonial officers at the principal colonial ports, at which arıy out-going vessel might be affected by the danger. Formerly, all these notices were sent to the ports at which out-going vessels might be affected, but this was discontinued in February 1886, as it was deemed unnecessary and useless. Indeed, the consul at Havre wrote to the Board of Trade, imploring them not to send the Admiralty slips any more, as he was literally flooded out of his office with them, and they were quite useless, as shipmasters never looked at them, although prominently displayed. In short, he had never in the whole of his experience known a shipmaster to look at them. He suggested that the issue of the notices be confined entirely to the Board's Monthly Summary, which he commended. A committee sat on the subject, and it was decided not to send the slips to foreign ports, excepting the urgent and important ones, but to continue the distribution to the authorities in the United Kingdom.
1888. (Chairman.) With regard to that, who decides what is of sufficient importance 2–I do that. I look at them, and decide. I do that specially. Besides issuing these notices, the Board of Trade send all important and urgent notices, copies of telegrams received, &c., at once to Lloyd's and the “Shipping Gazette" for their information, who, I understand, when necessary, wire the information to their agents abroad, besides making it known at home. That is about the history of it. Shall I give the number of addresses P
1889. I think we had better have them P_The summary is distributed every month to the following authorities :-133 superintendents of mercantile marine offices, 100 private addresses, shipping bodies, &c., 137 colonial officers, 549 consuls abroad (British), 17 foreign hydrographers—936, total for foreign-going summaries; 103 collectors of customs, 18 private addresses-121, total for home trade summaries; 1,057 addresses in all.
1890. Is there any necessity for having the two summaries separate ?—Yes. We print the first 26 or 30 pages for the home trade, which takes in between Brest and Elbe, and therefore if we gave the coasting and home trade vessels the foreign information it would be all waste.
1891. You mean the foreign summary comprises the whole P-Yes, it takes in the whole world. That makes a total of 1,057 addresses that we send the notices to mariners to. For foreign-going vessels we send about 2,800 copies to the superintendents of the mercantile marine offices of the United Kingdom for distribution to masters and others (all masters should receive a copy on signing articles, or at any other time on application to the superintendent).
1892. With regard to that, do they do so 2-Yes.
1893. Any vessel clearing a port receives a summary? --Yes, at the same time as the official log-book which the superintendent has to hand over to the master, so that he must get it.
1894. That is very important ?_Of course they may miss giving it out sometimes, but they ought not to do so.
1895. Is that a Government order ?_Yes.
1896. That every vessel clearing a port receives the last summary of all known dangers ? —Yes, that is the standing order.
1897. For the last eight or nine months ?—Yes, from eight to nine months it contains information for. Besides the 2,800 copies, about 550 copies are sent to the various Indian and Colonial authorities for the inspection and information of shipmaster's abroad. Those are lodged in the shipping offices, and the captain can go up to the offices and inspect them.
1898. That is at the Colonial ports ?—And foreign ports- all over the world.
1899. (Captain Wharton.) They are not for issue P-No, merely for inspection.
1990. (Sir George Nares.) But any captain taking an interest in these matters could obtain a copy, I
presume ? ---Yes, there is no doubt about that. We do not send such a large number to offices abroad as we do to offices in this country, of course.
1901. (Captain Wharton.) As a fact, your regular issue is confined to ships sailing from the United Kingdom ? – Yes, that is the direct issue.
Then we send 1,670 copies to our consuls and vice-consuls (generally three to each, more in some cases), about 45 to foreign hydrographers, and about 200 copies to various shipping and local bodies in the United King. dom. Then with regard to the home trade and coasting vessels, we send inonthly about 6,000 copies of the home trade summary to the collectors of customs at the various ports in the United Kingdom for distribution to masters and others in the home and coasting trade.
1902. (Chairman.) They in the same way, I suppose, receive one of these summaries P-Yes, at the custom houses invariably.
1903. And there is always a custom house agent, I suppose, at all the ports 2-Yes, at all the ports. We made inquiries at first and we found that was the best place to distribute them. Mercantile marine offices for foreign-going ships and custom houses for home-trade ships. Altogether we distribute 11,350 foreign-going eummaries and home-trade summaries during the month.
1904. (Sir George Nares.) What notice is given to masters of this distribution, and of the facilities giren them on their homeward voyage to obtain the most recent information that can be given_On the face of every foreign-going summary we have these words :
Copies of this summary, corrected monthly, will be “ issued at all the Mercantile Marine Offices in the “ United Kingdom to masters of Foreign-going ships, “ free of charge. Copies are sent to the Government
shipping office at each Colonial and Indian port, and “ to the British Consulate at each foreign port for the
inspection of mariners who may not be in pos"session of the latest summary. All the Notices to
Mariners 'issued subsequently io the date of publi" ration of the latest monthly summary are kept at “ all the Mercantile Marine Offices and Custom Houses " in the United Kingdom for the inspection of mariners “ and others interested, until they are inserted in the
next monthly summary.". Then it is advertised also in the Signal Book, and several other places, and in the Official Log-book there is also a notice.
1905. Then, practically, there is no excuse for masters not being aware of the action that the Board of Trade take ?--No, no excuse whatever. They all know about it, but they do not pay so much attention as they ought to.
1906. (Chairman.) Now, I think you had better complete your statement by telling us how you get the information - The summary is compiled from : (1) All Admiralty slips published by the Admiralty. (2.) All notices issued by authorities in the United Kingdom, such as the Trinity House, Irish Lights Commissioners, Northern Lighthouse Commissioners, Hul Trinity House, &c., &c. (3.) Notices received from Indian and Colonial Governments that are important to mariners. (4.) The important information in all notices in English received from foreign Governments, such as the United States, Japan, China. Batavia, &c., &c. (5.) All foreign notices in foreign languages are gone through, and any important ones translated and inserted. (I may say that I go through these and pick out any that I think sufficiently important for translation, and then they are put in the summary.) (6.) All communications from our consuls at foreign ports. (7.) Notices taken from papers such as the " Shipping Gazette,” &c.
1907. You say that all information received from consuls at foreign ports. Is there any organised system of receiving information, or do the individuals having the information act on their own initiative ?- The consuls have instructions to send notices of all impedi. ments to navigation, changes in lights, &c., to the Board of Trade.
1908. If any captain arrives at a port and states that he has seen a danger the consul would, as a matter of course, forward that ?--Yes, he should send it home, and post it up on the spot.
1909. It seems that a weak point is that there is nothing to insure that the captain should give informution to the consul?-No, there is nothing, but I pro
Captai G. Beall.
3 July 1894.
pose that something should be put on the face of the 1925. Presumably, being in shallow water they are summary for that.
not such a great danger R-Some of them might be 1910. That might be a blot on an otherwise very well
dangerous. organised system?-Yos.
1926. But they are out of the line of the ocean 1911. Then how long do you keep the information, or
routes ?-Some of them are not altogether. There are how far back do these summaries go?—Practically
some in the Channel and in the North Sea, pretty well about nine months, and sometimes notices are in as
ont from the coast. Of course, they are not so dangerous much as two or three years, or even more when they
as they would be if in the direct route. are very important. We have what we call special 1927. Would they be out of the line of the Atlantic notices chat we put in month after month, and year routes P-Yes. arter year, in fact.
1928. To make it clear, when you refer to them in 1912. Then with regard to derelicts with which as the North Sea you mean they are dangerous, but not in a committee, we are more particularly concerned, what the line of the Atlantic routes P_That is so. do you say ?-. They are only kept in for three months, 1929. Supposing any special danger is reported, say, and sunken wrecks are struck out when removed. I
for instance, that a rock is suddenly discovered on make a practice of writing round every month to the
the line of any special trade route, what steps United Kingdom anthorities to ask if sunken wrecks have been removed.
would you take to report it?-We immediately send
out the Admiralty slip, which would be enre to be 1913. I presume that if a derelict is again reported pablished by the Admiralty, to all the ports abroad at you continue it?—Yes, if we get a notice of it.
which any outgoing vessel might be likely to be 1914. But if a derelict is reported, and then not re
affected by it, and we mark on the outside, “Very porte:l again, you strike it out at the end of three
important.” That is our usual course. months? —That is so. Besides our distribution there 1930. You would not telegraph, would you ?-_We are local notices issued at various home and foreign never telegraph. I do not see how it would be possible ports, which are posted op at the shipping and consular to telegraph to all the ports; because, for instance, in offices for general information, and all masters should the case of the ice notices we sent notices to 60 make themselves acquainted with the contents before places, and that would mean 60 telegrams abroad. leaving port. The notice re ice in South Atlantic was first inserted in the July Summary 1892, and con
1931. (Sir George Nares.) But is not it done through
Lloyd's ? For instance, do you remember the case of tinuously ever since.
the discovery of the Avocet Rock in the Red Sea 1915. But previously to July 1892 what do you say ?
Yes; Lloyd's did telegraph, I think. - We had no notice previous to July 1892.
1932. That was telegraphed all over the world through 1916. Have you formed any opinion as to the possi. Lloyd's ?-By Lloyd's and the underwriters. bility of destroying derelicts? I have thought that
1933. (Chairman.) In fact they, in their own interest, matter over and I have jotted a few remarks down undertake to communicate by telegraph any very here, which, perhaps, I bad better read.
important thing of that kind P_Yes. I' send all the 1917. Yes. They had better perhaps be brought out!
important news to Lloyd's and the “ Shipping Gazette," - Of course, if derelicts could be all sunk there could and they take means to distribute it by telegraph or be no doubt it would be most desirable to do so, and, otherwise. Every important thing I send to Lloyd's. in addition to the action already taken by Her Majesty's 1934. And the same information is embodied in your vessels and by the Trinity House, masters of the mer- next month's summary ?-Yes, that is if it is a thing cantile marine might be requested to sink derelicts when that affects the next month. It might be temporary, they meet with them or whenever possible ; but giving and then I should not. notice or a list of them, unless they are close at hand, is of little or no value. In the case of a sunken wreck,
1935. The next question I should like to ask you is, rock, cr shoal, &c., a master can shape his course to
bow long have you been carrying on this work P-Since
1885--nine years. clear it, but in the case of a floating derelict it would be exactly the opposite, indeed, the only sure way of 1936. Have you any suggestions to make with regard going clear of it would be to steer exactly over the spot to improving it or hastening the transmission of inforwhere it was last seen, as it would then be almost sure mation?—I do not see that it could be improved at all. to be miles away. Therefore endeavouring to give it a
For instance, we send the information out to these 220 wide berth would most likely be the very way to strike places in the United Kingdom as soon as we get the it, as it would be impossible to see it at night if only news, and we send this Monthly Summary abroad. Of just awash. Again, if it were well out of the water it course it is impossible to give the information so soon would be seen just as well as a small vessel without
abroad. lights by the ordinary lookout without any notice of it 1937. Again, I will take an instance. A rock, we being given at all. When derelicts are reported as will suppose, bas suddenly appeared five miles west of close at hand the Collector of Customs or other Depart- Cape Finisterre; it is observed and reported by a ment receiving the report might telegraph it to the vessel arriving at Liverpool three days afterwards. Board of Trade, who could then send the information That, of course, would be a very important danger ?on to Lloyd's and the “Shipping Gazette,” az is now It would. done with other urgent notices. I have jotted a few remarks down and made a report to Sir George Nares
1938. What would happen then ?— They would immeabout this matter, if you would like to hear that. It
diately report that to the Customs, and the Customs bears more particularly on derelicts.
would report it to the Board of Trade, and I should
immediately send it over to the IIydrographer. 1918. Do you mean the letter that you have written to Sir George Nares 2-Yes.
1939. What is the actual process of reporting; is the
telegraph used ?-No, I do not think the telegraph is 1919. You have drawn up a statement here showing used as a rule. the number of derelicts and sunken vessels given in the summary issued each month during the year 1893 P- 1940. (Sir George Nares.) But it would be in a case Yes.
of that kind ?— Yes, it would in such a case. 1920. You distinguish derelicts from sunken wrecks? 1941. (Chairman.) Would the captain, as a matter of -Yes.
course, immediately on arrival report that to the Cnstom
House P-No doubt whatever. 1921. I see the derelicts are few, whereas the sunken wrecks are many PYes.
1942. But it is not subject to any order?-No; no 1922. Will you say what you mean by a sunken
order. wreck ?-We get notice of wrecks that are sunk. We
1943. (Sir George Nares.) I think there is a fee, may have the masts above water, but we include in the
payable to the receiver, to induce bim to obtain such term anything that is sunk on the bottom really
information from masters ?-I could not speak to that. 1923. A sunken wreck is not a moving danger?—No, 1944. (Chuirman.) Having received this important a stationary one.
information, the Board of Trade communicates it by 1924. And those are always in the neighbourhood of telegraph, we will assame, but to whom ?- To Lloya's the coasts or almost invariably in shallow water – Yes, and to the “ Shipping Gazette." They publish it in their in shallow water. We get notices of them from different paper, and they would also telegraph to the different parts of the world and put them all in.