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of the place. It is thought, however, surprised when they first enter its pre. that Baltimore, like a promising child, cincts, and look round in vain for the has somewhat outgrown her strength. appearance of a house. The ratio of her increase diminishes The plan marked out for this metrogreatly, and it may perhaps be doubted, polis of the empire, is gigantic, and the whether, in the fallen state of commerce, public buildings, whether in progress she will extend her present limits for or design, bear all the stamp of gran. many years.
deur. How many centuries shall pass I believe it is not generally kpown away ere the clusters of little villages, in this country, how completely some now scattered over this plain, shall asof the home fabrics have superseded the sume the form and magnificence of au foreign in the American market. It is imperial city ? here supposed by many, that the higher I envy not the man who can enter price of labour must prevent competi- without emotion the noble, though still tion with the manufactures of Europe; unfinished structure of the American but this draw-back is balanced by other capitol. Never shall I forget the feeladvantages ; provisions are cheap, the ings with which I first looked down raw material of first rate quality is from the gallery of the hall upon the found in the country; and there are no assembled representatives of a free and taxes. The blankets and broad-cloths sovereign nation. We of course consiwoven of the Merino wool, are not only dered with much interest some of the in the average of superior quality, but more distinguished members, with can often undersell in the market those whom we were previously only acof Europe. The same is the case with quainted by report, or the public prints, the coarse cotton goods. I have seen and waited with some curiosity until cotton cloth, woven in New York, at a they should take their turn in the cent per yard; and in strength of fabric, debate. that of Europe will bear no comparison A bill was introduced by Mr. Bald. with it. The object here is to put as win, of Pennsylvania, a man of vigourlittle of the raw material into the yard, ous intellect, with a rough, but energeas possible; there is not the same temp- tic delivery. The number of able tation to this in America. It may be speakers exceeded my expectation, observed also, that the employment of though I had been prepared to find it machinery now enabling women to per- considerable: they struck me as geneform work which formerly demanded rally remarkable for close, and lucid the agency of men, there is much less reasoning, and a plain, but gentlemanly difference in the price of labour, em- and impressive diction. When Mr. ployed in some of the manufactories in Clay rose, I believe that some apprehenBritain and America, than is here sup- sion was mingled with our curiosity; posed. American women universally for who has not learned from experiprefer employment in a cotton mill to ence, that when expectation is much domestic service, which they always raised, it it usually disappointed ? The feel to be a degradation. In accounting first words uttered by the Speaker of for any fact which, in America, strikes the House satisfied us that no defect of the foreigner as singular, he must al- manner was to break the charm of his ways seek part of its explanation in the eloquence. This distinguished statesnational character, which influenced man has, for many successive years by the political institutions, is there been called to preside in the House by probably more peculiarly marked, than an almost unanimous vote; and, it is in any other country.
said, that no individual ever exercised WASHINGTON.
in it a more powerful influence. He The road from Baltimore hither, seems, indeed, to unite all the qualities about forty miles, leads through an un- essential to an orator ; animation, enerinteresting, and for the most part, bar- gy, high moral feeling, ardent patriotren district. On losing sight of the ism, a sublimed love of liberty, a rapid city, the traveller might think that he flow of ideas and of language, a happy had lost sight of all the beauty and all vein of irony, an action at once vehethe wealth of the state; there are, how- ment and dignified, and a voice full, ever, in Maryland, districts of great sonorous, distinct, and flexible; exfertility, especially in the neighbour quisitely adapted to all the varieties of hood of the eastern waters.
passion or argument;—without excepThose who, in visiting Washington, tion the most masterly voice that I ever expect to find a city, will be somewhat remember to have heard. It filled the MONTHLY MAG. No. 363.
large and magnificent hall without any termixture with strangers and foreignapparent effort on the part of the orator. ers, is, perhaps, to be ascribed the pecuIn conversation, he is no less eloquent liar courtesy and easy politeness which than in debate; and no sooner does he characterize the manners of the city. kindle with his subject, than his voice
THE PRESIDENT. and action betray the orator of the hall; Colonel Monroe enjoys the felicity of yet so unpremeditated is his language, having witnessed at his election the that even in a drawing-room, the orator union of all parties, and of conciliating never appears misplaced.
during his administration, the esteem Leaving the city to make a little ex- and confidence of the whole American cursion in Virginia, we missed the nation. His illustrious predecessors speeches of several distingnished mem- having been placed in active political bers. We returned, however, to attend opposition to a strong, and once, a ruling the close of the debate, which afforded party, of which they effected the overus the opportunity of hearing Mr. throw and destruction, were exposed Lowndes of Carolina. The close and throughout their public career to the deductive reasoning of this gentleman enmity of a discomfited minority; an forms a striking contrast to the fervid enmity which, though their candour oratory of Mr. Clay. They were op- knew how to forgive, their virtues and posed in the debate, and each possessed high-minded forbearance were unable a manner most appropriate to his argu- wholly to appease. The existing prement. Mr. Lowndes is singularly cor- sident came into office at a moment of rect in his selection of language and all others the most fortunate; when the turn of the phrase ; yet the syllables republic had just shaken hands with flow from his lips in an uninterrupted her foreign and internal enemies; and stream; the best word always falling it had been difficult to find a statesman into the right place, not merely without more fitted, by the benevolence of his effort but seemingly without the can- character and mild urbanity of his man. sciousness of the speaker.
ners, to cement the civil concord, than The senate being occupied in ordinary he who was elected. business, we had no opportunity of judg
VIRGINIAN SLAVERY. ing of its oratory ; but being politely T he sight of slavery is revolting admitted on the floor, we admired the every where, but to inhale the impure elegance of the chamber, and made our breath of its pestilence in the free selves acquainted with the persons of winds of America is odious beyond all the senators, and the proceedings of the that the imagination can conceive. The house. The debates of the chamber, as Virginians are said to pride themselves I am informed by some of its members, upon the peculiar tenderness with are conducted with less popular vehe- which they visit the sceptre of authority mence thon those of the hall. I know upon their African vassals. As all not if it be the more advanced age of those acquainted with the character of the senators, or the smaller size of the the Virginia planters, whecher Ameriassembly, which imparts to the delibe- cans or foreigners, appear to concur ratious their character of senatorial gra- in bearing testimony to their humanity, vity. The age fixed by law for a mem- it is probable that they are entitled to ber of the senate is thirty-five years, the praise which they claim, But in and though one or two gentlemen in the their position, justice should be held chamber seem to have numbered little superior to humanity; to break the more than the lustres demanded, the chains would be more generous than to majority of the assembly have the air gild them; and whether we consider of veteran statesmen, some of whom the interests of the master or the slave, have occupied a seat in the house from decidedly more useful... its first organization,
66 Look into the cabins of our free This skeleton city affords few of the negroes," said an eminent individual, amusements of a metropolis. It seems, a native of Virginia, in cov versing with however, to possess the advantage of me lately upon this subject; “ you will very choice society; the resident fami. find there little to encourage the idea, lies are of course few, but the unceasing that to impart the rights of freemen to influx and reflux of strangers from all our black population is to ameliorate parts of the country, affords an ample their condition, or to elevate their chasupply of new faces to the evening racter.” It is undoubtedly true, that drawing-rooms. To this continual in the free negroes of Maryland and Vir
ginia form the most wretched, and con therefore, but what arises from interested sequently the most vicious portion of feelings or personal fear, can the sermons the black population,
and preachings of persons bave on reasoning Mr. Coles, a native of Virginia, and
beings, when the teachers themselves are for some years secretary to Mr. Jeffer
violating the primary doctrives of our blessed son, lately removed a black colony into
Saviour, who exclaimed to a convict
“Go and sin no more ;” and who teaches the state of Illinois. On the death of
true christians to forgive the sins of their his father, this gentleman found him
brethren “seventy times seven times !" In self in possession of seventeen slaves,
this respect, the laws of England require valued at from eight to nine thousand immediate and thorough revision, and their dollars. His property was small, but administration constant amelioration. Till he hesitated not a inoment to relinquish this is done, and till severe punishments are his claims upon his negro vassals. He inflicted only on the incorrigible, no feeling purchased a tract of land near the set but SYMPATHY for the sufferings of objects tlement of Edwardsville, in Illinois,
of legal vengeance, will be found in the where he supplies his former bondsmen
minds of real christians and benevolent per- . with employment, encouraging them
sons. Yet such is the present horrid con
fusion of right and justice, that the punishto lay up their earnings until they shall
ment of minor offences is made equal to have realized sufficient to enter upon
that for the greater ones; and this author their own farms. **** spent some tells us, without an apostrophe, of fifty-two time at Edwardsville last summer, and in one ship, and forty-eight in another, often visited Mr. Coles' settlement. being transported to the antipodes for periods The liberated blacks spoke of their within seven years, which, as they can only former master with tears of gratitude return by paying 150 or 200 pounds for their and affection, and two of them, who
rassage, is virtually a transportation for were hired as servants by the family
lite ! Let us practice towards others those with whom * * * * resided, never
duties which we expect from them. If Mr. omitted to pay a daily visit to Mr.
Reid, Lord Sidmouth, or Mr. Capper had
committed some one of those oflences, or Coles, anxiously enquiring if there
in some incautious moment, got into a lewas nothing they could do for him ? I
gal scrape for the first time, which, by conenvy more the feelings of the man who
struction of law, imposed upon them a senhears that question than those of Cæsar tence of transportation for seven years, what in the capitol.
would they think, if, after one, two, three,
or four years, they were shipped off to the TWO VOYAGES
antipodes, with no probability of ever being
able to return ; and what would they think NEW SOUTH WALES,
of the canting about principles, which in
their own persons were so barbarously AND
mocked ? We know something of prisons Van Diemen's Land,
and convicts, as well as those who quack WITH
themselves, like the Pharisees of old, into A Description of the present Condition of that inte so much notice on the subject; and we resting Colony ; including Facts and Obser.
give it as our solemn opinion, that, although vations relative to the State and Management of
every prisoner in England may really, in
strict law, be guilty of the offe ice with CONVICTS OF BOTH SEXES.
which be is charged, yet if one-half of them ALSO
were told to “ go and sin no more," they Reflections on Seduction,
would never again become the objects of AND ITS GENERAL CONSEQUENCES.
legal cognizance. Yet of such objects, By THOMAS REID,
perhaps one balf of the cargoes to New Member of the Royal College of Surgeons in London, And Surgeon in the Royal Navy.
South Wales consist; and, under the gene
ral term convict, it is by this gentle author The author of this volume is evidently a well considered as a concession, to allow that
intentioned zealot. But he reasons badly; some of them have the qualities and feel- he seems to think, that men who have ings of our common nature! We blame
fallen under the restraint of the law, do not no one—but we call on the legislature to reason at all-and he forgets that every case revise the law's, and till then we think it of conviction involves as great a difference grossly insulting to “ floggee and preachee of personal turpitude as the nature of the too !” We give Mrs. Fry and her excelvarious crimes themselves. All his reason lent committee full credit, but we went ings, therefore, apply only to old offenders, over the same ground years before her, and and to persons often convicted; but in the set her the example which she has nobly cases of the 170 convicts on board the Nep followed. She must know that, in some tune, and of the 121 on board the Morley, respects, she is but varnishing and keeping
we entertain little doubt that two-thirds in countenance a system which calls for ra· were FIRST convictions! What effect, dical change. She knows that, in our worst
prison, all are not vicious; that owing to victs to that country, the system of the ibe fallibility of human nature, the best Hulks and Houses of Correction was dispositions are seduced, and that discri- sul stituted. However, from the inmination and constant remission of punish- creasing number of delinquents, arisment are necessary. She must, ere tbis,
ing not only from the increase of vice, know that more sincere repentance does
but that of population, that mode soon not exist in any congregation of sinners,
became inadequate to the augmented than within the walls of a prison, and that vity and forgiveness are more called for demands for disposing of the prisoners, than canting, reproof, or severity. In ano- as of course to the enforcement of that ther place we kave developed our views of a labour to which for their offences they scale of punishments, but however well · had been sentenced. Plans were then graduated, no punishments ought to be in- acted upon for building extensive pridiscriminately applied. Expatriation should sons, penitentiaries, and asylums for be the extreme resort of society-punish- their reception ; but the enormous exment of death, except for murder, is as use
pense and comparative inefficacy of less as it is barbarous- and of course expa
Those establishments, which it appears triation ought, as the last resort, to be im
were mostly conducted in the old miserposed only on incorrigibles. On this principle, therefore, we consider the chief part an
able mode of gaol discipline, the evils of the observations of Mr. Reid as misap- of which became now universally acplied, indiscriminate, and uncharitable; knowledged, soon raised loud comand though we are glad to observe that the plaints against the system. victims are well-treated during the middle- The attention of government, still passage, and that he so kindly did bis duty, directed to this necessary and imporyet that palliative never reconciled us to tant relief of the community from those the system of African slavery, more than it
who would subvert its comforts and does to the system of indiscriminate depor
security, caused the coast of Africa to tation to New South Wales.)
be explored for a fit situation for a co
lony; but that research proved fruit. ORIGIN OF TRANSPORTATION. less, on account of the unhealthiness of PARLIAMENT authorized this species the climate, or hostility of the natives of punishment in 1715, when the general of those situations which remained unplan of sending convicts to the Ameri- occupied by other European nations, can plantations was first adopted. This rendering it imprndent to risk an essystem continued for 56 years, during tablishment in that country. The diswhich period, and until the commence- covery of the vast territory of New ment of the American war, in 1775, South Wales by Captain Cook, in 1770 great numbers of felons were sent and 1777, opened a new field for dischiefly to the province of Maryland. posing of those refractory characters. The rigid discipline which the colonial The following is recorded by Collins as laws authorized the masters to exercise the commencement of the present coover servants, joined to the prospects lony there:which agricultural pursuits, after some " The Commissioners of His Maexperience was acquired, afforded to jesty's Navy, toward the end of the those outcasts, tended to reform the year 1786, advertised for a certain chief part; and after the expiration of number of vessels to be taken up for the their servitude, they mingled in the so- purpose of conveying between seven ciety of the country, under circum- and eight hundred male and female stances highly beneficial to themselves, felons to Botany Bay, in New South and even to ihe colony. Possessed in Wales, on the eastern coast of New general (as every adroit thief must be) Holland, whither it had been deterof good natural abilities, they availed mined by Government to transport themselves of the habits of industry them, after having sought in vain upon they acquired in the years of their ser- the African coast for a situation posvitude; became farmers and planters sessing the requisites for the establishon their own account; and many of ment of a colony." them succeeding in those pursuits, not MODE AND RESULT OF TRANSonly acquired that degree of respecta
PORTATION. bility which is attached to property and The original mode of transportation industry, but also in their turn became was, that merchants, or agriculturists masters, and purchased the servitude of property, might contract for the conof future transports sent out for sale. veyance of the convicts to their desti
When the American revolution pre- nation, under an act of parliament, revented the further transmission of con- moving them to their estates in the co
lony; and appropriating to their own criptive of character during the term of benefit their services, they found their transportation." work in the plantations during the Lately this benignant purpose has term of their sentence an indemnifica- been carried further ; for, if the father tion for the expenses incurred by their of a family have had the misfortune to voyage, clothing, and subsequent main- fall under the frowns of justice, and tenance.
should his conduct subsequently in New It seems, however, that Government South Wales merit the approbation of did not finally approve of contracts the Governor, he will obtain his Exmade in this manner by private indi. cellency's recommendation, and is sure viduals, as the authority of such per- of being favoured with an order from sons, or its management, was found too the Government at home for his wife weak to enforce proper obedience, and and children to go out to him in that secure from the evils of insubordination. country, where, in a short time, they Moreover, the management of the con- have been known to form comfortable victs remaining exclusively in the and prosperous establishments. A very hands of the contractors, the convicts liberal provision is made for the free might, at the expiration of their time, women and children during the voyage, feeling themselves no longer restrained for which no charge whatever is made by their former task-masters, have against them, or their father, on the emancipated themselves with regard to part of the Government. their employers, and, if opposed vio-
TREATMENT OF CONVICTS. lently, have shaken off all submission The liberality with which convicts to their jurisdiction. Hence anarchy destined for transportation are clothed might ensue, and the bad disposition of and victualled for the voyage, now the convicts would then burst forth usually of four months duration, is with increased violence, and the peace- highly deserving of praise, many of the able and industrious settlers around be persons so circumstanced, or rather the ay noyed and plundered. Such instances majority of them, living more comhave occurred in Van Diemen's Land, fortably, by many degrees, during that where convicts, denominated Bush- period, than they had been used to do rangers, who had broken away from for many years before. Although, acthe restraint placed over them, have cording to the present regulations, they for several years led a vagabond, ma- unfortunately have nothing in the way rauding life, harassing and plundering of employment to occupy their time on the peaceful colonists.
the way out; still, as the greatest care In order to obviate this inconvenience, is taken of their health, at the same and to avoid the expenses which, under time that they are abundantly fed, such circumstances, inust be thrown they generally look well, and are in away, Government itself has taken the perfect health, by the period of their contracts for transportation, and from arrival, and fully capable of proceedthe superior national resources, pro- ing to any work without delay.t vides a more comfortable supply of ne- Every convict received on board the cessai ies and accommodations than any ship which is to convey the number which could have been obtained under determined by Governnient for transthe former arrangement.
portation, is provided with one suit of After the sentence of the law has been clothes and a change of linen, besides a fulfilled in the colony, those who re- flock bed, pillow, and blanket ; and main are still amenable of course to · the authority of the local government.
* “ At their own expeuse !" How could During their servitude care is taken to the author apply the term benignant to so
stry if cruel a system—but he glosses every thing promote their habits of industry, if
and discriminates nothing. Is it not monsthey have acquired or shown any such ;
trous to see such a colouring given to an and particularly if they manifest an
unfeeling system, which sends men and improvement in moral character, and
women to the Antipodes for fractional conduct themselves with propriety,
periods of seven years, and then be told of every facility is afforded them to be
the benignity of allowing them to return come settlers, and useful members of
on the impossible conditions of paying ther the colony; or, if they be desirous of
expenses ? returning to Europe, a passage home is † This paragraph seems to be copied readily permitted, but at their own from some one of the early apologists of expense, and a certificate granted des- the Slave Trade.-Ed.