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he found a lizard imbedded in Ibe stone. It was about an inch and a quarter long, of a brownish yellow colour, and had a round head, with bright sparkling projecting eyes. It was apparently dead, but after being about five minutes exposed to the air it showed sigas of life. It soon ran about with much celerity; and after half an hour'was brushed off the stone and killed. When found, it was coiled up in a round cavity of its own form, being an exact impression of the animal. There were about fourteen feet of earth above the lock, and the block in which the lizard was found was seven or eight feet deep in the rock; so that the whole depth of the animal from the surface was twenty-one or twenty-two feet. The stone . had no fissure, was quite hard, and one of the best to be got from the quarry of Cullaloe—reckoned perhaps the best in Scotland.
Count De Bournsn's Mineralogy states, that during the years 1786,7, and 8, they were occupied near Aix in Provence, in France, in quarrying stone for rebuilding, upon a vast scale, the Palace of Justice. The stone was a limestone of a deep grey, and of that kind which is tender when it comes out of the quany, but hardens by exposure to the air. The strata were separated from one another by a bed of sand mixed with clay, more or less calcareous. The first which were wrought presented no appearance, of any foreign bodies; but, after the workmen had removed the first ten beds, they were astonished, on taking away the eleventh, to find its inferior sui»face, at the depth of forty or fifty feet, covered with shells. The stone of this bed having been removed, as they were taking away a stratum of argillaceous sand, which separated the eleventh bed from the twelfth, they found stumps of columns and fragments of stones half ■wrought, the stone being exactly similar to that of the quarry. They found moreover coins, handles of hammers, and other tools, or fragments of tools, in wood. But what principally commanded their attention, was a board about one inch thick and seven or eight feet long; it was broken into many pieces, of which none were missing, and it was possible to join them again one to another, and to restore to the board or plate its original form, which was that of the boards of the same kind used by the masons and quarry men: it was worn in the same manner,
rounded and waving upon the edges. The stones which were completely or partly wrought, had not at all changed in their nature, but the fragments of the board, and the instruments, and the pieces of instruments of wood, had been changed into agates, which were very fine and agreeably coloured. Here then (observes Count B.) we have traces of a work executed by the hand of man, placed at the depth of fifty feet, and covered with eleven beds of compact limestone—every thing tending to prove that this work had been executed upon the spot where I he traces existed. The presence of man had then preceded the formation of this stone, and that very considerably, since he had already arrived at such a degree of civilization that the arts were known to him, and that he wrought stone and formed columns out of it.
At a late meeting of the Academy of Sciences, M. Cuvier presented to the Society the head of Des Cartes, which M. Berzelius had forwarded from Sweden. He read the history of the head, and the details which proved its authenticity. M. Cuvier also produced a picture of Des Cartes, and remarked that the bony parts seemed of the same character as those in the head sent by M. Berzelius, which gave strength to the idea that it was the genuine head of that great philosopher. The academy deferred its decision on the means of preserving it as a precious relic.
Intelligence has arrived relative to M. Dreux, architect of Paris, now iu the Levant. In September last he was at Athens, returned from his excursions in the different parts of Greece and on the coast of Asia Minor. He has discovered and measured a great number of monuments hitherto unknown, or but slightly examined; among others, several ancient theatres in better preservation than any edifice of the kind in Italy. He has constructed plans and panoramic views that will give a just idea of their situation and the surrounding districts.
The Lancasterian system makes a rapid progress in France; in the department of the Moselle there are, of an age to go to school, 27,507 boys, and 24,593 girls ; of these 23,916 boys, and 21,040 girls, attend the schools.
The printing presses of Palis are at
this time in great activity: many great
aud expensive series are in course of
publication, publication, and many original works are announced. The sale of books is favourable to these extensive speculations. Among the number of works thus in progress are :-r
A pocket edition of the English Poets, in sixty volumes, to be edited by Sir John Byerlby.
A pocket edition of the Latin Classics, In sixty->two volumes.
An edition of Oriental Works, in Sanscrit, Persian, Arabic, &c. engraved in the lithographic manner.
The Natural History of Mamniiferous Animals, by MM. St. Hilaire and Cuvier.
The Anatomy of Man, by MM. Beelard and Cloquet, with 240 engravings in lithography, by Count Lasteyrie, whose lithographic performances are the wonder of all Europe.
Reports of the Speeches and Opinions delivered in the Public Assemblies of France between 1789 and 1S15, in 21 volumes; forming a body of political opinions and senatorial eloquence without parallel.
The Chevalier Dupin's great work on the Public Establishments of Great Britain, is in progress, the naval part being now in the press. This work is a complimentto our nation which has never been exceeded, and merits the attention and respect of every British patriot.
Most of the books of education,, on the English interrogative system, have been printed or are translating with all expedition in France for the use of the public and other schools.
General Joubert is printing an account of his travels and sufferings in Peisia, which have a general interest, for the variety of their information; and a special interest in England, owing • to the disgraceful policy ef which he was the victim.
Caaova has just finished a masterpiece on the subject of Theseus slaying a Centaur.
M. Gau, the architect, a native of Cologne, has just entered into an engagement with Cotta, the bookseller, at Stutgard, for the publication of his Travels in Egypt, Nubia, and Palestine. The drawings represent ancient monuments altogether unknown till now. This is the first tour of the kind undertaken by a German, and the result will add greatly to the honour of
the country, and of those concerned in ibis publication.
From the great influx of manufactured stuffs, and the considerable stock on band, the prices ofManchester,Glasgow, and other goods, at the Last Easter Leifsic Fair, taken in (he aggregate, have fallen from 10 to 20 per cent, and the introduction of the recent improvements in machinery throughout Germany, &c. affords proof that the British manufactories will soon meet with powerful rivals, parti* cularly with regard to calicoes; as the Mulhausen goods, both in body and colour, have a decided preference.
In literature much business has been done, and notwithstanding the restrictions laid by the Congress on the liberty of the press, the general complaint of there being little demand for books, owing to the general depression on the minds of the people, from the circumstances which always succeed a long war, we learn by the Lieipsic halfyearly Universal Catalogue, that 39.1 German booksellers have delivered no less than 3,322 new articles. This far exceeds the publication of former years, a sign that human learning, in spite of various hindrances, stands higher and higher in the scale of perfection, and reflects great honour on the author, publisher, printer, and engraver, whose industry must produce the happiest effects on the public mind in the civilized parts of the world.— Among these publications are:—
704 Pedagogical Books of Instruction; 172 Childs', Juvenile, and School Books: 11 Introductions to Writing, and Specimen of Penmanship ; 204 Philological and Universal Grammar; 21 Antiquities; 35 on Perfection in the German Language; 350 on Learning Modern Languages; 42 on Arithmetic ; 32 on Mathematics; 7 On Astronomy; 136 on Geography and Statistics; 73 Charts; 10 Atlases; 8 on Universal History ol Nature; 235 on Medicine and Surgery for Men and Animals.—From the Muses, 74 Poems; single and collections; with 58 Plays to cheer the mind and heart; 252 Miscellaneous Works, to employ and misemploy the times, among which ure 157 Romances and Novels; 18 of Piny and Gaming Treatises, for small and great children; 255 on Theology, Religious Instruction, Dogmatic, Catholic, and Israeliti-h, for the cultivation of the mind and heart, and te give us a more perfect idea of the invisible power and wisdom of God; with 45 on the Art and Science of destructive War. The number of Works ol Pulpit Eloquence appear to be on the decline.
Translations of Gilford's Abridges
ment ment of Blackstone, Ivanhoe, Kenllworth, the Cavalier, and Fotheringay Castle, are publishing at Leipzic, &c.
The Brothers Wilmans, of Frankfort on the Main, are publishing prospects of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen, in addition to their views of Frankfort, with* topographical descriptions, by learned residents of the respective places, which do them great honour; and in regard to the painter and engravers, they need not blush to have their works placed in comparison with the landscapes of Hearne, Byrne, Middiman, and Heath.
Messrs. Perthes and Besser, of Hamburg, have published an excellent translation of Thomson's Liberty, by a Clergyman, with elaborate illustrative notes.
Professor Zimmerman, of the Gymnasium of Hamburg, has finished the first three months1 delivery of the Dramatic Criticisms, which he commenced in January in quarto numbers.
The pocket editions of Sir Walter Scott and Lord Byron published at Zwickan, in Upper Saxony, meet with many admirers on the continent.
Vessels from the lands situated to the south of Cape Horn have arrived in different ports, with cargoes of seal skins. The regions visited by the New York navigators lie in about 62 degs. lat. where vegetable life is so rare, that a little grass, in a few favoured places, and some moss on the rocks, are all the forms of it that exist. The drearyvdimate exhibits, during the entire summer, perpetual snow and ice; not a tree, nor even a shrub appears. The minerals brought home by Mr. B. Astor, are partly primitive and partly volcanic. The samples produced to Dr. Mitchell are—1. Quartz, in compact and crystallized forms. 2. Amethyst, in crystals. 3. Porphyry, iu small masses. 4. Rough onyx, in pebbles. 5. Lumps of coarse flint. 6. Elegant zeolite, like thaf of the Ferro Groupe in the North Atlantic Ocean. 7. Pumice stone. 8. Pyrites surcharged with sulphur. The manuscript chart made by Mr. Hampton Stewart, is an instructive addition to geography, and ought to be incorporated in the charts of the globe. Geologists will learn with surprise that the high grounds and summits of the rocks, in several of the spots that have been visited, are strewed with skeletons of whales, and relics of other marine animals, leading
to a belief that the whole of the matevials have been hove up by the operation of volcanic fire from the depths of the ocean.
INDIA. A satisfactory report has been received at Rome, from the Dominican missionaries in Tonquin. The letters are dated Feb. 22,1819. This vicariat is considered as the best supplied"TM all Asia "With ministers of the Christian religion. The missionaries live in perfect security, and their forms of worship are treated with respect. They have two colleges, in which a number of young persons are prosecuting useful studies in theology, the Latin tongue, ethics, &c. These are a nursery for future catechists and priests connected with the missions. There were six Spanish and thirty Chinese Dominicans, also twenty-four secular priests. At the above date, baptisms of children, 5,585, of adults, 338, communicants, 146,430, and marriages, 955.
In the journey to Dongolah, in com
5any with the expedition under the irection of Ismael Bey, M. Frederick Caillaud halted some time at Thebes, where he made an interesting discovery. On the 17th of August last, he found in one of the subterraneans of Thebes, a mummy coeval with the time of the Greeks. On the head of the embalmed personage, is a gilt crown, in the form of a lotus. The body is wrapped up in bandelets, after the Egyptian manner. On the case or sarcophagus, which envelopes the mummy, inscriptions are visible, some in Greek and others in hieroglyphics. On the right side, there appears' tied with fillets, a manuscript on papyrus, in the Greek language. The linen that covers the mummy is overspread with Egyptian subjects and hieroglyphic signs. In the interior of the case, the signs of the zodiack are represented.
This valuable-monument is in excellent preservation, though the design, the ornaments, and the colours are not so perfect as in some more ancient works. It appears from hence that the Egyptians attained, under the Greeks, an. acquaintance with hieroglyphics. The famous stone of Rosetta had already proved this, as it regards the epoch of Ptolemy Epiphanes; and certain inscriptions recently found at the feet of the Sphinx, in the excavations of Capt. Caviglia warrant the opinion that the art of their writing had
been been preserved to a certain time under the Romans.
In some recent excavations, by the Arabs, at Thebes, a tomb was opened, wherein were ten or twelve cases of mummies, three of which had Greek inscriptions by the side of hieroglyphics!
The annexed is a translation of one of them:—Tomb of Typhon, son of Heraclius Soter and of Seraposis. He was bom on the second day of Athur, in the 5th year of our Lord Adrian. He died on the 20th of the monthMecheir, in the Wthyear of the sameLord, at theage of six years, two months, and twenty days. He was buried on the 12th of Athur, in the 12th year of Adrian.
This inscription must have lasted 1631 years, Adrian having commenced his reign in (he year 117 of the Christian A-'.r.u
M. Call laud has moreover found iu the catacombs of Thebes, a number of different objects that shed a new light on the manners and customs of the Egyptians, such as furniture, apparel for the legs and feet, ornaments for the
toilet, and even ancient bread in good preservation.
In concert with M. Letorzee, M. Caillaud has been engaged iu geographical investigations. All (he points which they visited have been determined in longitude and latitude, by a number of celestial observations which do not differ above a second from each other. They have taken the longitudes by the distances, and not with the chronometer; an instrument not so well adapted to an elevated and variable temperature.
On the 2jth of September, M. Caillaud obtained from the Pasha of Egypt, new firmauns, assuring him of escorts and such labourers as he might Iiave occasion for, in visiting the countries situated between the upper Nile and the Red Sea; authorising him also to explore the mines which, according to the testimony of ancient authors, existed formerly in the Isle of Meroe.
A detailed account of these travels is preparing for the Journal of Voyages and Travels.
REPORT OF CHEMISTRY AND EXPERIMENTAL PHILOSOPHY.
A DISCOVERY has been recently made of a uew application of the air-pump by Mr. John Oldham, of the Bank of Ireland, that promises to lead to some useful advantages. The sizing of paper in large quantities, as now usually practised by the manufacturer, is a process tedious, uncertain in it's effects, aud destructive to its original texture. By the improved method the difficulties and mischiefs proceeding from the causes stated, are effectually obviated: thus, let paper of equal dimensions, to any amount from the coarsest to the finest substance, be piled as evenly as pos sible, and placed within an air-tight vessel, in such a manner as to be prevented from floating upon any of the fluids to be used, that is then to be poured in, until the pile is covered to the depth the paper occupies, but which should not entirely fill this vessel, when the lid is closely fitted aud fastened thereon, proceed to exhaust the space over tbe fluid with a suitable air-pump,' the air within, on becoming rarified, will cause what is contained within the paper to rush out on all sides to the top, which will consequently escape with the rest through the vallies of the pump by its continued action. On re-admitting the atmosphere, the fluid prevents the ingress of the air again into the paper or substance to be saturated, and can only serve by the pressure natural to it to force the denser element into the possession of every minute receptacle it previously so tenaciously Monthly Mag. No. 357.
held. By this means every sheet becomes equally impregnated, without loss or injury to the fabric paper; when made, can be uniformly dyed any colour by the same process. Also silk, flax, cotton, aud woollen staples, either raw, spun, or when woven, and in the most superior manner. All kinds of animal and vegetable substances can be much better preserved, than by the usual tedious and uncertain method commonly resorted to of boiling, soaking, and pickling, air being the great enemy to all such preparations. The air being discharged in the first instance, as mentioned, the briny fluid will immediately strike into the most intricate interstitial joints of every kind of meat, and by pricking the outsides of the larger vegetables with any sharp instrument, the acids, in the same way, will instantaneously enter into every pore. Tbe outside of meat intended to be preserved fresh by pyrolignous acid, can be much better impregnated to the depth of the meat's surface that is required, than by the method proposed, of dipping, soaking, or painting the joints with this acid and a brush. In short, every thing that requires to be partially or wholly impregnated with the fluids to be appropriated to their respective uses, must always be effected infinitely better by this plan than any other at present known. A complete apparatus of this kiud is now erected in the print ing-office of the Bank of Ireland, for wetting bank-note paper preparatory to I its its being printed on, that fully answers in practice the end proposed. Ten thousand sheets of the thinnest description of banknote paper, perhaps ever made, is wet at once with scarcely any delay, and no loss or injury whatever is now sustained, as formerly.
M. HemptinnE, of Brussels,has shewn, that ice for summer use should be taken from the river on a very cold day, and be exposed on the following night to the open air, till its temperature is in equilibrid with the cold of the atmosphere. It should be then placed in the ice-house, about six o'clock in the morning, when the air becomes warmer. In order to prove the advantages of that method he supposes that two ice-houses have been filled with ice, one with ice at32°, and the other with ice at 14°. When a sixth part of the ice at 32 is melted, the ice at 14° will be untouched, but its temperature will have risen to 32°. One-sixth part of the whole, therefore, has been saved by laying it up at a low temperature.
It is pretended that Capt. Kater, Dr. Olbers, and others, lately saw a Volcano in the Moon. But we doubt the fact, as it would indicate more activity in the component parts of that satellitethan has yet been suspected to exist. It would, ho-vever, indicate an atmosphere, or that the medium of space were a supporter of combustion,—a notion which the phenomena of comets confirm.
The value of the vinegar of wood, lately successfully used for the purpose of preserving meat for a great length of time, even in warm climates, has been proved by M. J- Stanley, M.D. as follows:
"Having previously made several experiments with the acid, which were favourable, on the Othof October,51819,I prepared two pieces of fresh meat (beef) with the purified acid, applying it lightly over their surfaces by means of a small brush. After hanging up in my kitchen till the 12th of November following, I gave one of the specimens to the captain of a vessel bound for the West Indies, with directions to observe and note any change that might take place
during his voyage. In the month of Oct. 1820, he restored me the specimen. Oh comparing it with that left at home I could perceive no sensible difference. On the 21st of December following, I caused both to be thoroughly boiled, and when served up, they were declared by several gentle* men who tasted them with me, to be perfectly fresh and sweet, and, with the addition of salt and vegetables, a palatable and wholesome dish."
Results of experiments on the stiffness and strengths of various specimens of Wood, by John White, Esq. The trials were made upon pieces carefully selected as to quality and grain, and were, in substance, two feet long, one inch square; they were all from split portions of timber. The order of stiffness was, avoirdupois. No. 1. Long Sound t'mber, bent half an inch in the middle by
2. Christiana white spruce fir .
3. English oak, yorfngwood, sup-
4. American pine,yellowor soft;
5. Riga oak (commonly called
6. White spruce, from Quebec
7. Euglish oak, from Godalmin, suppose 200 years; old timber
The order of strength, as ascertained by their being broken by the application of weight, was, lt> avoird.
1. English oak, King's Langley 482
2. Long Sound yellow fir . 396
3. Riga oak (wainscot) . 357
4. Christiana white spruce . 343
5. American pine, from Quebec 329
6. White spruce fir, from Quebec 285
7. English oak, from Godalmin 218 Other trials of strength were as follows:
1. Alice Holt forest, full grown timber, No. 1 . 455
2. Dantzic fir, yellow . 435
3. Alice Holt forest, full grown timber, No. 2 405
4. Christiana yellow fir . '370
5. Archangel, ditto . 330
Acts Passed in the First Year of the Reign of George The Fourth, or in the Second Session of the Seventh Parliament of the United Kingdom.
CAP. XXVI. For making further Provision for the gradual Resumption of Payments in Cash by the Bank of England.—May 7th, 1821.
Land II. Bank of England may pay Notes in Coin, and Persons offered to be paid in Coin, not allowed to demand Payment in Ingots.
V. Bank may pay in One Pound Notes or in Gold.
CAP. XXVII. For making further Provision for the gradual Resumption of Payments in Cash by the Bank of Ireland—May 7th, 1821.
CAP. XXVIII. For abolishing the African Company, and transferring to, and vesting in, his Majesty all the Forts, Possessions, and Property now belonging to or held by them.— May 7tli, 1821. 1. The