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NEW PATENTS AND MECHANICAL INVENTIONS.

Reported by Chari.rs Blunt, Draughtsman of Machinery, and London Agent to Patentees and the Authors of Inventions who desire to secure them by Patent.

and other arrangements used for dress-
ing woollen cloths; and the patentee
reserves by his specification, the usual
right of choice of materials for his
cases or boxes, and the mode of fasten-
ing or securing the pieces of pumice-
stone.

To Roger Arnold, of Chigwell,
Essex, for an Improved Expansion
Balance for Chronometers.
This balance is composed of a bar com-
pounded of steel and brass, a bar of
steel which has a smaller bar or strip of
brass attached in its whole length to
the steel bar by melting. At the ex-
tremities of the compound bar are
weights, which are adjustible as to
their distance from the centre or
point on which the balance oscillates
in the plane of oscillation. Near the
extremities of the compound bar, but
a small distance within the extreme
length, are also other weights adjustible
on arms projecting downwards at right
angles to the plane of oscillation. The
weights adjustible in the plane of oscil-
lation, regulate the mean rate'of the
balance, those adjustible at right augles
to that plane, afford the regulation for
temperature. The action of the balance
is conceived by supposing the two sets
of weights described, to be so adjusted
that the balance shall beat mean time,
at a given temperature. Now under
any increase of that temperature, the
brass portion of the compound bar be-
ing of quicker expansion than the steel
bar on which it is attached, is elongated
and bends itself and the steel bar with
it in a curve, which is convex on the
upper side of the balance, and which
therefore will bring the arms and
weights which project from the under
side of the balance inwards and nearer
to the centre or oscillation, and the
tendency to a slower vibration from the
expansion of the balance by the in-
creased temperature will be compen-
sated by the radius of the arc of vibra-
tion being thus shortened. If on the
other hand the temperature decreases $
the brass portion of the bar will con-
tract, causing the whole to bend in a
curve, concave on its upper side, and
so producing the divergence of the same
projecting arms and weights, in which
case although the compound bar is con-
tracted, the radius of the arc of oscilla-
tion is increased, the oscillation becomes
H slower

AN exhibition, called walking on
water, has been exhibited by Mr.
Kent, at Glasgow. The apparatus
is represented in the engraving; where
a b c are three hollow tin cases of the
form of an oblong hemispheroid, con-
nected together by three iron bars, at
the meeting of which is a«eat for the
exhibitor. These cases, filled with air,
are of such magnitude that they can
easily support his weight, and as a b
and a c are about ten feet, and b c about
eight feet, he floats very steadily upon
the water. The feet of the exhibitor
rest on stirrups, and he attaches to
his shoes, by leather belts, two paddles,
il e, which turn on a joint when he
brings his foot forward to take the
stroke, and keep a vertical position
when he draws it back against the re-
sisting water: by the alternate action of
his feet, he is thus enabled to advance
at the rate of five miles an hour.
To George Vizard, of Dursley.for a
new Process or Method of Dressing
and Polishing goods of Woollen ma-
nufacture.

The Patentee proposes to introduce the substance called pumice-stone, as a substitute for teasals or wire-cards, in the dressing, smoothing and polishing operations of the woollen manufacture. His organization of the improvement consists in a box or case of wood, about sixteen inches in length, four in width, and two deep, on which pieces of pumice-stone are fastened by glue or water proof cement. He renders this arrangement of the material used, level on its upper surface or working face, by rasping, and allows the piece to project above the sides of the tray about half an inch.

These sets of stones thus prepared, are attached to the cylinder, gigmill Monthly Mas. No. 357.

slower by the proper compensating quantity.

To William Kendrick, of Birmingham, for a Combination of Apparatus for Extracting tanning matter from Bark.

The patentee exposes the fresh or waste oak bark, or other material from which he is to obtain the tanning matter, to the action of steam, or of water heated considerably above the boiling point. His apparatus consists of a boiler capable of generating them at an elasticity, that its pressure shall be not less than from eight to twelve pounds upon the square inch; and from this boiler or steam vessel the steam is conveyed into a vessel containing the bark or substance from which the tanning matter is to be extracted. The steam

from the sleani-condncting'-pipe' is equally diffused in the vessel of bark, by a pipe which reaches nearly to the bottom of the vessel, and pierced with small holes in every part of its length. Observations. In this patent, (which we have no doubt is effectual as toils general object) there are gross and striking incongruities, which it is the responsible duty of a reporter to notice in the way of caution to others. The title of the patent is for an apparatus, for extracting, &c, the specification explains no apparatus, but gives a general account of a method or process, and in the description, of which there is not precision enough to enable an inexperienced person to effect it without a course of experiments of his own.

VARIETIES, LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL,

Including Notices of Works in Hand, Domestic and Foreign.

IT is a fact interesting to science and important to (he progress of aerostation, that the Balloon which ascended from the Green Park, on the day of the Coronation, was filled with ordinary coal-gas, or carburet ted hydrogen, instead of gas prepared from sulphuric acid and zinc, or iron filings, by the usual tedious and expensive process. A pipe was laid on to the main which supplies the street lamps, and the balloon was filled without solicitude in a shorter time than the same operation was ever performed before, and at the expence of £5. Taking the gas at .555 and the diameter at 32 feet, the power of ascension exceeded 7 cwt. Of course the machine acted well, and the ascent was one of the most beautiful ever beheld since the first ascent of Lunardi, in 1785. The varied currents of air in the atmosphere were strikingly exemplified. The wind was nearly east; but, at a certain height/^ the balloon was wafted northward, theft,' • eastward; and it fell at the distance of only thirteen miles,'after making traverses of nearly fifty miles in forty-five minutes.

Another novel, under the title of The Pirate, is preparing by the prolific Author of " Waverlcy."

Mr. Bellchambers will soon publish a corrected edition of the Life of Colley Cibber, the dramatist.

Mr. Charles Marsh., late M.P. for' Worksop, is preparing Memoirs of the late Mr. Windham, drawn up from his own Papers.

A History of Rome, from the Accession of Augustus to the Death of Antoninus the Younger, will soon appear, from the pen of Mr. W. Iiaygarth. It fills up the chasm between Hooke and Gibbon, and, if well executed, will prove a desirable work.

A History of Brazil, with numerous engravings, is in preparation, by Mr. James Henderson.

Some of the best poets of the day have been engaged to versify the Psalms of David, with a view to their being introduced into the Church Service. United to the Sacred Music of Mr. Gardiner, they will effect a desirable reform.

Mr. Hansard, the Printer, is employed on a History of his Art, with an account of the various improvements lately made in Great Britain, for the use of printers and others, with numerous engravings in wood.

Mr. Boswell is preparing a new Edition of Malone's Shakespeare, with iragrovemerfts.

Mrs. Taylor, of Ongar, is engaged on a tale in verse, called Temper.

In the notice of Sir Richard PhilLips's Essays, in our last, the word Phenomena was, by mistake, omitted after the word material, an error which may be corrected with the pen. The title of the proposed volume is "The Proximate Causes of Material Phenomena,'and the true principles of universal Causation considered and illustrated."

A Dictionary

A Dictionary of the Chines* L;mgaage is now publishing at Macao, to consist of three parts; first. Chinese and English, arranged according to the Radicals; next, EnglishaudChino.se; and lastly, Chinese and English, arranged Alphabetically. Dr. R.morriSon, the author of the above Work, has directed bis attention to the collection of materials for it during (he last thirteen years. The Honourable East India Company has generously undertaken the whole exjience of printing and paper for an edition of seven hundred and fifty copies. The Chinese language, whether viewed in itself, its f>eculiar structure, or with respect to its antiquity, it having been for nearly 4"V0 years the language of so large a portion of the human species, and it still being the written medium, in private and in public life, in literature, in arts, and in government, of the most extensive empire on earth, seems to deserve the attention of every inquisitive and curious mind.

The Speeches of the Rt. Hon. Henry <j rat tan, are about to be printed, in four volumes, octavo, with Memoirs by his Son.

Mr. Hewick, the celebrated engraver on wood, has been for some time |»ast engaged in preparing for the press, a Supplement to his work on British Birds. The edition printed in 1805 comprises descriptions of sixty-four species wanting figures, and in the ■-subsequent editions but few additions have been made. The third volume of Montagu's Ornithological Dictionary, published in 1813, contains thirty birds which were not known either as permanent inhabitants or temporary visitants of this kingdom, eight years previous to that period, making in all ninety-four species, or strongly marked varieties, of which no very accurate lepresen tat ions are to be met with, except a few scattered through the Linmean Transactions and Sowerby's Miscellany, or included in the first number of Mr. Selby's splendid publication. Of these, Mr. Bewick has already delineated thirty-two with that accuracy of outline, truth to natural habit, and delicacy of execution, which render all his works so highly interesting to the naturalist.

The Miscellaneous Tracts of the late Dr. Withering, F. R. S., with Memoirs of the Author by Wm. Withering, Esq. &c. &c. embellished with a portiait, are nearly ready for publication.

lu a few days will be published A Poetical Essay on the Character of Pope, by Charles Lloyd.

Mr. Haigh, of the Classical School, Kitt's End, near Barnet, has a new work in the press, entitled, the Theory and Practice of Latin Inflexion, liciug examples in the form of copy-books for declining and conjugating Nouns and Verbs: the words being arranged systematically, and changed at each case of a Noun and each person of a Verb.

The Rev. John Campeell, Kingsland, London, is about to publish a second volume of Travels, containing an Account of his Second Visit to South Africa, lie was occupied two years and a half in the journey, during which he travelled upwards of three thousand miles, through a country a great part of which had never been explored. He has been particularly careful to describe the manners and customs of the natives—their agriculture—arts and manufactures—food, clothing, and occupations, &c.—their riles and ceremonies—form of government—tlie power of their kings—the influence which the chiefs or captains possess in the administration of affairs, and the manner in which they exercise it in their meetings for public business —their mode of carrying on war, &c. An account is also given of the cities of Mashow, and Marootzee; the former consisting of twelve, and the latter of sixteen thousand inhabitants. The work will also contain a map of the country through which he travelled— engravings of some of the towns, and drawings illustrative of the dress, manners, &c. of the natives.

An institution having been formed in Glasuow, for the purpose of promoting the Arts of Drawing, Painting, Sculpture, &c., an Exhibition will be opened on Monday, the 6th of August, in which Artists resident in the United Kingdom may be Exhibitors,and works of deceased British Artists will also be received for Exhibition and Sale.

The first volume of Mr. A. T. ThomSon's Lectures on Botany is almost ready for publication. It will contain the descriptive anatomy and physiology of those organs which are necessary for the growth and preservation of the plant as an individual; and will be illustrated by more than one hundred wood-cuts and ten copper-plates. It is intended to form the first part of a complete System of Elementary Botany. Dr.

Dr. Conquest will publish, in a few weeks, a gerund and enlarged edition of his Outlines of Midwifery, &c., with copper-plate instead of lithographic engravings.

Dr. Carey has in the press, the Greek Terminations, including the Dialects and Poetic Licences, in alphabetical order, with explanatory References to the Grammar, on the same plan as his "Clue for Young Latinists," lately published.

The History of Little Johnny, the Foundling of the late Doctor Syntax, a poem, in eight monthly numbers, will be commenced on the 1st of Aug. and continued monthly. Each part will contain three coloured engravings by T. Kowlan'dsos, Esq., and thirtytwo pages of letter-press by the Author of the Three Tours of Doctor Syntax, — in Search of the Picturesque—of Consolation—and of a Wife.

A History of Madeira, with a series of 27 coloured engravings illustrative of the Manners, Customs, and Occupations of the Inhabitants of that Island, is preparing for early publication.

In the course of the ensuing month, a second scries of Sermons in Manuscript Character, for the use of Young Divines and Candidates for Holy Orders, will be published by the Rev. R. Warner, Rector of Great Chalfield, Wilts, and author of " Sermons on the Epistles, Gospels," &c.; and of "Old Church of England Principles," &c. The second series treats of Christian Virtues; and will consist (like the former series on Christian Doctrines) of Ten Sermons.

The misguided Society, of whose pernicious and anti-social designs we nave duly apprized our readers, has, at length, become the proper object of a criminal prosecution, by the indictment of a Grand Jury. In the mean time, we observe, with deep concern, that it is pursuing its inquisitorial practices against the press in various parts of the country where less caution and less public spirit prevail than in London. We trust, however, that true-born Englishmen will every where be found to do their duty in defeating its base practices.

The Rev. Edw. Chichester will soon publish a professional work, in three octavo volumes, entitled, Deism compared with Christianity.

The Society of Arts, &c. has bestowed on C. F. Palmer, Esq. M. P. two large gold medals, and a large silver medal,

for planting 280 acres with 893,420 forest trees, and 30,700 oaks for timber; and for sowing 216 bushels of acorns on 240 acres.—A large gold medal to T. Wilkinson, Esq. of Fitzroy-square, for sowing 240 bushels of acorns on 260 acres.—The Ceres gold medal, to Sir W. T. Pole, Bart. Shute-house, near Axminster, for raising 696,000 oaks from acorns.—To H. Potts, Esq. the large silver medal,for planting 194 acres with 528,240 forest trees;—and to E. Dawson, Esq. the large gold medal, for embanking 166 acres of marsh land from the sea. — The gold medal was also given to Mr. J. Perkins, for an invention of instruments to ascertain the trim of a ship, whether loaded or unloaded, at sea or in harbour; and the same gentleman received the large silver medal, for the discovery of a method of ventilating the holds of ships, and warming and ventilating apartments.

Mr. John Cochrane announces a Treatise on the Game of Chess, in an octavo volume, illustrated by numerous diagrams.

The Royal Society of Literature offer premiums of one hundred, fifty,and twenty-five guineas respectively, for the best View of the Age of Homer, the best Poem on Dartmoor, and the best Essay on the Greek Language. To us these appear to be very common-place and exhausted subjects, for the further discussion of which a Royal Society was not wanted.

Mr. Lowe is preparing a volume, on the Situation and Prospects of this Country, in regard to Agriculture, Trade, and Finance.

Mr. T. Lynn will publish in September, and continue annually, a work called Star Tables and Ephemeris for 1822, for the more easily determining the Latitude and Longitude at Sea, during the Night. It will exhibit at sight the apparent times of the passage over the meridian of 61 of the principal Fixed Stars for every day of the year, with their particular meridional altitudes in the parallel of certain harbours and dangers.

Mr. Nicholson's popular Elements of Pure and Mixed Mathematics have been delayed by unavoidable circumstances, but will appear in the course of the autumn. The want of such a supplement to the study of Arithmetic is proved by the anxious demands which have followed its first announcements.

Mr.

Mr. John Frank Newton has in the press a classical work on the Banishment of Ovid, by the Emperor Augustus, under the title of " the Three Enigmas.*'

Various lives of Napoleon are announced, but as their object is either to profit by public sympathy, or to pander to the prejudices of power, it is to be hoped that the public will reserve themselves for his own Memoirs, against the transmission of which, and the free publication, no objection can now be decently opposed.

A Member of the late Salter's Hall Congregation has in the press, a work addressed to the Old Members of that Society, in which some of the Errors of the Rev. Dr. Collyer are stated and corrected.

Sir George Naylor, by command of the King, is preparing an extensive work, with engravings, descriptive of the late gorgeous ceremony of the coronation.

A society for investigating the natural and civil history, geography, &c. of Ceylon, was established under the patronage of the Hon. the Lieutenant Governor, at a meeting held at the King's House in Columbo, on the 11th of last December. The objects to which the attention of the society seem principally to be directed are: — "The geography, geology, and mineralogy of Ceylon. The society at its first meeting had fifty-one members, all emulous for the success of the institution. The Hon. Major-General Sir E. Barnes, the patron, was elected President. The Honourable Sir Hardinge Gifford ; the Hon. Sir Richard Ottley ; the Hon. R. Boyd, Esq.; the Hon. J. W. Carrington, Esq.; the Hon. and venerable Dr. Twisleton and Dr. Farrell were elected vice-presidents. The general committee divides itself into three sub-committees of five members each; viz. 1st, of natural history and agriculture; 2dly, of geology, mineralogy, and geography; 3dly, of civil history, languages, and antiquities.

The number of admissions to the British Museum, from 27th March, 1820 to 25th March, 1821, was 62,543.

The celebrated library of Count Melzi has lately been bought at Milan by Payne and Foss, by whom it has been re-sold to Frank Hall Standish, Esq. in an entire state, and is coming to this country. This magnificent collection contains, among many other rarities of the 15th century, the Livii

Historia Spirts, 1470, pi inted upon vellum, with capitals most tastefully illuminated ; the only perfect copy known; the Lucretius, Brescia Ferrandi.

A writer on the subject of vacc mating dogs, for the prevention of the distemper, states, that James Dearden, Esq. of the Orchard, Rochdale, was unable for several years to rear a single dog; whether he kept them at home, or sent them out to quarters, they all died of the distemper; but about four or five years ago he began to have them vaccinated, and since that time not one dog has suffered from it. The operation has been performed when the dogs were from six weeks to two months old, and the matter has always been inserted on the inner surface of the ear, in a part as free from hair as possible.

Little more than half a century ago, there were but three shops in Loudon for the sale of music and musical instruments, viz. two in the Strand, and one in St. Paul's Church-yard, and at the present time the number exceeds two hundred.

The quarries of marble whence the blocks are taken for the construction of the Plymouth break-water are situated at Oreston, on the eastern shore of Catwater. They consist of one vast mass of compact close-grained marble; seams of clay, however, are interposed through the rock, in which there are also large cavities, some empty, and others partially filled with clay. In one of these caverns in the solid rock, fifteen feet wide, forty-five feet long, and twelve feet deep, nearly filled with compact clay, were found imbedded fossil bones belonging to the RhinoceRos, and portions of the skeletons of three different animals, all of them in the most perfect state of preservation. The part of the cavity in which these bones were found was seventy feet below the surface of the solid rock, sixty feet horizontally from the edge of the cliff, and one hundred and sixty feet from the original edge by the side of the Catwater. Every side of the cave was solid rock: the inside had no incrustation of stalactite, nor was there any external communication through the rock in which it was imbedded, nor any appearance of an opening from above, being inclosed by infiltration.

A short time since, as David Virtue, mason, at Auchtertool, a village four miles from Kirkaldy, in Scotland, was dressing a barley mill-stone from a large block, after cutting away a part,

he

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