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repaired to St. Cloud, where the soldiers occupied all the avenues. The council of ancients assembled in the galleries; that of five hundred, of which Lucien Bonaparte was the president, met in the Orangery. Bonaparte entered the hall of the ancients, and addressed them in a spirited speech, vindicating his own character, and calling on them to exert themselves in behalf of liberty and equality. In the council of five "hundred, meanwhile, a violent scene took place. Several members demanded an enquiry into the reason, why the meeting had been transferred to St. Cloud. Lucien Bonaparte endeavoured to calm the storm which was evidently rising, but the proposition had created a great deal of heat, and the cry was—" Down with the Dictator! No Dictator!" At that moment Bonaparte entered the hall with four grenadiers. Several of the members exclaimed —" JFhat does this mean? No sabres here! No armed men /" while others descended into the hall and surrounded him, collaring him, and crying out—" Outlaw him! Down with the Dictator!" At this moment General Lefebvre came to his assistance, and they retired together. Bonaparte mounted his horse, and leaving Murat to observe what was going on, he sent a piquet of grenadiers mto the hall. These grenadiers, conducted by Murat, entered at the chargestep to the sound of the drum, with bayonets fixed, when Lucien declared that the representatives who wished to assassinate his brother were audacious robbers in the pay of England. He then proposed a decree, which was immediately adopted, to this effect:— "That his brother, and all those who had seconded him, deserved well of their country; that the directory was at an end; and that the executive power should be placed in the hands of three provisory consuls, namely, Bonaparte, Sieyes, and Roger Ducos."
A legislative committee, chosen from the two councils, then, in conjunction with the consuls, framed a constitution, which was known as the constitution of the year 8. By this fourth constitution Bonaparte was declared first consul, and Cambaceres and Le Bran second and third, or assistant consuls. The same commission created a senate, a council of state, a tribunate, and a legislative body.
He now published a proclamation to
the French people, in which he declared that hedesired peace, <hat he had sought it with England, but that the English government had refused to listen to any terms. Under these circumstauces, France had nothing left but to shew to the disturbers of the public peace, that she could maintain tranquillity. The result of these measures was preparations for carrying on a vigorous war, and he looked to Italy, the theatre of his first glory, for the stage to commence operations. He assembled the army, and addressed the soldiers in a proclamation, in which he said, he did not want them " to assist in defending their own frontiers, but to invade the states of their enemies." He left Paris towards the end of April, 1800, wilh a well-appointed army, for Italy. He passed the Great St. Bernard by a wonderful march, burst into Italy, and, after several minor successes, he utterly defeated the Austrians, under General Melas, at Marengo, on the 14th of June, 1800. The vanquished general purchased the safety of his army by the surrender of Italy into the power of the conqueror.
This battle, and that of Hohenlinden, enabled Bonaparte to dictate the conditions of peace to the House of Austria. The result was the re-establishment of the Cisalpine republic. In the interior of France, the efforts of the royalists were frustrated, and La Vendee was compelled to submit to the republic.
Just at this moment, also, the object next Bonaparte's heart was on the eve of being accomplished—a peace with England! Peace had been concluded with Russia and Portugal, he had mediated for Switzerland, and he had given to the Italian republic a new constitution, placing himself at the head of that government; and, shortly after, England recognised in him the chief magistrate of France. Peace was concluded at Amiens on the 27th of March, 1802, the preliminaries having been signed some months before. The accomplishment of this object secured to him the consulate for life.
This elevation producedhim enemies among the envious and wicked; all parties in England united their prejudices against the revolution and Bonaparte, and under various pretexts, recommenced the war. On the 24th of December, as he was passing in his carriage through I he Rue St. Nicaise, at 8 o'clock in the evening, a machine was exploded, and Bonaparte saved his life only by (he merest chance. This cowardly and wicked attempt had the effect of killing and wounding several persons, and of damaging most of the houses in the quarter where it was made. An enquiry took place, when it appeared that the conspirators had filled a barrel with combustible matter, placed it on a small carriage in the street beforenamed, and with it a rifle-gun; it was so placed as to obstruct the carriage of Bonaparte. The consequence of the enquiry was, that not less than 130 of the most troublesome of the enemies of his government were transported to Cayenne, and several suffered on the scaffold.
Another circumstance occurred about this time, which was the topic of universal conversation, and a pretext for affixing odium on the character of the first consul, namely, the death of the Duke D'Enghien, son of the Duke de Bourbon, who was shot by his order at the castle of Vincennes. Bonaparte justified the measure on the law of retaliation, alleging that it was one of prudent self-preservation; for, that the Duke D'Enghien was endeavouring to excite the French people to rise in favour of the Bourbons, and to destroy him. This, however, is certain, that he was at that time beset with conspiracies on all hands; for the Generals Pichegru, Moreau, Georges, the two Counts De Polignac, with 43 oilier individuals, were arrested at the same time. Pichegru died in prison, Georges suffered on the scaffold, with eleven of his companions; Moreau was exiled to America, and the Counts de Polignac were detained prisoners in a fortress.
Addresses followed these proceedings from all parts of France, and if it be fair to calculate on the expressions of mankind, Bonaparte was as much entitled to the sentiments of attachment which they breathed forth as any of the crowned heads of Europe; for he, like them, was but the organ of the nation. The language of these addresses was of the most flattering kind. "France would have been lost,'' said they, " but you saved it. To give the nation its proper splendour, it has need of a prince whose head, like that of other sovereigns, isadornod with a crown—accept that of Charlemagne!'' To these expressions of attachment Bonaparte replied by accepting the proffered crown,
and the senate confirmed the wishes of the people bv a decree, which was dated the 18th of May, 1804. On the 2d of Dec. following he was crowned EmpeRor Of FRANCE, in the church of Notre Dame, in Paris, with the title of NaPoleon The First, for which purpose the Pope, I'iusVI I., came in person from Rome to give the ceremony greater eclat. This was the period at which might be said to commence the third epoch of Napoleon's life, assuredly the most remarkable.
The new Emperor was recognized by the Emperors of Austria and Russia, and by the Kings of Prussia, Spain, and Denmark. The King of Sweden alone refused to accede to the proposition of acknowledgment.
On the 18th of March, 1805, Napoleon was proclaimed King of Italy, promising to the people that he would not hold sovereign rule longer than was compatible with the interest of his subjects. Having returned to Paris, he called together the legislative body, and in his opening speech he told the assembly, " I have no wish to augment the French territory, but to preserve its integrity: I have no ambition to exercise a great influence in Europe, but I desire not to lose what I have acquired for France; no new state will be incorporated with the empire."
England seemed to be the only power competent, by her vast resources, plausible forms of government, and maritime strength, to keep the flame of war alive, and Napoleon looked at the British government with an anxious eye. He knew that to their councils, and the influence of British gold, was to be attributed the duration of the continental war. He, however, on the 7th of Aug. 1805, published a manifesto, in which he held out to the invading army the hopes of sacking London, concluding each sentence with the well-known Roman phrase, " Defend* est Carthago." He assembled a numerous flotilla, and formed, at Boulogne, a camp,of 200,000 men. The difficulty was to make good a landing, or even to put to sea with any chance of being able to quit the French ports. The. French people were am used with the idea, and some were sanguine enough to believe it already accomplished. But the battle of Trafalgar, on the 21st of October, destroyed these fond hopes, and, with them, the greatest part of the French navy, the only safe conduct for the invading army.
The expedition against England was, therefore therefore, abandoned, and France declared war against Germany, which hnd been excited to commence hostilities. In less than six weeks, the immense "army of England," as it was triumphantly called, was transported from the coast of France to the banks of the Danube. The rapidity of the march came with surprise on the celebrated General Mack, who retired to Ulm, and quietly laid down his arms; his force, consisting of 30,()00 foot, J3000 cavalry, and SO pieces of cannon. This capitulation, so unforeseen, was the astonishment of Europe.
The Russians were at the time advancing rapidly to support Austria; and, apprised of their march, Napoleon addressed his army in an order of the flay to the following effect: ■' Soldiers of the great army, we have accomplished a campaign in fifteen days; you must not stop here: that Russian army, which the gold of England has transported from the extremities of the world, let us go and cxtermiuate it!" On the 11th of November, 1805, the French army entered the capital of Austria, which Francis II. had quitted a few days before, to retire with the remnant of his broken army into Moravia, where the Emperor Alexander joined him with the Russian army, which he commanded in person.
Napoleon encountered the two Emperors on the plain of Austerlitz on the 2d of December following, and gave them battle with his usual ardour. The battle was decisive in his favour. The allies endeavoured to hem in the French by their wings; but this manoeuvre weakened their centre, which the French put to the rout. Francis II. was paralysed by'the blow, and himself sued for peace. An interview took place in a bivouac, on the 26th of December; the consequence was, that, within three weeks, it led to the treaty of Presburg, a treaty which recognized Napoleon King of Italy, master of Venice, of Tuscany, of Parma, of Placentia, and of Genoa. Prussia ceded to him the Grand Duchy of Berg, which he presented to Murat, and also, in exchange for Hanover, the Margraviate of Anspacb, which Napoleon assigned to Bavaria.
Having thus attained all that he desired, Napoleon repaired to Munich, where he celebrated the marriage of Eugene Beauharnois, his adopted son, with the Princess Augusta Amelia, of Bavaria. This was the first of those
alliances which afterwards aggrandized his reign, and strengthened his power, embarrassing all the cabinets of Europe. In the night of the 26th of January, 1806, he arrived at. Paris. The next day all the authorities hastened, to pay their acknowledgments to him for the services which he bad tendered, to France.—M. Arnault, organ of the Institute, said, "Your victories have hunted down the barbarians of Europe; your treaties have shut out their malevolence, never to return; you have exceeded the hounds of possibility, and, our historians, to be sublime, need only adhere to truth."
By these repeated victories, NapoLeon had not only raised the character of the French nation in a military point of view, but he had also secured his own power, both in the interior of his country and without. It was in consequence of this, that he conceived the project of revising the European dynasties, and of appointing new sovereigns. In his first promotion of kings, he comprised the electors of Bavaria and Wirtemberg; the electors of Saxony and Hanover he created kings, and. he gave the crown of Naples to his brother Joseph, that of Holland to his brother Louis, and that of Westphalia to Jerome.
On the 12th of July, 1806, he signed at Paris the famous treaty of the.confederation of the Rhine, which gave to him in Germany that preponderance of power which had belonged to the house of Austria. In the month of September following, he demanded from his new allies levies of men which alarmed Prussia, and gave Frederick reason to think, though too late, that he menaced, his existence. Already the French army of Hanover, combining its movements with that of Francouia, enve'loped the Prussian monarchy. A very animated correspondence was kept up on the subject, between the. courts of Berlin and the Tuilleries, which, at the time, was supposed to relate to the occupation of Hanover. After the treaty of Presburg, that country was to be occupied by Prussia, for the Margraviate of Anspach; but Napoleon, who had consented to the exchange, now wished to restore it (o England, as one of the conditions of peace. The court of Berlin complained greatly of this arrangement, and demanded that the French troops should evacuate Germany, and a powerful Prussian army took the field. Napoleon declared that
land. The French attacked vigorously, and the Russians sustained their efforts for sixteen hours. The battle was sanguinary, and the Russians were at length totally defeated, with the loss, in killed alone, of nearly 20,000 men, with eighty pieces of cannon. They retreated on Koningsberg, whither they were pursued by the victorious army, and thence to thePregel. Koningsberg surrendered to Soult, who found in that city 20,000 wounded, together with all the arms and ammunition which had been sent from England for the use of the allies. The Russians still continued their retreat to the Niemen, and were followed by Napoleon, who arrived at Tilsit on "the 19th of June. The Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia had just escaped from thence by burning the bridge, and thus the immediate pursuit of the royal fugitives was impeded. In the mean time an armistice was desired by the allies, which was granted by Napoleon. It was at this place that he obtained a personal interview with the Emperor Alexander, on a raft in the river NieJiu'ii. in the presence of the opposing armies. Two tents were prepared on the raft, and the two sovereigns having met, embraced; which salutation was imitated by the officers and men of each army. To this fraternal embrace succeeded the treaty of Tilsit, which was concluded on the 7th of July. By this treaty, Russia and Prussia engaged to keep their ports closed against the English, and they adhered to the continental blockade.
Napoleon now turned his attention to the state of Spain. He consented to meet the king and Ferdinand hi3 son at Bayonne, to adjust their family dissensions, but Charles IV. resigned his crown to him, and Ferdinand was obliged to do the same. He then sent an army of 80,000 men into Spain, who very soon possessed themselves of the strong places and the arsenals. On the 25th of October, 1808, he announced to the legislative body, that, with the assistance of God, he intended to crown his brother Joseph in Madrid, and plant the eagles of France on the towers of Lisbon. It was represented to him that the Spaniards would not consent to receive Joseph as king:—" What does it matter," said he, " so long as lie reigns over the twoSpains?" Being in possession of Madrid, he suppressed the convents and all the religious orders throughout Spain. The Spaniards, nevertheless vertheless, opposed tiis decrees with vigour. After a short pursuit of (he English, under Sir John Moore, he left to Marshal Sou 11 the care of pursuing them to Corunna, and he privately quitted Spain to return to Paris. He was received there as on his former days of glory. The senate complimented h i in i n a hody, observing, " You have quitted Spain, after having conferred on the people of that kingdom the greatest benefits, and given them a country; it is one peculiar circumstance of your triumphs, that you always make reason victorious."
On the 2d of April (having turned his attention to the holy see) he published a decree, by which, considering that the Pope had constantly refused to make war against the English, he united the provinces of Ancona, Urbino, and Macerata, irrevocably and perpetually, to the kingdom of Italy. On the 16th of January, 1809, he said to the deputies from the holy father, whom the latter had sent to him to soften the rigour of the decree, "Your bishop is the spiritual chief of the church; as for me, I am the emperor of it!"' At length, on the 17th of May, he finished his decrees by another, uniting the Papal States to his empire, and ordering that the city of Rome should be a free imperial city.
In fact, Fiance, at this epoch, had swallowed up all the powers on the continent. The turn of Austria next arrived: she had made hostile preparations during these engagements in Spain. Napoleon quitted Paris on the 13th of April, 1809, and arrived, on the ISth, at Ingolstadt; he fought six battles, and routed the Austrians. On the 10th of May he was at the gates of Vienna. The occupation of Vienna did not terminate the campaign: on the 21st of May a battle was fought at Essling, which lasted for two days without interruption; it was terrible, and the slaughter was immense. Napoleon had passed the river with his usual rapidity; he found the Austrians occupying an excellent position on the left bank, and after vainly attacking them for several hours, during which he lost several of his generals, "he was obliged to retire to the island of Lobau. The Archduke Charles did not profit by this success, and the French being reinforced, the battle of Wagram took place on the 5th and 6th of July. Napoleon attacked the Archduke, and obtained a decisive victory. On the 12th
of July, the belligerent powers signed a suspension of arms, and on the l-llli of Oetol>er a definitive treaty of peace.
On the opening of the legislative body on the 3d of December, 1809, he said,— "When I again appear beyond the Pyrennees, the terrified Leopard will seek the ocean to avoid disgrace, defeat, or death." About this time Napoleon made preparations for dissolving his marriage with the Empress Josephine, in order to become the son-in-law of his old enemy, the Emperor of Austria. The marriage was accordingly, for reasons stated to the senate, annulled by that august body. Josephine retired to the estate of Navarre, thirty leagues from Paris. On the 2d of April, 1810, he espoused Maria Louisa, Princess of Austria, daughter of the Emperor Francis. The issue of this marriage, Napoleon Francis Charles Joseph, was born on the 20th of March, 1811, and named King of Rome.
Three months after his marriage, he united to France the provinces situated on the left bank of the Rhine; and by a decree of the senate of the 13th of Dec. Holland and the three Hanseatic cities of Bremen, Hamburg, and Lubeck, and a part of the kingdom of Westphalia, were also annexed to France: by another decree, the Valais was also united to the empire. On this occasion Napoleon made his new subjects an especial visit; he was accompanied by a numerous suite on his journey in the Low Countries, where he was received with much joy.
In the midst of all this apparent triumph, he never forgot his views of extending the power of France; for this purpose he issued a decree towards the end of the year 1811, for raising 80,000 conscripts for the land-service, and 40,000 seamen. These levies were the first indications of a war with Russia. Having a clear view of the proceedings and secret machinations going forward, he never lost sight of the offensive posture. He had often said— "In five years, or less, I shall be master of the world, notwithstanding these intrigues; Russia will not allow me to rest, nut I will crush that power!"
In 1S12, he imagined that the time had arrived when he could crush Russia, which had fomented for half a century all the troubles of Europe, and had twice headed confederacies against him; and he intimated in the Moniteur of the 10th of May, that he was about to inspect the grand army united on