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TO ALL

TO WHOM

(Articles of Confederation.) section of the act, entitled “ An act

No. V. to authorize the appointment of a surveyor for the lands in the northern ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. part of the Mississippi territory, and the sale of certain lands therein des

THESE PRESENTS cribed," passed on the third of March,

SHALL COME, one thousand eight hundred and seven

We, the undersigned, delegates of the teen. And there shall be reserved

slates affixed to our names, send greetfrom sale in the Alabama territory, an

ing: entire township, wbich shall be located by the secretary of the treasury, for

Whereas, the delegates of the Uni. the support of a seminary of learning ted States of America in congress aswithin the said territory; and also, any

sembled did, on the fifteenth day of one entire section whicb may be loca

November, in the year of our Lord one ted under the direction of the Governor

thousand seven hundred and seventyof the said territory, for the seat of go. seven, and in the second year of the vernment therein.

independence of America, agree to Sec. m. All the lands lying be- certain articles of confederation and tween the basis meridian, and the first perpetual union between the states of standard meridian, in the Alabama New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, district, be attached to the land dis- Rhode Island, and Providence Planta. trict east of Pearl river. And the tions, Connecticut, New York, New lands so attached to the said district, Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maeast of Pearl river, after having been ryland, Virginia, North Carolina, surveyed according to law, shall, South Carolina, and Georgia, in the with the exception of section number words following, viz: sixteen, in each township, which shall Articles of confederation and perpetual onion be reserved for the support of scbools between the states of New Hampshire, therein, and with the further exception Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island and Pro of such reservations as may be made,

vidence Plantations, Connecticut, New in pursuance of the second section of York, New Jersev, Pennsylvania, Delaware, this act, shall be offered for sale to the

Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South highest bidder, under the direction of Carolina, and Georgia. the register of the land office, and the Art. 1. The style of this confedereceiver of public monies, at the place racy shall be, “ The United States of where the land office is kept, and on America.” such day or days as shall, by proclama- Art. 2. Each state retains its sovemation of the president of the United reignty, freedom, and independence, States, be designated for that purpose; and every power, jurisdiction, and the sales shall remain open two weeks right, which is not by this confederaand no longer. The lands shall not be tion expressly delegated to the United sold for less than two dollars an acre, States in congress assembled. and shall, in every other respect, be

Art. 3 The said states hereby sesold in tracts of the same size, and on verally enter into a firm league of the same terms and conditions, as have friendship with each other for their been, or may be, provided for lands common defence, the security of their sold in the same district. All the lands liberties, and their mutual and general offered for sale, and remaining unsold, welfare; binding themselves to assist at the close of the said public sales, each other against all force offered to, may be disposed of at private sale, by or attacks made upon them, or any of the register of the land office, in the them, on account of religion, sovesame manner, and on the same terms reignty, trade, or any other pretence and conditions, as are or may be pro- whatever. vided for the sale of other lands in the ART. 4. The better to secure and same district; and patents shall be perpetuate mutual friendship and ingranted in the same manner, and on tercourse among the people of the difthe same terms, as for other lands in ferent states in this union, the free inhathe said district.

bitants of each of these states, paupere..

the peace.

(Articles of Confederation.) vagabonds, and fugitives from justice, Io determining questions in the Uniexcepted, shall be entitled to all pri- ted States in congress assembled, each vileges and immunities of free citizens state shall have one vote. in the several states: and the people of Freedom of speech and debate in each state shall have free ingress and congress shall not be impeached or regress to and from any other state, questioned in any court or place out and shall enjoy therein all the privi- of congress; and the members of conleges of trade and commerce, subject gress shall be protected in their persons to the same duties, impositions, and from arrests and imprisonments, durestrictions, as the inhabitants thereof ring the time of their going to and respectively, provided that such res- from an attendance on congress, extrictions shall not extend so far as to cept for treason, felony, or breach of prevent the removal of property imported into any state to any other state, ART. 6. No state, without the con. of which the owner is an inhabitant; sent of the United States, in congress provided also, that no imposition, du- assembled, shall send any embassy to, ties, or restriction, shall be laid by any or receive any embassy from, or enter state on the property of the United into any conference, agreement, alliStates or either of them.

ance or treaty, with any king, prince, If any person guilty of or charged or state; nor shall any person holding with treason, felony, or other high mis- any office of profit or trust under the demeanor, in any state, shall flee from United States, or any of them, accept justice, and be found in any of the of any present, emolument, office, or United States, he shall, upon demand title of any kind whatever, from any of the governor or executive power of king, prince, or foreign state; por shall the state from which he fled, be deli- the United States in congress assemvered up, and removed to the state bav. bled, or any of them, grant any title of jog jurisdiction of his offence.

nobility. Full faith and credit shall be given No two or more states shall enter inin each of these states to the records, to any treaty, confederation, or alliance acts, and judicial proceedings of the whatever between them, without the courts and magistrates of every other consent of the United States in constate.

gress assembled, specifying accurately ART. 5. For the more convenient the purposes for which the same is to management of the general interests be entered into, and how long it shall of the United States, delegates shall be continue. annually appointed in such manner as No state shall lay any imposts or duthe legislature of each state shall di- ties, which may interfere with any stirect, to meet in congress on the first pulations in treaties entered into by Monday in November, in every year,

the United States in congress assemwith a power reserved to each state to bled, with any king, prince, or state, recall its delegates or any of them, at in pursuance of any treaties already any time within the year, and to send proposed by congress to the courts of others in their stead for the remainder France and Spain. of the year.

No vessels of war shall be kept up No state shall be represented in in time of peace by any state, except congress by less than two nor by more such number only as shall be deemed than seven members; and no person necessary by the United States in conshall be capable of being a delegate gress assembled for the defence of for more than three years in any term such state or its trade; nor shall any of six years; nor shall any person, being body of forces be kept up by any state a delegate, be capable of holding any in time of peace, except such number office under the United States, for only as, in the judgment of the United which he, or another for his benefit, States in congress assembled, shall be receives any salary, fees, or emolu. deemed requisite to garrison the forts ment of any kind.

necessary for the defence of such state; Each state shall maintain its own but every state shall always keep up a delegates in a meeting of the states, well regulated and disciplined militia, and while they act as members of the sufficiently armed and accoutred, and committee of the states.

shall provide and have constantly ready (Articles of Confederation.) for use, in public stores, a due number agreed upon by the United States in of field pieces and tents, and a proper

congress assembled. quantity of arms, ammunition, and ART. 9. The United States in concamp equipage.

gress assembled shall have the sole and No state shall engage in any war exclusive right and power of determiwithout the consent of the United ning on peace and war, except in the States in congress assembled, unless cases mentioned in the sixth articlesuch state be actually invaded by ede- of sending and receiving ambassadors mies, or shall have received certain -enteriog into treaties and alliances; advice of a resolution being formed by provided, that no treaty of commerce some nation of Indians to invade such shall be made whereby the legislative state, and the dancer is so imminent as power of the respective states shall be not to admit of a delay till the United restrained from imposing such imposts States in congress assembled can be and duties on foreigners as their own consulted; nor shall any state grant people are subjected to, or from procommissions to any ships or vessels of hibiting the exportation or importation war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, of any species of goods or commodities except it be after a declaration of war whatsoever—of establishing rules for by the United States in congress as- deciding in all cases, what captures on sembled, and then only against the land or water shall be legal, and in kingdom or state, and the subjects what manner prizes taken by land or thereof, against which war has been so naval forces in the service of the Unideclared, and under such regulations ted States shall be divided or approprias shall be established by the United ated-of granting letters of marque and States in congress assembled, unless reprisal in times of peace-appointing such state be insested by pirates, in courts for the trial of piracies and felowhich case vessels of war may be fitted nies committed on the high seas, and out for that occasion, and kept so long establishing courts for receiving and as the danger shall continue, or until determining finally appeals in all cases the United States in congress assem- of captures; provided, that do member bled shall determine otherwise.

of congress shall be appointed a judge ART. 7. When land forces are rai. of any of the said courts. sed by any state for the common de- The United States in congress asfence, all officers of or under the rank sembled shall also be the last resort on of colonel, shall be appointed by the appeal in all disputes and differences legislature of each state respectively, now subsisting or that hereafter may by whom such forces shall be raised, or arise between two or more states corr in such manner as such state shall di- cerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any rect; and all vacancies shall be filled other cause whatever; which authority up by the state which first made the shall always be exercised in the manappointment.

ner following; whenever the legislative ART. 8. All charges of war, and all or executive authority or lawfui agent other expenses that shall be incurred of any state in controversy with anofor the common defence or general ther shall present a petition to congress, welfare, and allowed by the United stating the matter in question, and States in congress assembled, shall be praying for a hearing, notice thereoí defrayed out of a common treasury, shall be given by order of congress to which sball be supplied by the several the legislative or executive authority states in proportion to the value of all of the other state in coctroversy, and a land within each state granted to or day assigned for the appearance of the surveyed for any person, as such land parties, by their lawful agents, who and the buildings and improvements shall then be directed to appoint by thereon shall be estimated, according joint consent commissioners or judges to such mode as the United States in to constitute a court for hearing and congress assembled shall from time to determining the matter in question; time direct and appoint.

but if they cannot agree, congress shall The taxes for paying that proportion name three persons out of each of the shall be laid and levied by the authori- United Statas, and from the list of such ty and direction of the legislatures of persons each party shall alternately the several states, within the time strike out one, the petitioners begin

(Articles of Confederation.) ning, until the number shall be redu- before prescribed for deciding disputes ced to thirteen; and from that number respecting territorial jurisdiction benot less than seven por more than nine tween different states. names, as congress shall direct, shall, The United States in congress asin the presence of congress, be drawn sembled shall also have the sole and out by lot; and the persons whose exclusive right and power of regulating names shall be so drawn, or any five of the alloy and value of coin struck by them, shall be commissioners or judg- their own authority, or by that of the es, to hear and finally determine the respective states-fixing the standard controversy, so always as a major part of weights and measures throughout of the judges, wbo sball hear the cause, the United States-regulating the shall agree in the determination: and trade and managing all affairs with the if either party shall neglect to attend at Indians not members of any of the the day appointed, without showing states; provided that the legislative reasons which congress shall judge suf- right of any state within its own limits ficient, or being present shall refuse to be not infringed or violated—establishstrike, the congress shall proceed to ing and regulating post-offices from one nominate three persons out of each state to another throughout all the Unistate: and the secretary of congress ted States, and exacting such postage shallstrike in behalfof such party absent on the papers passing through the same or refusing: and the judgment and sen- as may be requisite to defray the extence of the court to be appointed in penses of the said office-appointing the manner before prescribed, shall be all officers of the land forces in the final and conclusive; and if any of the service of the United States, exceptparties shall refuse to submit to the au- ing regimental officers-appointing all thority of such court, or to appear, or

the officers of the naval forces, and defend their claim or cause, the court commissioning all officers whatever in shall nevertheless proceed to pro- the service of the United States-maknounce sentence or judgment, which ing rules for the government and regushall in like manner be final and deci. lation of the said land and naval forces, sive, the judgment or sentence, and and directing their operations. other proceedings, being in either case The United States in congress assemtransmitted to congress, and lodged bled shall have authority to appoint a among the acts of congress for the se- committee to sit in the recess of con. curity of the parties concerned: provi- gress, to be denominated “ a commitded, that every commissioner, before tee of the states;” and to consist of one he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, delegate from each state, and to apto be administered by one of the judges point such other committees and civil of the supreme or superior court of the officers as may be necessary for manastate, where the cause shall be tried, ging the general affairs of the United well and truly to hear and determine States, under their direction-to ap. the matter in question, according to the point one of their number to preside, best of his judgment, without favor, af. provided that no person be allowed to fection, or hope of reward:provided serve in the office of president more also, that no state shall be deprived of than one year in any term of three territory for the benefit of the United years—to ascertain the necessary sums States.

of money to be raised for the service of All controversies concerning the the United States, and to appropriate private right of soil, claimed under dif- and apply the same for defraying the ferent grants of two or more states, public expenses-to borrow money or whose jurisdiction as they may respect emit bills on the credit of the United such lands and the states which passed States, transmitting every half year to such grants are adjusted, the said grants the respective states an account of the or either of them being at the same sums of money so borrowed or emitted time claimed to have originated ante- -to build and equip a navy-to agree cedent to such settlement of jurisdic- upon the number of land forces, and to tion, shall, on the petition of either make requisitions from each state for party to the congress of the United its quota, in proportion to the pumber States, be finally determined, as near of white inhabitants in such state; as may be, in the same manner as is which requisition shall be binding, and

same

manner

(Articles of Confederation.) thereupon the legislature of each state publish the journal of their proceedings shall appoint the regimental officers, monthly, except such parts thereof re raise the men, and clothe, arm, and lating to treaties, alliances, or military equip them in a soldier-like manner, operations, as in their judgment require at the expense of the United States; secresy; and the yeas and days of the and the officers and men so clothed, delegates of each state on any question armed, and equipped, shall march to sball be entered on the journal, when it the place appointed, and within the is desired by any delegate: and the detime agreed on by the United States legates of a state, or any of them, at in congress assembled: but if the Uni

his or their request, shall be furnished ted States in congress assembled, shall, with a transcript of the said journal, on copsideration of circumstances, except such parts as are above exceptjudge proper that any state should not ed, to lay before the legislatures of the raise men or should raise a smaller several states, number than its quota, and that any ART. 10. The committee of the other state should raise a greater pum- states, or any nine of them, shall be ber of men than the quota thereof, such authorised to execute, in the recess of extra number shall be raised, officered, congress, such of the powers of conclothed, armed, and equipped, in the gress as the United States in congress

as the quota of such assembled, by the consent of nine state, unless the legislature of such states, shall, from time to time, think state shall judge that such extra num- expedient to vest them with; provided ber cannot be safely spared out of the that no power be delegated to the said same; in which case they shall raise, committee, for the exercise of which, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many by the articles of confederation, the of such extra number as they judge voice of nine states in the congress of can be safely spared. And the officers the United States assembled is requiand men so clothed, armed, and equip- site. ped, shall march to the place appoint- Art. 11, Canada, acceding to this ed, and within the time agreed on by confederation, and joining in the meathe United States in congress assem- sures of the United States, shall be ad. bled.

mitted into, and entitled to, all the adThe United States in congress as

vantages of this union: but no other sembled shall never engage in a war, colony shall be admitted into the same nor grant letters of marque and repri- unless such admission be agreed to by sal in time of peace, nor enter into any nine states. treaties or alliances, nor coin money,

ART. 12. All bills of credit emitted, nor regulate the value thereof, nor as- moneys borrowed, and debts contract. certain the sums and expenses neces- ed, by or under the authority of consary for the defence and welfare of the gress, before the assembling of the United States or any of them, nor emit United States, in pursuance of the prebills, nor borrow money on the credit sent confederation, shall be deeined of the United States, nor appropriate and considered as a charge against the money, nor agree upon the number of United States, for payment and satisvessels of war to be built or purchased, faction whereof the said United States or the number of land or sea forces to and the public faith are hereby solemobe raised, nor appoint a commander in ly pledged. chief of the army or pavy, upless nine Art. 13. Every state shall abide by states assent to the same; nor shall a the determination of the United States question on any other point, except for in congress assembled, on all questions adjourning from day to day, be deter- which, by this confederation, are submined, unless by the votes of a majority mitted to them. And the articles of of the United States in congress as

this confederation shall be inviolably sembled.

observed by every state, and the union The congress of the United States shall be perpetual; nor shall any alterashall have power to adjourn to any time tion at any time hereafter be made in within the year, and to any place with- any of them, unless such alteration be in the United States, so that no period agreed to in a congress of the United of adjourdment be for a longer duration states, and be afterwards confirmed than the space of six months; and shall by the legislature of every state.

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