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dress was a small fillet or handkerchief round the head, an open jamma* of fine white cloth, and a lungeef of silk plaid pattern, of the country mauufactnre; the texture, apparently, very good, and the colours, green, red, or blue, were vivid, and well fixed; the lobes of their ears also were perforated, with spiral gold rings in them; they had each of them their separate attendants, with red lacquered boxes, containing their betel and cheroots (or segars,) and an earthen goblet of water; the attendants, however, remained on deck. The crews in theboatswere in general robust men,in gait, manners, and appearance, similar to their superiors, some small allowance being made for the hardihood of rusticity; they were also much darker-skinned, the natural effect of constant exposure in their laborious vocation. A Chekoy also came on board much about the same time, in a common boat; he is in the war department, and is superior to the other two. He was a corpulent middle-aged man, rather shabbily dressed; but it appears he was despatched in a hurry to onr assistance, in consequence of our having grounded on entering the river, whereas the others had been waiting for me two days. The Chekoy had the same apparatus as the others for his betel, cheroots, &c, with the addition of a silver pheekdawn.J After chatting nearly an hour.in the cabin, during which they chewed betel, smoked cheroots, and drank water, we adjourned to the deck; and in half an hour more they desired leave to retire to their boats and put off. Their questions were trivial, and their observations mostly complimentary; but they asked in particular after Captain Symes, and the gentlemen of the late embassy. This river is one of the finest for shipping I have ever seen. It is about six hundred .yards wide at Rangoon, theiwater in general deep from shore to shore, the bottom good, and current moderate; how much the tide rises I have not yet learnt, but it must be very high, as ships of eight hundred or nine hundred tons can dock.
* Jauunaisakindoflooiejacket, generally made of muslin, and tied or buttoned on one side of the breast.
■f The luagee goes round the loius, two or three times, and is then brought between the legs, with one ead hanging down in front.
J Pheekdawn, a vase made of brass or silver, for spitting into.
The town has a rude appearance from the river, being composed of st racgling hnts of cadjan and bamboo, raised on piles close to the water's edge, slips for building ships, and mud docks. Seme few tiled houses arc seen among the trees within the stockade, and the roof of the custom-house is raised two stories in the Chinese-style; part of the timber stockade, which encloses what is called the fort, is seen towards the river; and near the flag-staff is a very good wooden pier, with a crane, and steps for landing goods, &e.
ASPECT OF THE COUNTRY.
October 23. For the first time, I today rode into the country, and found it agreeably diversified, with gentle risings and slopes; and from the site of an old pagoda, I had a commanding view of the country for many miles round; the Martaban mountains forming a boundary to the N.B.,the valleys in general beiBg cleared for paddygronnds; to the southward ana westward of the river (the meanderings of which are seen for many miles) is an extensive plain of paddy-grounds bounded by deep forests. The soil of the valleys is a sandy loam, covered with fine luxuriant pasture of grass highly nutritive, as is evinced by the appearance of the cattle, which are as large and in as good condition as I have ever seen in any part of India. The soil of the knolls, or little hills, appeared to be a red loam mixed with sand, on a basis of red rock, that seems to have undergone the action of volcanic fire. It is friable, and broken on the surface into gravel, and seems to contain a large portion of iron. The roads at present are very indifferent, but might very easily be rendered good and fit for carriages. In the vicinity of the town are several orchards of fruit-trees, and many pleasant situations forbuilding. Tbeairispure and elastic, and as yet I have not found the heat oppressive. The general salubrity of the air is best evinced by its effects; the inhabitants, male and female, are a hale robust race; and straDgers in general preserve their health, or recover soon if they arrive sick.
November 14. I rode out to the great pagoda to see a procession of the natives. Fortunately my poyzah(orsircar) has a house close to the stairs leading from the great avenue to the pagoda. There I had carpets spread, ana chairs placed for myself and Mr. Burnet, and commanded
told tbem they need not doubt my per- on my right band, a very
forming all I had agreed to, and immediately I took them off, and sent hack the other servants. The great door of the tent is close to the east side of the enclosure, trot we entered at another gate a little to the right, on purpose. 1 suppose, that the multitude might see me walking in the sun, on the bare ground without my shoes. Before we advanced the sandogans and rayhoon kneeled down, closed their hands flat together, lifted them to their foreheads, and bowed their heads three times to the earth. At their request we took off our hats, and bowed in our own style three tiroes, and then put on onr hats again. The request was made with respect; we then advanced slowly towards the north lace of tbe tent; midway the prostrations on their part and bows on ours were repeated. Just before we came to the door of the tent, they desired tne to take of my bat; this however, I deferred doing until I got into the shade, as the sun was very hot. At the door of the tent, the proslra lions, &c. were again repeated. The whole distance I had to walk in the sun might be 100 feet. After the first prostration, the mayhoon turned immediately into the tent; and so ill had they concerted the farce they were acting with me, that a small pause occurred before they determined to lead me a little more round about.
When we entered the tent, we saw the courtiers arranged in ranks to the right and left, seated on mats spread on the ground fronting the throne to tbe north, so that by entering to the north the princes of the blood, who were seated in the two front rows, had a perfect view of me. A small pause was made also for that purpose. We then walked slowly to the south, passiug the right-hand rows tp the rear, and then turned into the centre avenue between them, to about the centre of the court, where mats were placed for us, and we were requested to pay our respects to the throne; when I dropt on one knee, and bowed my head. We then seated ourselves; I placed my feet across under me in the Hindostanee style; the whoonghees desired I would cover my feet, which I immediately complied with. Some one then desired the interpreter to tell me to sit sideways; the whoonghee called out, "Never mind;" I, however, immediately altered my position, placing my legs sideways, and leaning for support
ungraceful position to those not accustomed to it. The grand andience-tenl is circular, about 300 feet in diameter, supported in the centre by a stout mast about sixty feet high, the pinnacle rising above the top of the tent, perhaps twelve feet more, and gilt. The sides supported by an arcade of 100 arches; the piers of wood about fifteen feet high; the arches formed of bamboo work, the wall-plate which snpports the back of tbe tent was of bamboos; stout ropes are extended in the inside from the centre pole to each pier, and then carried out to posts fifteen or twenty feet beyond, and made fast. These support the fly of the tent, which was made of single dungaree, (a coarse thick cotton fabric, common in India,) in the sea phrase, neither wind nor weather-tight. Round the base of the centre pole was built a pedestal about ten feet square, and fifteen high, whether of wood or masonry, I had no opportunity of observing Round it was a circular open railing about six feet high; and within the enclosure several large square glass lanterns were bung, and looking-glasses arranged, with other trifles of the same kind.
The throne, which came close to the outer edge of the tent, was an octagon of wood, like a large pulpit; each face was about ten feet; the floor elevated about six feet above the level of the tent; the sides open to the south and east, the west and north sides screened by a curtain; the floor was carpeted, and a raised bench covered with velvet cushions laced with gold, was placed near the centre, a little advanced to the front. Below, within the circle of the tent, was a raised seat like a clerk's reading-desk, covered with green velvet, edged and trimmed with broad gold lace, with large red velvet cushions on it, trimmed in the same manner. To the right and left of the throne on the ground, just within the arcade of the tent, were ranged twenty of theking's body-guard, in satin gowns trimmed with gold lace, with treble scolloped capes and cuffs, and gilt hats like Mambrino's helmet. Nearer the throne, to the right or west side> were seated in a line with the body guards, six eunuchs of the palace, native Mahometans, in white jammas and coloured silk lungees, with white handkerchiefs round their heads. The princes of the blood, the chobwas*, and all the cour• Petty tributary princes.
tier* of superior rank, were dressed in red velvet gowns, like that worn by the mayhoon; the caps of the princes and chbbwas, varying according to their rank; which is further denoted by the gold chains they wear. The inferior courtiers' dress and caps were made of satin trimmed with narrow gold lace, but in form the same as the viceroy's. In the avenue immediately fronting the throne, was placed, first, the stands with the letters and presents in a row, on a line with that of the princes; next the chests of treasure, then the coining machinery. The carriage was drawn up close to the outside of the arcade, about forty feet to the eastward of the throne, and within view of his majesty. In the rear of the treasure chests, and immediately in front of the throne, at the distance of about sixty feet from it, I and my suite were seated. About ten feet iu front of me, to the left, was the mayhoon, or viceroy; and in a line with me to the left the rayhoon of Rangoon. In front, a little to the left also, were two sandogans; and in the rear, to the right, the shabunder Jhansey. After I had been seated about twenty minutes, a man, dressed in white, came into the enclosed place within the throne from the rear, as if to arrange the cushions on it, and immediately after he had retired, his majesty entered, and seated himself on the throne. He was dressed in white muslin with a gold border, and had on a crown shaped something like a mitre, about fifteen inches in height, but how ornamented I was too distant to observe. In his hand he had a small chowrie, made of peacocks' quills, with which he fanned away the flies; no one remained in the pulpit with him.' He appeared rather lusty, his countenance open, and complexion rather fairer than the Burmhans in general, with a thin grey beard, and altogether like a Chinese of the southern part of the empire. When seated, he asked in a clear and audible voice, which was the Resident? Then, who was the gentleman next me? He then asked, whether my epaulets and cockade were insignia of my rank? Who were the persons attending in my suite? What was in the chests? What the use of the large blocks of timber, &c.? He was then pleased to say, that he understood I was a sensible and polite gentleman; upon which I placed my hand on my breast, and bowed my head. He immediately said "Ah! that is the manner in which the
Europeans salute their sovereigns. The hand placed on the breast means that their respect flows from the heart." To which the viceroy replied in the affirmative. The sandogan, first prostrating himself three times, then read from a taar leaf, in a singing tone, an account of the presents. After silting about twenty minutes, the king, addressing himself to the viceroy, said, "The weather is very warm, I must retire, take care of him." He then rose from the throne, and retired to his palace in the rear. He was answered sometimes by Mr. Moncourtuse, sometimes by the viceroy, and sometimes by the rayhoon. Ater he had retired, every one arranged their legs at their ease; the eyes of the court were turned on us, and restraint was banished. The princes, about five minutes afterwards, got up and retired without ceremony; they were all bare-footed. The gracious reception I had met with from his majesty, seemed to have diffused a general satisfaction throughout the court; and after a quarter of an hour had elapsed, a number of pages, in satin gowns and caps, brought in Burmhan trays of sweetmeats. These trays were of wood, painted red, and gilt; they were about eighteen inches in height, the side supporters little turned balustrades, united at bottom by a circular rim. The sweatmeats were piled up in little china saucers, consisting of country-made confectionary, covered with conical covers of wicker-work, lacquered red and gilt. Twelve of these trays were placed before me and Mr. Burnett, one of them immediately opposite, filled with china confectionary, considered a rarity here. Next, every one of my attendants had a tray placed before him, then the chobwas, the whoonghees, &c, each a tray served to them in turn, according to their rank, until the whole court was served. They pressed me to eat, and to please them I tasted of almost every dish on the trays before me. Tea was then made and presented, the rayhoon and shabunder Jhansey serving us. Then trays of pawn leaf, with its appendages, were served; towards the conclusion, the courtiers pocketed tlie remainder of the sweatmeats. &c. and we were told we might retire.
About four o'clock in the evening his majesty sent for Mr. Moncourtuse and Mr. Rowland, my private interpreter, in order, as he was pleased to say, that they might hear from himself bis sentiments, so that 1 might not suppose tliem mere complimentary reports from his courtier-,. 2Je said, he thought I was a pnideut sensible man, and asked what was my name. Mr. Moncoartuse defined the distinction between our christian and surnames. He then enquired what was my military rank, and whether I understood the art of war; then the nature of my appointment; which Mr. Moncourtuse defined attorney, or agent for the English East India Company's government in his dominions: with all which he expressed himself much satisfied. He then asked if 1 wan pleased with ray reception, which was answered in the affirmative. He then said, i have ordered Jbansey to prepare boats, and to attend the Resident to see my pagoda whenever he chooses; let him go before the chambers or vaults are closed, that he may examine my mode of strengthening the chambers with lead. He then went to take possession of the carriage, attended by eight bramins, bis queens, the royal family, and courtiers. After the prayers of consecration were over, he opened the door with his own hand, the steps were taken down, and he got in, and expressed himself highly satisfied with its elegance; strictly enjoining his queens not to damage it. He pointed out an error in making the steps fold into the carriage, they ought to have been outside; but he observed, " It is my own fault for not having it so represented in the drawing I sent to the Governor-General." Mr. Moncourtuse represented to him that it was the mode used for the steps of the carriages of all European sovereigns; and gave as a reason what I had previously told him, that if they were fixtuies on the outside they would be liable to be soiled by the mud thrown forward by the hind wheels in travelling. He said it was very right, the Europeans best understood these matters. He then examined the diet and coins; and said that the characters on the copper were very right, but that those on the rupees were obsolete. The viceroy told him that I had promised to get the dies altered in any manner he pleased, with which he appeared highly gratified. He then expressed a wish to see the machinery; and the viceroy told him I had been so kind as to promise to shew them the mode of fixing and using the machinery. "Yes," says he, "the Resident will do that in a few days
which we should be puzzling about (at months. As soon as the festival is over, and we return to Amarapnorah, we will get him to instruct us."' He then inquired if I knew the country they called Yizalley, and whether it belonged to the English? Mr. Moncourtuse did not kdow how to satisfy him on these points. He then said, * I sent him some of the coins of the country, and he shewed my rayhoon a map of it; request of him to send me that chart, and the book that has a drawing of the air-balloon." Mr. Moncourtuse then retired. As he was leaving the palace the king's favourite grandson, the eldest son of the heirapparent, a boy about eleven years of age, sent for him, and told him he was very happy to find his majesty so well satisfied; requested be would take charge of some refreshment for me, (two legs of beef, four pieces of pork, and ajar of ghee,) to assure me of his esteem, and that I had only to send to him for any thing I might want, and if it was to be had in his grandfather's dominions he would procure it for me. Two days before he bad requested to see a book of natural history, with painted figures, which I immediately sent to him; when he returned the book he sent me some provisions, with a polite message of thanks.
ANECDOTE OF THE SULTAN.
February 11. Employed in planning a balloon for his majesty; about noon the rayhoon came and pressed me to send something curious to the king's grandson; 1 therefore sent, under his charge, with my interpreter Mr. Rowland and a chubdar, a volume of curious English birds painted by Donovan in a very superior style, a set of white flint cut-glasses for his betel-box, a white flint cut-glass smelling-bottle filled with essence, a bottle of ottah of roses, two boxes of Tunbridge toy, two small boxes of Dutch toys, some gilt writing-paper, with black lead pencils and a sportman's knife. The rayhoon also requested I would make his majesty a present of a round hat with a white turban, and black and red fear thers, which I used as an undress-hat; I therefore sent it also. When Mr. Rowland arrived at the palace, he was admitted into the garden with the presents, and found the young prince in the palace-garden with his uncle the prince of Prone. He wag highly delighted with the presents, particularly the glass ware. He carried the whole