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effects of winter, it suffers decay: this decay proceeding downwards produces a hole in the trunk, ami it frequently occurs, that from some injury sustained decay also takes place in the outer bark, by which a hole is formed, at times large enough to admit the head of an animal. A hole being thus produced, we may infer that a sheep, a goat, or a lawn, whose tender horns might have been then jutting, forced its head into the aperture—the horns yielding to pressure, were again raised within the hole, rendering it impossible for the animal to extricate itself: but when discovered, no doubt the farmer took off the body by cutting the neck close to the tree. To support this position, we must .suppose the hole not to have been above four or five feet at most from the ground, whereas it is asserted to have been nine feet. (Query.) Was the measurement taken from the top of the bank on which the tree grew, or from the general surface of the field, or was there a hedge or any piece of elevated ground, so near
that the animal could command the tree? If the animal could not reach her hole, it is more difficult to account for thecircumstance; we may, however, I presume, unravel this mysterious and singular case from one of the following causes; first, at the time the animal became entangled, the hole was a few feet lower in the stock of the tree than at present, aud that the tree in progress of growth, carried up with it the skull; or, that the head of a stolen and slaughtered animal had been forced into the hole by some depredator, in order to avoid detection; whilst Nature, recovering her tone in the tree, the annual bark closed the opening, and forming around the skull, produced wood of a dark colour, as represented in the engraving accompanying the account.
The present explanation, with instances of interesting and similar phenomena, is just published in a work, entitled, Iieligiosa Philosophia, or,a new theory of the earth.
Stonehouse, Sept. 15. W. Welch.
The late Alexander Stephens, Esq. of Park House, Chelsea, devoted an active and well-spent life in the collection of Anecdotes of his contemporaries, and generally entered in a book the collections oj the passing day ;—these collections tee hare purchased, and propose to present a selection from them to our readers. As Editor of the Annual Obituary, and many other biographical works, he may probably hare incorporated many of these scraps ; but the greater part are unpublished, and all stand alone a* cabinet pictures of men and manners, worthy of a place in a literary miscellany.
LETTER//07B LORD NELSON to MR. STEPHENS. 23, Piccadilly, Feb. 10," 1803. Sir,—By your letter 1 believe that you wish to be correct in your history,* and therefore desire to be informed of a transaction relative to Naples. I cannot at this moment enter at large on the subject to which you allude, but 1 shall briefly say, that neither Cardl. Ruffo, Capt. Foote, or any other person had any power vested in them to enter into any treaty with the rebels; that even the paper which they so improperly signed, was not acted upon, as 1 very happily arrived at Naples, and prevented such an infamous transaction from taking place. / put aside the dishonourable treaty, and sent the rebels
* The History of the] War, written by ]V|r. Stephens.
notice of it; therefore when the rebels surrendered they came out of the, castles as they ought, without any honours of war, and trusting to the judgment of their sovereign.
If you allude to Mrs. Williams's book, 1 can assure you that nearly all she writes relative to Naples, is either entirely destitute of foundation, or falsely represented. If you wish to have any conversation with me en this subject, I am at home every morning at ten o'clock, anil am, Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
Nelson & Bronte. LORD NELSON'S Observations on Miss
lfriltiams,s History of the Neapolitan
Pages in which are lies.—128, not true—129, not true—130, not true-r139, Gozzo was part of the territory of the King of Naples—142, not true— 143, not true—148, P. Molituno betrayed his trust—170, not true—174, Capt. Foote's capitulation, though not approved, yet most religiously adhered to—178, capitulation not closed, but negotiation broke off by Lord Nelson, who would allow the rebels no terms but unconditional submission, and this was regularly notified to the Cardinal, and he desired me to acquaint the rebels of it. and this must have been done from the rebels coining out of the forts as prisoners, and not as soldiers. Sir A. Ball and Sir T. Trowbridge, were Nelson's messengers to the Cardinal— 182,183, not a sentence of truth—201, not a word true about C. Trowbridge; he could receive no orders but from Lord N.—204, a Russian frigate met these vessels, and wished to act contrary to the capitulation, but the English would not suffei it—206, protection not promised, except from murder— 210, whatever Carraccioli had been, he fought against his King, and it is not pretended that he was in any capitulation. He was tried by aboard of Neapolitan officers, found guilty of rebellion, and hanged by order of Lord N., whose dear friend he had been.—Pages from 212 to 221, prove that the prties were rebels, and of course liable to suffer death—221, Circillo, strange to say, would not be saved; he refused Sir William and Lady H—n's entreaty on the quarter-deck of the Foudroyant. When brought up for trial, and asked who he was ? answered,'" in the reign of the tyrant, I was a physician; in the time of the republic, I was a patriot, and now I am a victim." He made his application for mercy too late, or the queen would have begged his forfeited life of the king for the sake of his aged and good mother—22, if what Miss Williams says is true in this page, there would require no other fact to • • • they all deserved death— 317, Bonaparte would have been sent to Jaffa, not London, to answer for his murder of 4000 Turks, his prisoners.
GENERAL WABHlWlTON's FATHER and MR. JEFFERSON. The following particulars 1 had from
the Rev. Mr. ■, of , in America,
who was well acquainted with Governor .Jefferson, and had been actually at college with him. My authority for i hem is so good, that we may rely upon them.
Mr. Washington's father was a young Englishman, who had repaired to Ame
rica, and studied mathematics in William and Mary College, in the then Colony of Virginia. Towards the latter end of his life, lie purchased a tract of land in that portion of the province which constituted what was called the Back Settlements. Sotheywereat that period, but such a difference lias taken place, in consequence of the extension of the Indian country, that they now form a part of the interior. To his house and plantations he gave the name of Monticello, or Little Mountain, and there he spent the remainder of his days.
Colonel Wakefield says, that the Washington family emigrated from Thorn, in the neighbourhood of Doncaster, in Yorkshire; and I understand that traces of them are preserved in the church-yard, in the monumental form.
Young Jefferson was a boy on the demise of his father, whose moral and religious principles, with the arrangements and pursuits he engaged in as a man of business, had rendered him respectable. During a long minority, the neighbourhood becoming more extensive and populous, from numerous families removing thither, his property kept pace with the improvements and advantages resulting therefrom ;-so that on his attaining the age of 21, he was considered as one of the most opulent of the Virginians.
It would be a curious speculation to trace the extraordinary effects sometimes produced by education—to discuss the-point 01 doctrine, how far principles early instilled, become prejudices—how far opinions and conduct depend on those who have the charge of tuition—of preparing an exordium —a fit foundation for the great structure, Man. Leaving this induction to the philosopher's judgment, it is sufficient if I state that young Jefferson's tutor happened to be a French Huguenot, who having suffered injuries and insults, grave and pointed, as the victim of arbitrary power, hail conceived the most determined antipathy to kingly government. Placed under this man, whose example and reasonings were more forcible than his authority, the political morals of the youth corresponded with the means of his education, and he became, in doctrine and theory, with scarcely the exception of a feature,a staunch republican.
When the unhappy contest took place with our colonies, Mr. Jefferson carried his early principles into practice, declaring daring against the oppressive conduct of the mother country—exhorting and encouraging the insurgents to persevere in their exertions. < On the war breaking out, he acted with great energy and spirit, distinguishing himself by . his eloquence in popular assemblies, and employing his efforts to propagate his own principles. To mark his disapprobation of the cruelties exercised by the English, he imprisoned a Colonel Hamilton in a common jail—as an event subservient to the purposes of the Lex Talionis. year. Paul, during his infancy, was brought up on the sea coast, where Arbigglingly is situated* and a sea-faring life being adapted to his disposition, he early acquired the habits and manners peculiar to its nature, which the local circumstances of the people and country assisted.
I should have stated previously that, as soon as qualified for that purpose, he was sent to William and Mary College, where he studied mathematics, under Mr. Small, brother of the late Colonel S., and Greek under Mr. .
Ore a Scotch Lady of Quality about to bathe in the Sea.
Too lovely Scot, what woud'st thou crave
From yonder Heaven-directed wave?
Not health, the Loves and Graces cry,
Hygeia beams in'either eye;
Not Beauty, for the rose's hue,
The rose's sweetness dwells with you. v
EXTEMPORE, on seeing the new Barracks at Buckingham Ilonse, in 1802, with the King's Arms above and a long chain dantjling below, towards the head of a CcntixeL
'Such are the glories of great George's reign, Below the bayonet, and above the chain!
LETTER of ALDERMAN BECKFORD,
to the Son of the King of Corsica.
Fonthill.July 31,1769. Dear Sir,—I am much obliged for your letter of the 28th, and for the good opiniou you are pleased to entertain of my public character, far exceeding my deserts. I do most sincerely regret the unhappy fate of the brave Corsicans. I am confident it was in the power of our administration to have prevented this unjust usurpa■ tion of the French, without running the risque of a new war. Our commerce in the Mediterranean will suffer severely by this most impolitical coivduct of our ministers. You knew my opinion, and the prognostications I have taken the liberty to make public.
It will always give me pleasure to see you in Soho Square, on my return to London. I am, Sir, Your most obedient, obliged humble servant,
W. Bbckford. Monthly Mag. No. 360.
List of the Subscriptions for the Corsicans, in 1769, received at Messrs. Drummonds.
£ s. d. OfF.L. . . 10 0 0
Edward Delaval, esq. , 110
Mrs. Ben. Matthews . 20 0 0
A.H. . .110
Mr. William Leathly . 10 10 0
Of a little man whose mind is
bigger than bis purse . 20 0 9 W.J.S. E. . . . 5 5 0
Viscount Nuneham . . 50 0 0 A. R. . . .330
M. R. . . .330
W. Craven and Co. '. 3 8 3
George Chad, esq.' 10 10 O
Corsophilos . . 110
Of a lady a friend to the distress-
The choice made by Paul of a profession, to the dignities of which lie aspired, contributed, eventually, to his rise and celebrity, bylifting him from obscurity, and enabling him to play, at least, a secondary part, on the stage of public politics. The sea proved fatal, however, to his legitimate brother, the heir to the family estate, who perished during a voyage in an open boat,between Arbiggling and Carlisle; his first cousin now enjoys the estate.
Paul went to sea, sailed to America, and there found himself an humble adventurer: but his conduct manifesting all the characteristics of intrepid and persevering valour, aided by active vigilance, his sentiments also being truly patriotic, on the war breaking out he displayed a degree of vigour, which gave an impulse to American energies, and his exertions contributed to their assistance, in repelling the aggressions of Great Britain.
Paul had military talents, with coolness and judgment. In his cruise in the British seas, he signalized alike his skill and prowess, and from the promptness and decision with which he acted, our officers conceded to him superior understanding and a determined mind. He was a man much talked of in the world, and if caressed by the principal actors in different governments, it was personal merit that constituted the ground of his fame and elevation.
CRUELTY TO ANIMALS.
To deliver my opinion on this subject, I shall premise that my sentiments are similar to the language which philosophy has ever assumed. That labour is honourably and profitably employed by parents in the instruction of their children, which exhibits and inculcates, produces and confirms, mildness and benevolence of character towards their fellow animals. Moral improvement ought to be a general object, preparatory in education to that which is intellectual. It is not the bipes hnpennis only that can resist and complain. Other species, whatever be their necessary inequality, are adapted to their different functions, iu the or
der of beings, and are equally proper for their several destinations in the diversity which pervades the fitness of things.
As those are the best governments, and the best upheld, which act systematically on this principle, a portion of tuition, public and private, ought to be directed accordingly. Parents should enter fully and minutely into this subject, as it is a matter of the first importance to render liberal sentiments compatible with extensive knowledge and mental vigour.
Man arrogates to himself the proud title of Lord of the creation: if he is the first in dignity, he should extend his protection to the dependent creatures, a part of whom suffer from his unparalleled injustice, supported by his extraordinary power.
The parent who, either from indifference, or a savage disposition, allows 8 son to be brought up without forming or correcting his judgment, in accordance with the principle here considered, must expect to reap a crop of ingratitude on the part of the child. Without knowing or wishing to know any thing of his family, sure I am that some gross mismanagement must have taken place
in the education of the late Mr. A
of Hampstead, or he could not have ordered a game fowl to be roasted alive, because it had refused to fight another animal of the same kind at a cockpit.
APOLOGIES for ABUSES.
There is no abuse, ancient or modern, for which ingenious men will not employ their art to find an excuse. France was overrun by a swarm of drones, secular and regular, "black, white, and grey, with all their trumpery." A display of erudition is pleaded in extenuation of the offence of idleness. In "haboriosus nihil agendo1"1 we discover the great character of the genus, and we put it to this test, but we see that it is connected with some collateral good in the species. Hence we are told that the Benedictines cherished a love for the knowledge of antiquities; that the Dominicans, for their scholastic philosophy, reflected lustre on their order; so also the Jesuits, for raising literary fabrics, formed ou classic models, and the Oratorians as men of capacity and information in the higher branches of the mathematics.
CURE/fli the GRAVEL.
Take leek roots, cut them into pieces, and boil a quart until reduced to a pint,