Sivut kuvina

and insured bis success. He declared in an address to the people on the fifth day, that he had been offered two hundred crowns a month by the archbishop of Naples, if he would give up their cause, which offer he refused ; he added, that when he had succeeded in securing their rights, he should return to his old occupation of fishing, desiring no other recompense than their gratitude. His head, however, does not seem to have been sufficiently strong to bear the sudden and great elevation to which he was raised, for he soon became arbitrary and capricious in the exercise of his power, and so strange and eccentric were some parts of his conduct, that they can only be accounted for on the ground of insanity. From these causes the [tide of popular favour began to turn against him, his adherents gradually fell off, and at length on the tenth day of the insurrection, a party of gentlemen attached to the government, under pretence of holding a conference with him, went suddenly into a cloister of the church of Carmine, where he was taking repose, and shot him. He fell exclaiming "Ah, ungrateful traitors!" His head was immediately cut off, and his body exposed to the greatest indignities by the populace. The history concludes as follows:

"In this manner ended the life and empire of Masanello, having foretold it himself on the ninth of July, the third day of the revolution, when going up the market-place, he told the people that what he did was for the public benefit of the city, and he knew well that when he had finished the work, lie should be slain, and dragged up and down the streets of Naples: yet he desired that the people should remember him; and they answered, we will all die with thee. And so it happened; for having confirmed the interests of the city, and caused their privileges and the confirmation of them to be subscribed and sworn unto by the Viceroy and all the councils, he was the third day after assassinated, and hauled up and down the streets: his head was thrown into a ditch called the cornditch, hard by the house of Ardizzone, and his body cast into another ditch between the gates Nolana and Capuana."

It is for posterity to decide to which pariy the blame of excesses committed during these transactions ought to attach. Certainly if resistance to a

government by a community is ever to be justified, it was in this case, where the most intolerable burdens were laid on the people, and when, to use their own words, "there was no cessation of new ones every year, by the ministers of his Catholic Majesty, the greatest part whereof wereimposed by the voices of the nobility and gentry, and with violence of penal mandates and imprisonments"—" there being promised on the contrary to the nobility and powerful persons, an exemption from the said gabells and impositions, whereby many of them became extremely rich", by renting and farming the said impositions.'" ,

But the subsequent conduct of the administration of Naples must forever expose them to the abhorrence of all good men. A manifesto of "the most faithful people" is attached to the end of this work, from which it appears, that as soon as the government had got rid of their formidable opponent Masanello, they broke the solemn agreement into which they had entered, and Don John of Austria, son of the King of Spain, arriving in the port, the people were induced, on condition of his confirming the treaty, to lay down their arms. They had no sooner done so, however, than the city was attacked by the royal forces from all points, both by sea and land, and the greatest barbarities were exercised on the defenceless inhabitants for several days successively, by a ferocious soldiery. In this nefarious manner it seems was the design accomplished of bringing this unfortunate country again under subjection to its degrading and barbarous despotism. We blush for human nature when we read that such things have been, and rejoice in the consideration that however the progress of liberal government may be for a time retarded, they can never take place again.

April 19, 1821. _ S. E.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


I THINK I am justified in stating that your correspondent Scrutator has assumed the office of censor without those essential requisites, investigation and judgment; nothing else can account for his ignorance of the subject, or the extraordinary way in which he confounds the very names of societies. As a friend to suffering humanity, I am induced to offer the antidote, founded on a knowledge of facts that cannot be controverted controverted through the same medium which disseminated the poison of prejudice and misrepresentation. If Scrutator had been either a promoter of, or a subscriber to the houseless, two most satisfactory reports must have informed him every particular relative to the distribution of the fund committed by a generous public to the care of honourable men for the laudable purpose of relieving distress the most appalling; but he can satisfy himself of liis error whenever he pleases, for the proceedings of that charity invite scrutiny, although the common courtesies of life forbid animadversion on the conduct of such as gratuitously take on themselves the office of its stewards, without it having been first ascertained that there was reason for so doing. Sir, this society has nothing to do with any other, nor the acts of honorary secretaries, (they must stand or fall on their respective merits,) but I fear-not contradiction when I assert that no rnstitutioH has done more than the one I advocate, in the short space of time it has been in operation. I repeat that the reports must satisfy the most fastidious, and if Scrutator will add his mite and come among us, we will not only do him good, but make him the happy instrument of benefitting others. This charity is for the express purpose of relieving that kind of distress which no other can reach; it has been the means of saving the lives of many; it tends to diminish crime, assist honest distress, and shelters the poor outcast, the naked, the wanderer, and the forlorn, at that period of the year when even the luxuries of affluence afford but an insufficient refuge from the storm; the heart, therefore, that can resist such claims must be hard as adamant.

When I reflect that, at a season the most severe, when the London Wall workhouse was opened as an asylum, some of the committee, and other respectable characters, devoted, for two months, the whole of their time in visiting the secluded haunts of misery in all parts of this great metropolis, encountering at every step scenes of abject woe, too soul-harrowing to describe, from the pure motives of benevolence; that the wretched objects of their solicitude were relieved from immediate want— generally clothed, and in many instances watched over and protected until, renovated health superseding the debility of extreme poverty, they were furMonthly Mag. No 361.

nished with the means of future support by recommendations to places of servitude, or the purchase of implements to enable them to pursue their respective callings—and that none were suffered to perish for lack of aid—for regardless of country, age, or sex, it held out a helping hand to every child of want, and often drew forth the kind assistance of the more wealthy, to take some of pe" culiar interest under their more immediate care. I am hence led to remark,' that if the whole amount had been ex-' ponded, the subscribers would have been amply repaid; and they richly deserve the thanks of the committee, and the blessings of those who were ready to perish.

In conclusion, permit .me to say to Scrutator, " go and do thou likewise." Vindex.

For the Monthly Magazine.


in 1819.

Continued from No. 360, p. 360.

INSTEAD of returning from Barmouth directly to Dolgelley, we resolved to go to Harlech, to see the ruins of its old castle, and to view some very beautiful scenery in the neighbourhood. We set off early in the morning then, on horseback, as the road we were about to travel is one of the most rugged in North Wales. The morning was just such an one as we could have wished; there was a " springiness" in the air, as Mr. Leigh Hunt would have said, which rendered it quite delightful; and we rode in perfect glee amongst, the hills, regardless of the roughness of the road, or the still rougher trotting of our matchless palfreys—for Tots morn—and from the east the sun

had shed His glowing beams, and tinged the mountains red; The dancing mists in swift succession

flew, Chas'd by the early breeze that softly

blew Along the dark blue hills,—the yellow

beam Smil'd on the forests, sparkled in the

stream, And, gaily laughing at the conquer'd

night, Displayed on every cliff the grateful light, The pearly drops, that bent the blooming

thorn, Started from slumber with the opening

morn, And, from the green leaves dropping, spread around

3 E Delightfal Delightful fragrance o'er the daisied

ground, While the gay lark, high mounting, hail'd

the day, And caroll'd in mid-air his matin lay. It was consequently foreign to our nature to be in a sullen humour on so lovely and so bright a morning, and it was fortunate for us that we had something to admire and revel in—as the confounded jolting of our ponies must otherwise have engrossed the whole of our attention.

We arrived at Harlech about twelve o'clock, and of all the miserable hamlets we ever saw, this can compete with any in point of wretchedness. As for tarrying here any length of time, it was wholly out of the question; we determined, therefore, after we had seen the castle, to proceed onwards towards the inn of Tan-y-bvvlch, where, we were informed, we might procure comfortable accommodations. Putting up our horses at the little village pot-house, we bent our steps towards Harlech Castle, the ruins of which are still in tolerable preservation. This fortress was anciently denominated Twr-yBronwen, or Bronvven's Tower, from a princess named Bronwen, or the White-necked, She was a lady of some consequence in her day, and was sister of Bran ap Llyr, Duke of Cornwall, and subsequently king of Britain. She flourished in the third century, and somewhat unfortunately allied herself in marriage to a choleric Irishman, named Matholwch. This said Mathohvch "one day" unluckily and heedlessly struck her a violent blow in the face. What provocation he could have possibly received for an act so derogatory to the general character of his countrymen, is now lost in oblivion, but the ■consequences of his rashness have been handed down in the unsullied pages of history, and we learn that Bronwen rescntecl the outrage by inciting an insurrection amongst the people. This blow is recorded in the ancient Triads as "one of the three evil blows of Britain;" two others of a nature nearly similar being there said to have produced the same commotions. How cautious princes should be in their behaviour towards their better halves! let them take warning from the fate of the headstrong Matholwch. In the eleventh century Harlech Castle was called Cacr y Callwyn, or the Fort of Callwyn, from a chieftain of that name, who was Lord of Evioneth and Ardud

wy, and one of the Fifteen Tribes of North Wales;* he repaired the ancient fortress, and resided in it for some time. Its present name of Harlech is supposed to be derived from the words Har, or properly Ar lech, " upon the cliff," in allusion to its situation, which is upon a high, and rather steep rock. The original founder is unknown; but the erection of the present building is attributed to Edward the First, who is said to have built it on the site of the old structure. It is well known that Edward, when he conquered Wales, repaired and fortified many strong holds in the,'country for the purpose of awing the Welsh, and restraining their impetuous and still unbroken spirit. It appears to have been a fortress of considerable strength and magnitude, and its strength must have been greatly augmented by its situation, for the rock on which it is erected is surrounded on all sides, except on ome, by water. It is a square building, defended at each corner by a round tower, surmounted by an elegant circular one, now almost entirely decayed. The entrance is between what artists denominate rounders, each supporting a round tower, similar to those on the castle, and the architecture is gothic, of powerful solidity, and great strength. It has witnessed many masters, and more vicissitudes. In the wars of " the last of Cambria's Patriots, wild Glendower," it was taken by that brave and ambitious chieftain, and retaken four years afterwards by an army which Henry the Fourth, despatched into the Principality against the rebels, and it continued in the possession of the English crown for some years afterwards. Margaret of Apjou, the undaunted consort of the Sixth Henry, found within its massy walls a safe retreat from the persecutions of her enemies, after the unfortunate battle of Northampton, in the wsirs between the rival houses of York and Lancaster, when

-Here a snow-white rose,

And there a red, with fatal blossoming, And deadly fragrance maddened all the land.

It was defended on the part of the latter

* The Fifteen Tribes, or Peers of North Wales, were certain noble chieftains who held their lands by baron-service; being bound to particular ministerial attendances upon their princes, in addition to those common to them, as subjects by homage and fealty.

by by a most fearless chieftain, by name David ap Ivau ap Eineion. After Edward the Fourth had taken possession of every strong hold in the kingdom, excepting this, and two or three others in Northumberland, he sent an officer to demand from David its surrender, probably anticipating the ready compliance of the Welshman, as his success had been already so sure and extensive. But he was mistaken—David was too sturdy a soldier to yield so quietly, and he determined to hazard a siege, although his garrison was defective in point both of numbers and provision. Edward, therefore, sent Mrilliam Herbert, Earl of Pembroke,* with an army lo subdue him. After many toils and difficulties, Pembroke succeeded in marching his troops into the heart of the principality, and again the surrender of the castle was demanded, when the following bold and energetic answer was returned:" No, we will not give up this castle," said David; "and you may tell,your leader that some years ago I held out a castle inFrance so long that all the old women in Wales talked of it; I will now keep this Welsh castle so long that all the old women of France shall talk of it." And he did "keep" it.till all the provision was consumed, and famine was staring him and his heroic band in the face. He was then compelled to capitulate, but on honourable

* This is the terrible fellow who is said to have killed 140 men at the battle of Banbury with his single battle-axe! Notwithstanding his prowess on that occasion, he was defeated some time after by the Duke of Clarence, and his colleague the Earl of Warwick, and after being beheaded, was buried at Tintern Abbey, in Monmouthshire. He was a most implacable enemy to the Welsh; and Sir John Wynne, in his History of the Gwedir Family, quotes the following British lines on the ravages which he committed in the counties of Merioneth and Denbigh :—

Harlech a Dinbeeh pob dor

Yn Cunnef,

Nanconway yn farwor;

Mil y phedwar-cant mae for,

A tbrugain ag wyth rhagor.

The following translation was made by a

learned divine, well known in the literary

world :—

In Harlech and Denbigh every house

Was basely set on fire;
But poor Nanconway suffered most,
For there the flames burnt higher.
\Twas in the year of our Lord, .
Fourteen hundred sixty-eight,
That these unhappy towns of Wales
Met with such wretched fate.

terms; and his life, together with that of his men, was. preserved, after much earnest persuasion; for Edward would fain have deprived the adverse party of so able and so resolute a champion. Pennant, in his Tour in Wales, (vol. 2, page 284) has given the names of this gallant band, which he quotes from Camden, and from which it appears that the garrison consisted of only fifteen men, including their captain,David; and this small company was opposed to an English army of probably three or four thousand men! Well, indeed, might Edward have been enraged at the persevering bravery of the Welshmen.* The last scene of war and tumult in which Harlech Castle was engaged, was in the civil wars of the Commonwealth, when it was besieged by the parliamentary forces under General Mytton. ,After a very obstinate resistance, the general succeeded in taking possession of it, and the garrison, with its loyal commander, Capt. William Owen, surrendered on terms extremely advantageous. It is said to have been the last castle in the kingdom which held out for the unfortunate Charles.t Such is the brief outline of

* It is said that this siege gave origin to that spirit-stirring national air " The March of the Men of Harlech," and where is the Welshman whose heart does not beat quick and joyously when he hears this energetic composition?

t The Welsh, it appears, espoused the cause of this unhappy monarch with all their characteristic enthusiasm; and the following narrative, copied from Mr. R. Lloyd's Cambrian Notices, will illustrate the horrible effects of the Cromwellian civil laws in Wales:—" When the second civil war broke out in 1648, Sir Edward Stradling, ofSt.Donat's Castle, Sir Nicholas Kemyss, of Keuen Mabley, and Colonel Powell, raised, armed, and equipped each of them 1000 men, within their own county of Glamorgan, who, under their command, joined Major-General Langhome, and Col. Poyer, whose men were chiefly raised in the counties of Brecon, Caermarthen, and Pembroke. Their collected force amounted to about 8000. Cromwell, heating of this, sent Col. Horton before him with 3000 horse and 2000 foot to Wales, and followed himself, with all the troops he could muster. The two armies met at St. Fagan's, a village on the banks of the river Ely, in the vale of Glamorgan, on Monday, May 8, 1648. Col. Horton, engaged by Langhorne and Stradling, was compelled to give way; but being soon joined by 3000 men, with a heavy train of artillery, he charged the van of the Welsh


the history of Harlech Castle, now slumbering in age—a heap of time-worn ruins. Yet to how many scenes of mirth and joyous festivity have its massy walls echoed! and how many rude assaults have they repulsed ?—but now

Look on its broken arch,"—its ruined wall, Its chambers desolate—its portals foul, Yes—--this was once ambition's airy hail, The dome of thought—the palace1 of the soul!

The pleasure arising from the inspection of ruined palaces,castles and monasteries is not so much excited by the architectural beauty of the pile, as by the events it has witnessed and given birth to. There is a delightful association— a powerful retrospective influence, by which the mind recurs willingly to the historical scenes connected with it, and by which the imagination is carried back to the ages of rudeness, barbarity, and uncouth splendour, in which our ancestors were actively and variously engaged. The grati6cation, (hen, engendered by contemplating decaying grandeur is more ideal than actual—more imaginary than positive; and, in viewing the remains of our ancient castles, one can almost think he hears "the loud trumpets ring," and fancy he sees,

—In long procession ranged, fair dames, Heralds and steel-clad knights, and plumed

steeds, Move on in chivalry's emblazoned pomp. And the mind can never be idly or unworthily employed, when such a theme is the subject of its meditations.

Near Harlech was discovered many years ago, a beautiful golden Torques, in excellent preservation. Camden describes it as a " wreathed rod of gold, about four feet long, with three spiral furrows,having sharp intervening edges,

forces, and after a bloody conflict of two hours duration, the royal army was completely routed, about 3000 slain, and as many taken prisoners. Sir Nicholas Kemyss retired to Chepstow Castle, which he vigorously defended for nearly three weeks. Col. Pride, however, arriving with the artillery, a breach was made,'and the castle carried by assault. Sir Nicholas was put to death there in a barbarous manner. This battle made not lest than fiftysix widows in the small parish of St. Farm's, and lost mere than 700 men to the -county of Glamorgan. About fifty years ago, several old people lived in the village, who solemnly asserted that the river Ely was reddened with human blood.'

running its whole length to the ends, which are truncated, and turned back like pot-hooks." Our classical readers are well acquainted with the use the Romans madeof it—Virgil,Propertius, and Livy have frequent allusions to it, and it appears to have been an indispensable ornament of the noble Roman youths. It has been debated whether the Torques was ever used by the ancient Britons. We are inclined to think that it was, as the old British bards make frequent mention of it. Those who are curious about the matter will find some information on the subject in a modern periodical publication, devoted to the dissemination of Welsh literature, and entitled " The Cambro Briton," vol. 1, p. 292. The Torques found near Harlech, is now in the possession of Sir Thomas Mostyn, of Mostyn, in Flintshire.

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.


TH E recent escape of the young lady from destruction at the fire in the Surry Road, by descending from the second floor on a blanket fortunately procured in time, induces me to beg you will insert in your Magazine the following suggestions as to a fire escape. Id most of the plans hitherto proposed, either the apparatus has been found too bulky and expensive, or, by being fixed in the house itself, comparatively useless, as the fire might break out in the room in which it is placed; in addition to which, how difficult it is to induce individuals to adopt a general plan. I am not aware of so many instances of lives l>eing saved by the fire escapes hitherto in use, as by a common blanket.

My idea is to place a fire escape under charge of each watchman, and that he should be responsible for its immediate production in time of need. It might also form an appendage to each fire engine. Under such an aiTangement, no delay could possibly arise. My fire escape net I would construct of horsehair rope, in order that it might not be injured by damp. Its durability is of great consequence, both as regards expence, and its being in a fit state whenever it may be wanted. The size might be about 14 feet long, by eight or nine wide; the meshes about three inches apart. Such a net, when extended, would be amply large enough to receive any one obliged to descend.

I have in vain solicited the attention


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