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being called to a military life. He embarked in the squadron of M. Suffrein, served in India as a private, and afterwards became a Serjeant. In that country he married a lady with a large fortune. He was Subsequently major of militia in the isle of Bourbon, but was deprived of his commission by the governor without any real grounds. He returned to France, and complained bitterly of his treatment; the government, to indemnify him, gave him the cross of St. Louis. During the first years ■of the revolution, he was a lieutenant-general, and was under General Dumourier, who was much attached to him, and called him his Ajax. In November following he obtained the command of an army, destined against Treves and Coblentz. He fought several actions against the Austrians, particularly at PelleganandGrewenwacker. •In the report which is made of this last affair, General Beurnonville, after describing the combat as having lasted for three hours, said, the enemy had lost a number of men, while the French were quit for the little finger ot a grenadier. On the 4th of February, 1793, he was appointed minister of war, but he wrote almost immediately to the convention, requesting his dismission; for, (said he in his letter,) "It is better for me to serve my country by my sword, than by my pen." The demand caused some debates; in the end, however, he was permitted to leave Paris as soon as he hud cleared up his accounts. He was again appointed to the office on the 4th of March, and he then accepted it. After this second nomination the jacobin society having determined to get rid of the ministers, and of some of the most obnoxious of the representatives, sent emissaries to the office of the war minister, to assassinate General Beurnonville, who had no other means of- escaping than by scaling the walls of his own garden. At this period Cambaceres introduced the law for erecting an extraordinary criminal tribunal. Dumourier now wrote to the minister of war, and endeavoured to induce him to join in the projects he had formed with the Austrians. Beurnonville communicated the letters to the committee for general defence, and they sent the war minister on a mission to the French army, to arrest General Dumourier. Instead of accomplishing the ob

ject of his mission, the war minister, with his four coadjutors, was arrested by Dumourier, and they were conducted before the Austrian commander, Prince of Coburg. When the carriage was on the road to Touruay, he attempted to escape from the hussars who escorted them, and one of them was slightly wounded. General Clairfait received the prisoners with cold politeness, and Colonel Mack intimated to them that they must be detained as hostages for the queen and her son. After a severe illness Beurnonville was transferred to the fortress of Olmutz, where he remained until the 3d of November, 1795; at that epoch the commissaires were taken to Basil to be exchanged for the daughter of Louis XVI. On bis return to France he was named commander of the army of the Sambre and Meuse, and he carried on with success many operations on the Rhine. After the 4th of September, 1797, he was appointed to command the army in Holland. The moderate party intended him for a place in the directory, but could not carry his election. In November he was dismissed from the command of the Batavian army, and in 1798, was appointed inspector general. After the revolution of the 18th of Brumaire, (9th of November,) 1799, lie obtained the embassy to Berlin, and was afterwards sent on a similar mission to Madrid. About that time he married Mademoiselle Durfort. In 1805, he was named a senator, having previously received the title of count, and been decorated with the grand cross of the legion of honour. On the 1st of April, 1814, the general voted for the creation of a provisory government, and the exclusion of Bonaparte from the throne of France; and on the night of the 5th he contributed greatly to procure the rejection of a regency, and the establishment of the legitimate government. On the 4th of June the king made him a peer of France. On the return of Bonaparte he was proscribed by one of the legendaries, and he repaired to Ghent, and after the restoration of the king, was again placed on the list of peers, and admitted to the privy council. In November, 1819, the Marshal Beurnonville was elected one of the secretaries of the chamber.

TO CORRESPONDENTS, &c.

We are requested by a Correspondent to notice the sophistical apology made for the Plagiarisms of Lord Byron, by quoting the example of Shakespeare's extracts of speeches from Plutarch. "The cases are not parallel. In historical characters personal identity was to be preserved, but the plagiarisms of Lord Byron are on general topics, in which his lordship has had credit for inventions and descriptions palpably not his own. He did right, no doubt, to consult original descriptions, but wrong in not acknowledging them. Plagiarism consists in stealing another man's ideas and words without acknowledgment, and of this literary offence, his lordship, with all his acknowledged merit, appears to have been guilty."

MONTHLY MAGAZINE.

No. 359.] OCTOBER 1, 1821. [3 of VolT^

[graphic]

BUNYAN'S NATIVE HOUSE, AT ELSTOW. The justly celebrated Author of "Pilgrim's Progress," a work which ranks as a Theological Classic, was born at Elstow, near Bedford, in the Cottage, represented above, in 1628. His father, in this humble dwelling, followed the employment of a Tinker, but gave his son such education as qualified him for Pastor of a Baptist congregation at Bedford, in the performance of which duty, he was convicted of holding an unlawful conventicle, and to the eternal disgrace of the government and ministers of the profligate and infamous Charles the Second, was imprisoned Twelve Years And A Half in Bedford Gaol, where he wrote his "Pilgrim's Progress," and many other works. We are in possession of a drawing of the Gaol-Yard, as it then stood, and propose, on another occasion, to introduce it to our readers.

For the Monthly Magazine.

Account of the Private ConferEnce 0/ALEXANDER, EMPEROR of RUSSIA, with three QUAKERS, in the Summer of 1814, when the Emperor and the King of Prussia were in London.

Extract of a letter, dated 21st of the 7th month, 1814,from J. Wilkinson, one of the three who were admitted to an audience with the truly christian Emperor.

AFTER J. Wilkinson has in his letter given an account of the un

successful endeavours of the deputation Monthly Mag. No. 359.

of Friends to obtain an interview with the King of Prussia, he says—Verydifferent, indeed, from this, what passed with the Emperor of Russia, who, before the address of the Quakers was presented to him, went to the meeting at Westminster on a first day morning, (19th of the6th month) taking with him. his sister, the Duchess of Oldenhurgh, his ambassador, the Count of Lieven, and two young princes—one, I believe, was his nephew, Prince Oldenhurgh, (not the Duchess's son), the other's title I have forgot. Both the Emperor and his sister conducted themselves 2 B like

like persons on whose minds vital Christianity and undissembled piety had the predominance; and after the meeting concluded they did not hastily leave it, but with that condescension and kindness, which they have shewn in so remarkable a manner on every occasion, they staid to shake hands with, and notice several of their friends who were near them; and before gettine into the carriage, the Emperor told Mr. Allen who he would have wait on him with the address, fixing on the following day to receive it, saying that he wished for a private conference, therefore he would not have more attend than he-had named. Wm. Allen, however, made interest afterwards with the ambassador, for Stephen Grissette to be admitted.

The Emperor received us without having any other attendants with him, and we, William Allen, S. Grissette, and myself, J. Wilkinson, continued with him near an hour.

As soon as we began to enter the room, the Emperor came forward to us and shook hands with each of us in the most condescending and affectionate manner; and when John Allen presented the address to him, he took it, but did not open it, having previously said, he should not wish the time we should allot for the audience tobe taken up by reading an address, for he had seen a copy which was delivered to the ambassador on being asked to present it. Books were then presented, and the Emperor opened each of them, enquiring at the same time, with apparent interest, what they treated of. The books were, "Barclay's Apology," "Book of Extracts," "Penn*s no Cross no Crown," his "Summary and Maxims." After he had accepted the books, he turned round and expressed himself with great kindness, and in very full terms, concerning the satisfaction he felt at having been at the meeting, and wished to know whether it was held in the same manner our meetings usually are? He was informed that it was, but that there was not always speaking in our meetings.

"Do you then," said he, " read the Scriptures in them?"

44 We are not in that practice; we believe true worship to consist in the prostration of the soul before God, and we do not consider it absolutely necessary for any thing to be read or spoken to produce that effect."

"This is my opinion, also," replied

the Emperor, "and with regard to prayer, have you any form of prayer?" "We have not; because we believe that in prayer the soul must communicate its supplication in such a manner as best suits its condition at the time prayer is offered up."

"In that," replied the Emperor, " I fully agree with you. I believe I can truly say there is not a day passes in which I do not pray, but it is not in any set form of words, for I soon found that my mind would not be satisfied without .using, such language as at the moment is applicable to its condition; but you know Jesus Christ gave a set form of words to his disciples?"'

"He did; yet we conceive it was only to instruct them in which it was most essential they should petition for, without meaning to confine them to those very words on all occasions."

"I think you are right," said the Emperor. He then put many judicious questions, in order to be made acquainted with the leading features of thedoctrine,discipline, and punctuality of the Society, and appeared well satisfied with the answers he received. With regard to the operation of the Divine . Spirit on the mind, he expressed himself in such a manner, as one cannot conceive him short of being an humble and faithful follower of its holy and secret guidance. After making many enquiries about the society, he said in the most affectionate manner— "How is it that none of your people have been in Russia? If any of them go into my country on a religious account, don't let them wait for an introduction, but come immediately to me, I shall be glad to see them"—adding, " I shall be glad to see them."

Towards the conclusion of the audience, S. Grissette, in a respectful and affectionate manner, expressed the strong desire he felt for the Emperor's preservation, and the heavy burthens and complicated duties which must necessarily be allotted to him. Whilst S. Grissette was speaking, the Emperor took him by the hand, and, with a countenance full of nobility mingled with Christianity and tenderness, replied, " What you have said is a cordial to my mind, and which will long continue to be a strengthening to me;"— and when he parted with him, he shook hands with each of us, after saying, " I part with you as a friend and brother." I cannot but feel myself very unworthy to have been present on such an important important and interesting occasion, more especially having been one of onlythree; but perhaps if there had been many, the Emperor would not have felt the same unreserved freedom. For many days I seemed as though I had been exposed to a blaze of light, so powerfully was I impressed with the dignified, yet unaffected, humble, and pious countenance, manner, and expression, of that truly great Prince, who seems indeed to have been walking on the light, and to be filled with the love of truth and goodness. In him the power and law of the Almighty are eminently displayed; for how can we see a frail mortal, who, in the midst of worldly glory, and almost adored by surrounding multitudes, instead of being puffed up with it, is, with the spirit of an humble christian, triumphing over

Eride and vanity. How can one see a uman creature who has been nursed Up in the lap of despotism, and that in the midst of dark superstition, and yet filled with light? How can one see this, without being at the same time sensible of the beauty and truth of our Saviour's assurance ?" With God all things are possible"—it has indeed been a lesson which I earnestly desire may not be thrown away upon me, and which I hope may have a beneficial effect upon many.

I must not omit just mentioning, that being spoken to on the subject of the slave trade, the Emperor unequivocally declared his sense of the enormity of it, saying of the Africans, " they are our brethren, and are like ourselves." He also expressed himself in a very satisfactoiy manner, as to the part he had taken to get it abolished. The following account was communicated to Ann Wacey, by Stephen Grissette, personally:

Stephen Grissette, remarking to the Emperor the satisfaction of his having such a sister, the Emperor replied, " It is, indeed. She is the gift of Heaven, for she is sensible of the influence of the Divine principle on her own heart; it is no use to speak to those who have not felt it." On hearing S. G. relate some particulars of his own life, he mentioned, "I consider you as safely landed, whilst I have to combat with troubles and difficulties, and am surrounded with temptations. Why don't some of your people visit my country? If any do, don't make applications to others, but come immediately to me; I promise you protection, and every assistance in my power."

He made many enquiries respecting the principles of Friends, and said, " I am one with you in sentiment respecting the spirituality of your worship." Enquired how they passed their time— whether they were consistent and happy in domestic life? On being told how they divided the day, he remarked, "It is the most mature, and such as I should like—not as many who spend so much time in drinking wine, which is below the dignity of man." Asked if Friends had any colleges for the education of their young men ?—thought it would be better if they had; and enquired if any went to Oxford or Cambridge without they would adopt the costume and speaking of prayer? He said," I pray daily—not in any form, but as I am animated by the Divine principle in my own heart."

On taking leave of S. G., he said, "Take my hand as a friend and a brother. I have had great satisfaction in this interview, and nope, when parted, we shall often think of each other."

In giving this account, S. G. said, no words could convey the fullness of his satisfaction in having paid this visit. I believe I may truly call him the Christian Prince.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

SIR,

DURING my residence at Newcastle, I was induced to visit the tomb of the poet Cunningham, who lies buried in St. John's Church-yard, close by the side of his friend and patron, the late Mr. Slack. I was sorry to perceive his monument had suffered considerably, having two or three fissures in it, besides its having sunk considerably on one side. I had just been reading Carey's harmonious tribute to his memory; it was complimentary, but his genius deserved it, for surely of all those who have attempted the hacknied lays of pastoral poetry, no one, for fidelity of sketch, easy flow of metre, and tasteful simplicity of language, can equal the enchanting muse of our British Theocritus, Cunningham. As I stood by his modest Shrine, I could not help enthusiastically exclaiming, And sleepest thou here, sweet Bard, so mild,

Whom gentlest themes did once inspire; Thou who wert Nature's genuine child,

TJnmarr'd by Art's false tones, thy lyre.

His poem of " Day," contains such a selection of happily expressed images, that like the paintings of the unfortunate nate George Morland, we can see Nature within doors while perusing it.

What can exceed the vividness, the correct delineation of this stanza? '* From the low roofd cottage ridge, See the chattering swallow spring, Darting through the one arch'd hridge, Quick she dips her dappled wing." O Wouwermans, how would thy happy pencil have copied this!

But it was not in tuning his pipes amid the sylvan recesses of Pan and his wood nymphs, that Cunningham solely displayed his abilities as a poet. I fully agree with Dr. Evans in the eulogium he has passed upon him, and cannot but regret that, like Collins, Cunningham was so over-ruled by mental indolence that he could seldom *' muster courage" to give birth to the intellectual beauties ofhis mind. His "Elegy written on a Pile of Ruins," ranks, next to Gray's, the finest in our language; if the poetical reader consults those of Mason, Shenstone, Duucombe, Ogilvie, Whitehead, and a host of others, he will not find one whose language is so impressively solemn, whose sentiments are so suitably grand, nor_ any so interesting to the moral feelings as this often selected, incomparable elegy. I cannot help thinking that Burns, when he wrote his popular song of " Flow gently sweet Afton" had Cunningham's " Her Sheep had in Clusters" in his mind; both nymphs appear asleep, and beheld by their swains, who both desire the birds will not disturb their slumbers, &c. I could point out several other choice flowers which have been transferred from this English garden, by the Scotch bard to' his bouquet. In his person, Cunningham, like his brother "Corydon," Shenstone, was plain, and somewhat coarse featured, but his mildness of deportment, and unreserved agreeableness when in conversation, rendered him a favourite with every person who knew him. The list of subscribers to the life edition of his poems, shew how much he was held in esteem by the most respectable classes in society; he used often to be at Stockton on Tees, and occasionally came into the late Mr. Lumley's shop", during the time my uncle* was apprentice, who informed me he would sometimes stay and chat with him at the counter, about the markets, fishing, and theatrical performances: in short, he was considered by every person who

* The late Mr. George Smith, of St. Saviour's Church-yard.

had opportunities of knowing him, as a most agreeable man; he would generally spend his evenings in the parlour of a quiet public house, (I forget the sign) where, like Dr. Langhorne, and Professor Porson, his favourite beverage was ale. Enoht Smith.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. . SIR,

AS many of your correspondents write in favour of spade cultivation, and as most undoubtedly that is a most advantageous way of supplying the surplus or supernumerary labourers with employment, I beg leave to add an idea on the subject, which is, I believe new, and may, I think, prove highly beneficial.

Wherever the soil is good to the depth of ten or twelve inches, spade cultivation produces greater crops than the plough; at the same time it is admitted that to substitute spade cultivation for plough cultivation over the whole country would be retrograding in a strange and injurious manner, but I think there is a medium, or rather combination of the two, that might be probably attended with great advantage.

If all the arable land cultivated by the plough, that is deep enough in good soil, was to be delved with the spade once in ten or twelve years, I should think that it might be attended with advantage in point of affording greater crops. Tn that case, for every farmer to dig or delve one tenth of his land every year, would be the best way to put the plan in execution; and if that was found to answer it would give employment to a great number of hands.

The superior produce, by spade cultivation, is, I believe, ascertained so far that any given number of acres, cultivated by the spade, will yield better crops than if they were cultivated by the plough; it would then, at least, be well worth while to try the experiment of occasionally digging aploughed field, for if that answered it would be attended with every advantage in a country that is fully peopled, as it would increase the demand for labour, as well as the profits of the farmer, and the quantity of food. In a nation where the number of inhabitants is increasing so fast, as it seems they are now doing in this country, it is at least prudent, if not absolutely necessary, to begin to adopt every plan that will reconcile increased population with increased prosperity. ,

Population,

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