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ment, in different degrees of detail, of distinguished by counties; and the the amount and expenditure of the eight latter years are averaged in three poor rates in the years ending at Easter, periods; the first of three years, ending 1748, 1749, 1750; 1776, 1783, 1784, in March, 1815, being the period which 1785, 1803, and 1813, 1814, 1815; your was under the consideration of the committee have, therefore, included in conimittee of 1817, and which reached their abstract so much of the account to the first year of peace; the second, of those former years as can be compar. embracing a like period of three years, ed with the more recent accounts; so ending in March, 1818; and the third, that the house has now before it a state- comprising only two years, to March, ment of the amount of the poor rates 1820, which may be completeď to a at several periods, commencing in the triennial period, when the returns remiddle of the last century, and reach. cently ordered shall bave been received. ing the year preceding the last.
To this abstract, with the view of The first statement which your como facilitating any comparisons which the mittee submit to the house shows, in members of the house may think it degross sums, the amount of monies as- sirable to make, of the relative expensessed and levied in England and Wales diture of the poor-rates in each county, at each former period, and in each year with its population, your committee comprised in the late returns; aud the have also annexed a table of the numamount expended upon the poor, and ber of people in each county, according for other purposes, with other distinc- to the enumeration taken in 1811. . tions to be found in some of the returns. And they have brought from the ab
Your committee present to the house, stract of 1815, the account of the proin the second place, an account of the perty assessed in each county under sums expended in each county for the schedule A. relief of the poor only, in each of the. They have also thought it useful to eight years, ending on the 25th of March, annex an account of the average price of 1820, being the latest period for which corn in England and Wales, in such of there are the means of giving complete the years ending on the 25th of March, yearly accounts: of these eight years, included in their abstracts, as have octhe accounts of the first three are taken cured since the establishment of the from the return of 1813, the others are office of Receiver of corn returns. The from the returns referred to your com- accounts of these averages already bemittee; these they have combined in fore the House are geuerally made up order that the eight years may be viewed to a period of the year not correspondtogether. ;!".
ing with that of the poor-rate accounts; Your committee have not thought it and as comparisons are sometimes made expedient to give the detailed account between the amount of the poor rates of each parish. The house having lately and the price of wheat, they trust that called for returns of the poor-rates for this account of the prices may be acthe year ending the 25th of March, 1821, ceptable to the House. it appears to your committee more con- Your committee do not feel themvenient that a parochial acoount, em- selves at liberty to make any observabracing nine years, should be prepared tions which are not suggested by the early in the next Session of Parliament, mere inspection of the several abwhen the house will have the additional stracts. advantage of an opportunity of consi- . These observations, they trust the dering these returns in connexion with House will permit them to commence, the result of the late enumeration of by the statement of a few results drawn the people..
from the returns of the earlier periods, They have at the same time the satis- which have indeed been formerly stated -faction of informing the house that all to the House, but which it may be usethe parochial returns and correct ab- ful to place here: . ' stracts in which each parish is distin- . The pecuniary annount of the levies guished, are carefully arranged, so as by way of poor's-rate progressively, and to facilitate reference by any member very largely increased from 1789 to of the house to the return of any parti. 1812: cular district.
The amount of the sums applied to • The committee lay before the house, the relief of the poor, increased within thirdly, a statement in which the former the saine period progressively, and very returns, so far as they relate to the ex- largely: penditure upon the poor only, are also The amount expended for other pur
poses increased progressively, and still county abstracts with the view of as. more largely than the expenditure on certaining the exceptions which are to account of the poor.
be found, in particular counties, to In reference to comparisons with the the results drawn from a general averyear 1803 your committee have to ob- age. serve, that there is no account of any These exceptions are most numerous average of years between 1783-4-5, and as to the first triennial period. In the 1813-14-15; nor any account of any counties of Durham, Hertford, Kent, single year between those periods, ex- Middlesex, and Surrey, the amount cept that of the year 1803. The House was considerably greater in 1813-14 will judge whether there would have than in 1812-13, and in seven other been any materially different result, if counties of England, and in eight of an average of 1801-2-3 had been taken, Wales, there was also a slight excess. instead of the year 1803 only. How. But there is no exception to the stateever this may be, it is clear that in ment, that the year 1814-15 was below 1812-13 the expenditure, both for the the average of the two earlier years, poor and for other purposes greatly and below the year immediately preexceeded the amount in 1803. Since ceding. 1812, the total expenditure in both · As to the second period there are branches has still furtlier increased; three exceptions to the gradual rise to and the remark made upon the former the year 1817-18, and to the statement statements, that the expenditure for that that year was the highest which other purposes rose more rapidly than had at that time been known. In the the expenditure on the poor, is not ap- county of Nottingham the year 1816-17 plicable to the later years.
was the highest; and in Wiltshire and The subsequent remarks your com- in Berkshire the year 1812-13 exhibited mittee will confine to the amount of an amount which has 'not since been money expended upon the poor within equalled. the last eight years.
· There are more numerous exceptions · It appears, on an inspection of the to the statement, that the year 1817-18 table of averages, that the expenditure was higher than any subsequent year ; has continned to increase from 1812 to for it appears that in the counties of 1820:
Devon and Surrey there was an excess, The first period averaging . £6,122,844 not inconsiderable, in 1818-19 over the The second ....... 6,844,290 preceding year; and a slight excess in The third . . . . . . . 7,430,622 Bedford, Cumberland, Gloucester, Hun. But the annual abstract shows, that tingdon, Lincoln,Middlesex, Northampthis increase has not been progressive, ton, Rutland, Westmorland, and the year by year, throughout the whole East and North Ridings of Yorkshire. period, and that it is not now progres. In other counties of England there was sive.
scarcely a diminution, and in Wales, • From the year 1812-13, the amount generally, an excess. In Cumberland, declined gradually in the two subse Leicester, Lincoln, and the West Ridquent years (which were years of war ;) ing of Yorkshire, the year 1819-20 rose again in the next three years, so shows the greatest amount. as to be in 1817-18 greater in pecuniary • The exceptions to the statement, that amount than at any former or subse as the two years of the third period, of quent period of which returns exist, which there are returns, there was a In each of the two succeeding years, slight diminution in the second, arise forming the first and second of the third in the counties of Chester, Cumberland, triennial period, the expenditure de. Derby, Durham, Leicester, Lincoln, Not: clined again, but not very considerably. tingham, Warwick, and the West Riding The returns for the year 1820-21 re. of Yorkshire. cently returned, will show whether the Reverting to the averages, it is to be amount has continued to decrease; and remarked, that there is no exception to your committee have been informed, the general excess of the second period that the greater number of the returns over the first ; and that Berkshire, which have already been received ex. Norfolk, and Salop, afford the only hibit a more or less considerable dimni. exceptions to the general excess of the nution.
third period over the second.. Those comparisons are taken from At the foot of the table of yearly the total amount of England and Wales. amounts, the house will find a stateYour committee have considered the ment, in which the returns from towns
are distinguished from all others. The gross amount of the expenditure, fall towns included in this distinction are very short of what is gecessary to enable those which in the abstract of popular the house to judge of the nature and tion in 1811 are set dovn in Roman causes of the variations in the amount. capitals.
For that purpose it would be necessary This separate account of the towns to have accounts, shewing the different affords no exception to the general circumstances under which relief has statements which are worthy of partis been afforded, and the rate and prin. cular remark.
ciple of relief adopted in each district. It appears that select vestries, under The able bodied entirely out of employ; the act 59 Geo. 3. c. 12, have been ap- the able bodied earning wages pot suffipointed in 2006 parishes; and assis cient for the maintenance of his family; tant-overseers in 2257. The whole the married, the single, the sick and number of parishes, townships, or other impotent, the aged, the labourer in subdivisions, from which returns have husbandry, and the manufacturer or, been required, is about 14,700.
mechanic, should all be distinguished. Your committee have not thought it And it should be know whether the necessary to make any selections from relief is afforded at the discretion of the the 66 Observations” which in con- parishes themselves, or by order of the formity with the orders of the house, Justices of the Peace. have in some instauces been subjoined The committee are not of opinion by the parish officers to the returns that returns in this detail could cons ;-Many of these are irrelevant; sume, veniently be called for by order of the such as the Committee must have no- house. ticed with reprobation; but there are I t is for the house to consider whether others of a different character; and overseers, in rendering their accounts your committee conceive, that much under the act 50 Geo. 3. c. 49, should useful information would be obtained, be required by a new law, to state these if parish officers would, whenever their or any other particulars, in a prescribed returns exhibit a remarkable variation, form, so that a more complete and usewhether of excess or diminution, from ful account of the expenditure of the the preceding year, give some explana- poor rates than any which has hitherto tion of the causes of the variation appeared, might be rendered periodi.
And here your committee avoid ob- cally to parliament. serving, that returns stating merely the 10th July, 1821., a
NEW PATENTS AND MECHANICAL INVENTIONS.
TO CHRISTOPHER Hilton, of Darwin, allowing the water to escape, and the near Blackburn, Bleacher; for a pulp to form itself; after which it is Process for the Purpose of improving pressed between two rollers of inetal, and finishing manufactured Piece or other suitable materials, situated at Goods.
the end of the aforesaid series of rollers, M ER. HILTON declares that his in- and driven by gear, the top roller being
M vention of a process for the pur. covered with a felt or flannel, and suppose of improving and finishing ma- plied with a stream of clean water, to nufactured piece goods, is as follows: prevent the pulp from adhering to the it consists in applying a pulp, such as roller, which it would otherwise do. is obtained by grinding cotton or linen, It is to be observed, that the pulp, preto improve the appearance of cotton or vious to its being applied, should be linen manufactured piece goods, or a kept in a state of agitation, and con. mixture of the same, which he accom. siderably diluted with water, more or plishes as follows: The goods being al.. less, according to the fineness or coarse, ready prepared, as heretofore practised ness of the goods; the proper degree of by the trade, they are introduced on which dilution must be left to the disan even surface, of about three yards cretion and judgment of the workman; in length, formed by small rollers, and and that the diluted pulp is made to the pulp applied, and permitted to filter fiow evenly on the surface of the cloth, itself into and on the manufactured by passing through a boy with several piece goods, which are inade to pass divisions in it. His invention consists over the said surface at the rate of about in applying such pulp as is obtained 12 yards in a minute, for the purpose of by grinding cotton or linen to cotton
or linen' manufactured piece goods, 'orand by means of the rods attached to the a mixture of the same, instead of, or bent lever the pump-rod and bucket in addition to the stiffening of them are worked. with starch,
.There is also a contrivance, for shewTO RICHARD WITTY, of Sculcoats in ing at all times, in the cabin, or else:
the County of York, for certain Ime where, the height of water occupying provements in Pumps of various Con- the lower part of the ship. A float, structions for raising and conveying from which a rod passes up through the Water; and Methods of applying decks, raises the top of the rod in certain Principles to Ships' Pumps. front of a graduated scale and in
For the first part of this invention, dicates the height of the water below. the patentee introduces a siphon into Or a small line from the rod is passed the pump barrel, for the purpose of over pullies with a plummet suspended drawiug off water or other liquors from upon a graduated scale.-April, 1821. ships, distilleries, &c. when raised by TO JAMES GOODMAN, of Northampton, the pumps to a certain level, instead of for an Improved Stirrup-iron. forcing the fluid entirely up to the top . This consists in the introduction of of the barrel, and then suffering it, as a cross-bar, bearing a spring within the usual on ship-board, to run over on the open bottom of a stirrup-iron supportdecks; or, instead of letting the watering a false bottom, which rises and falls escape at the usual places of delivery, according to the motion of the horse, he causes it to descend again in a siphon and affords relief to the rider; the horse pipe, to the lowest level at which it can is also relieved from any sudden presconveniently be delivered. By this sure, and they prevent the breaking of contrivance a considerable portion of the saddle-tree, the weight of the rider the labour of pumping the water from being uniformly carried upon an elastic below up to the deck is saved.
instead of a solid bearing.-June, 1821. The water on shipboard, is to be To ABRAHAM HENRY CHAMBERS, raised in the pump barrel to a little Esq. of New Bond-street, London, above the level of the water, in which for an improvement in the manufacthe vessel floats. The mouth of the ture of a Building Cement, or plaster, siphon is introduced into the barrel some by means of the application and comdistance below the water line; the pipe bination of certain known materials is thence carried up to the deck, and hitherto unused for that purpose. down the side of the ship, the longest This improvement consists in the leg of the siphon reaching to the wa- employment of certain burnt or vitriter's edge, consequently, when the fied earths, and metallic and other subpump is working, the siphon draws' all stances, which are pounded or ground the water out of the pump barrel as to powder, and mixed with lime for low as the level of the water in which the purpose of producing the said buildthe ship swims; so that the men who ing cement. work the pump are relieved from the The earthy substances used, are all weight of all that part of the rising co those kinds of clay or loam that are lumn from the water line to the usual capable of becoming vitrified and inplace of delivery.
tensely hard by exposure to a strong The second part of the invention is a fire; chalk and such earths as become contrivance for working pumps, by soft and fall to pieces, when exposed to which the physical powers of a man can heat, are unfit for the purpose; but be more beneficially exerted than in flint stones or pebbles may be used with the ordinary mode of pumping. It is advantage. Trial upon a small scale proposed to place the man in a rocking may be made to determine the capachair, which is to vibrate upon a ful- bility of any particular earth, by excrum or joint, at the bottom. · To the posing it to a very strong heat, when if top of the chair back is attached a it runs into a vitrified state, or becomes rope or rod, leading to a hent lever, excessively hard, it may be considered which raises the pump-rod. The man, fit for the purpose, if otherwise not. being seated in the rocking chair, places The proper kinds of earth being thus his legs in a horizontal position with selected, the material is heated in the his feet pressing against the pump-bar- interior of a brick-kiln, or furnace, rel, and holds a rod also attached to until it becomes completely vitrified or the bent lever. He is thus enabled to reduced to a state of hard, black or rock the chair backwards and forwards, glassy slag ; aud this vitrification will sometimes be improved, by mixing quick lime, completely pulverised and refuse, or broken glass, or sand and put into casks for use; it is however wood ashes.
necessary to keep it from moistnre, or The patentee also claims the exclu. exposure to the open air. The proporsive privilege of appropriating to his tion of quick lime to be added to the improved purpose, other slags or vitri. above material, depends entirely upon fied materials, such as those which come the strength of the lime; in general, from the furnaces of smelting houses, one measure of good lime will be suffiglass-houses, foundries, &c. or any ma- cient for from three to five measures of terials reduced to a state of vitrification the material. by intense heat. These materials are Another part of the improvement then to be bruised, pounded, or ground, consists in the introduction of various and sifted through a wire sieve, until re- colours, and of various coloured bricks, duced to such a state of fineness, as may which, when highly burnt or vitrified, be proper for mixing up as a plaster. and reduced to powder, is to be mixed Thus prepared, the materials are sorted up with the artificial pozzolana in order into different qualities, and put up for to produce spots or streaks, in imitause.
tion of marble and other variegated The manner of using this material, stone. is by mixing it with well burnt lime The patentee also claims the excluinstead of the sand usually employed in sive right of using the above vitrified the composition of stucco or cement, to earths, and other materials, for mixing which water must be added, until a with lime or plaster of Paris, in casting proper consistency is obtained. This figures, ornaments, and mouldings of artificial pozzolana, may be mixed with every description.-July, 1821.
: VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,
Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.
W E hope in our next, or next fol. mates of Irish population have been
VV lowing publication, to have the made within 150 years : gratification of submitting to our read. Petty's, in 1672 – 1,100,000 ers, the general results of the new po- South's in 1701 - 1,034,102 pulation returns for Great Britain and Newenham's, in 1731 - 2,010,221 İreland. We have already collected Anon se
1736 2,321,412 the local returns as they have trans
1754 2,372,634 pired in the provincial papers, and we
1777 2,690,556 are now able, by the obliging communi.
1785 - 2,845,932 cation of an Irish friend, to communi.
Beaufort's, in 1792 4,088,226 cate the returns of some of the principal
Newenham's, in 1805 5,395,426 Irish towns.
Parliament's, in 1813 - 5,937,856
This last return, however, was so deBY THE RETURNS OF 1821. Town. No. of Houses.
fective, that new returns have been Limerick
. 8266 66,043 made, and we learn that these will Belfast
5754 35,084 prove the sister kingdom to contain a Yougball, . . 1222 8804 present population of nearly siX MILCashell,
1142 5969 LIONS AND A HALF.
5656 Mr. CHARLES DUpin, the celebrated Tullamore,
5561 engineer of the French navy, and 2027
5429 Member of the French Institute, has BY THE RETURNS OF 1814.
just published the second part of his Dublin
Travels in Great Britain. The opinions Cork
of the most distinguished scientific chaWaterford - 25,467 racters have confirmed the favourable
opinion we have expressed of the first Drogheda - '16,123 part, which treated of our military We have also before us, Mr. Shaw strength ; and we are confident the best Mason's valuable Statistical Report, or judges will be equally unanimous in Parochial Survey of Ireland, the third praise of the second, on the naval volume of which has just been pub- strength, which we have also examined. lished. It appears, by the preface to In these two new volumes relative to this volume, that the following esti. the English navy, we have found the