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growth, but of an entirely different the neck of land which separa tes Syddescription from the timber of Europe. ney Cove from Lane Cove, and extends It is, however, very durable, and well a considerable distance back into the adapted to all the purposes of human country besides. industry.
This part of the town, it may, there· The only metal yet discovered is fore, be perceived, forms a little peniniron. It abounds in every part of the sula; and what is of still greater imcountry, and in some places the ore is portance, the water is in general of remarkably rich.' Coals are found in sufficient depth in both these coves to many situations of the best qnality. allow the approach of vessels of the There is also abundance of slate, lime- largest burden to the very sides of the stone, and granite, though not in the rock. immediate vicinity of Port Jackson. The appearance of the town is rude Sand-stone, quartz, and free-stone are and irregular. Until the administra. found every where.
tion of Goveruor Macquarie, little or ABORIGINES.
no attention had been paid to the layThe aborigines of this country oc. ing out of the streets, and each procupy the lowest place in the gradatory prietor was left to build on bis lease, scale of the human species. They have where and how his caprice inclined neither houses nor clothing; they are him. He, however, has at length sucentirely unacquainted with the arts of ceeded in establishing a perfect reguagriculture; and even the arms, which larity in most of the streets, and has the several tribes have, to protect ther: - reduced to a degree of uniformity, what selves from the aggressions of their would bave been deemed absolutely neighbours, and the hunting and fish. impracticable, even the most confused ing implements, with which they ad. portion of that chaos of building, which minister to their support, are of the is still known by the name of “ The rudest contrivance and workmanship. Rocks;" and which, from the rugged.
Thirty years intercourse with Euro- ness of its surface, the difficulty of acpeans has not effected the slightest cess to it, and the total absence of orchange in their habits; and even those der in its houses, was for many years who have most intermixed with the more like the abode of a horde of sacolonists have never been prevailed vages than the residence of a civilized upon to practise one of the arts of ci- community vilized life. Disdaining all restraint, There are in the whole upwards of a their happiness is still centered in their thousand houses; and, although they original pursuits ; and they seem to are for the most part small, and of consider the superior enjoyments to be mean appearance, there are many pubderived from civilization, (for they are lic buildings, as well as houses of invery far from being insensible to them) dividuals, which would not disgrace but a poor compensation for the sacri- this great metropolis. Of the former fice of any portiou of their natural li. class the public stores, the general hosberty. The colour of these people is a pital, and the barracks, are perhaps dark chocolate; their features bear a the more conspicuous; of the latter the strong resemblance to the African ne- houses of Messrs, Lord, Riley, Howe, gro; they have the same flat nose, large Underwood, and Nichols. nostrils, wide mouth, and thick lips : Land in this town is in many places but their hair is not woolly, except in worth at the rate of £1000 per acre, Van Diemen's Land, where they have and is daily increasing in value. Rents this further characteristic of the negro. are in consequence exorbitantly high. SYDNEY.
It is very far from being a commodious Sydney, the capital of New South house that can be had for £100 a year Wales, is situated in 330 55! of south unfurnished. latitude, and 1510 25' of east longitude. Here is a very good market, although It is about seven miles distant from the it is of very recent date. It was estabheads of Port Jackson, and stands lished by Governor Macquarie, in the principally on two lilly necks of land year 1813, and is very well supplied and the intervening valley, which to with grain, vegetables, poultry, butter, gether form Sydney Cove. The wes- eggs and fruil. tern side of the town extends to the flere also is a Bank, called " The water's edge, and occupies, with the Bank of New South Wales," which exception of the small space reserved was established in the year 1817, and around Dawe's Battery, the whole of proinises to be of great and permanent
benefit benefit to the colony in general. Its which is about forts miles distant, and capital i £21.1%), 'disided into two is kept by the clergy man of that dishundred stares. It has a regular char. trict, the Rev. Henry Fulton, a genter of incorporation, and is under the tleman peruliarly qualified both from controul of a president and six diree bis character and acqgirements for tors, wbo are annually chosen by the conducting so responsible and importproprietors. The paper of this bank is ant an andertaking. The boys in this now the principal circulating medium seminary receive a regalar classical of the colony. They discount bills of education, and the terms are as rea. a short date. and also advance money sonable as those of similar establishon mortgage securities. They are als ments in this country, lowel to receive in return an interest HARBOUR AND SCENERY. of ten per cent. per annum.
The harbour of Port Jackson is perThis town also contains two very haps exceeded by pone in the world good public schools, for the education except the Derwent in point of size and of children of both sexes. One is a day salety; and in this latter particular 1 school for boys, and is, of course, only rather think it has the ad rantage. It intended to impart gratuitous instruc. is parigable for vessels of any burden tion ;-the other is designed both for for abont seven miles abore the town, the education and support of poor and i. e. about fifteen from the entrance. It helpless female orphans. This institue possesses the best anchorage the whole tion was founded by Governor King, as way, and is perfectly sheltered from long back as the year 1500, and con- every winal that can blow. It is said, tains about sixty children, who are and 'I believe with truth, to have a taught reading, writing, arithmetic, hundred coves, and is capable of consewing, and the various arts of domes- taining all the shipping in the world. tic economy.
There can be no doubt, therefore, that Besides ihese two public schools in in the course of a few years, the town the town of Sydney, which together of Sydney, from the excellence of its contained, by the last accounts received situation alone, must become a place from the colony, two hundred and of considerable importance. twenty-four children, there are estab. The views from the heigbts of the lishments for the gratuitous diffusion town are bold, varied, and beautiful. of education in every populous district The strange irregular appearance of throughout the colony.
- the town itself, the numerous coves Independently of these laudable ins. and islets both above and below it, the titutions thus supported at the expense towering forests and projecting rocks, of the government, there are two pri. combined with the infinite diversity vate ones intended for the dissemina- of hill and dale on each side of the hartion of religious knowledge, which are bour, form altogether a coup d'eil, of wholly maintained by voluntary con- which it may be safely asserted that tribution. One is termed “ The Auxi. few towns can boast a parallel. liary Bible Society of New South
PARRAMATTA. Wales," and its object is to co-operate The town of Parramatta is situated with the British and Foreign Bible at the head of Port Jackson Harbour, Society, and to distribute the holy at the distance of about eighteen miles Scriptures either at prime cost, or gra- by water, and fifteen by land, from tis, to peedy and deserving applicants. Sydney. The other is called “ The New South The town itself is far behind Sydney Wales Sunday School Institution," and in respect of its buildings; but it neverwas established with a view to teach theless contains many of a good and well-disposed persons of all ages how to substantial construction. These, with read the sacred volume. These socie- the church, the government house, ties were instituted in the year 1817, the new Orphan House, and some and are under the direction of a general gentlemen's seats, which are situated committee, aided by a secretary and on the surrounding eminences, give it, treasurer.
upon the whole, a very respectable There are in this town, and other appearance. parts of the colony, several good pri- "The population is principally comvate seminaries for the board and edu- posed of inferior traders, publicans, cation of the children of opulent parents. artificers, and labourers, and may be The best is in the district of Castlereagh, estimated, inclusive of a company which is always stationed there, on a mer are sometimes excessive, the therrough calculation, at about twelve mometer frequently rising in the shade hundred souls.
to ninety, and even to a hundred deWINDSOR.
grees and upwards of Fahrenheit. The town of Windsor, (or, as it was This, howerer, happens only during formerly called, the Green Hills,) is the hot winds; and these do not prethirty-five miles distant from Sydney, vail upon an average, more than three "and is situated near the confluence of the or four days in the year. The mean South Creek with the river Hawks- heat during the three summer months, bury. It stands on a hill, whose ele- December, January, and February, is vation is about one hundred feet above about 800 at noon. This, it must be the level of the river at low water. adinitted, is a degree of heat that The buildings here are of much the would be highly oppressive to Englishsame cast as at Parramatta, being in men, were it not that the sea breeze general weather boarded without, and sets in regularly about nine o'clock in lathed and plastered within.
the morning, and blows with consideraThe bulk of the population is com- ble force from the N.E. till about six posed of settlers, who have farms in or seven o'clock in the evening. It is the neighbourhood, and of their ser- succeeded during the night by the land vants. There are besides a few infe- breeze from the mountains, · which rior traders, publicans, and artificers, varies from W.S.W. to W. In very The town contains in the whole about hot days the sea breeze often veers six hundred souls.
round to the north and blows a gale. Following the windings of the river, In this case it continues with great the distance of Windsor from the sea is violence, frequently for a day or two, · about one hundred and forty miles; and is then succeeded not by the regu
whereas in a straight line it is not more lar land breeze, but by a cold southerly 'than thirty-five. The rise of the tide squall. The hot winds blow from the is about four feet, and the water is N.W. and doubtless imbibe their heat fresh for forty miles below the town. from the immense tract of country LIVERPOOL.
which they traverse. The town of Liverpool is situated on During these three months violent the banks of George's river, at the dis storms of thunder and lightning are tance of eighteen miles from Sydney. very frequent, and the heavy falls of It was founded by Governor Macquarie, rain which take place on these occaand is now of about six years standing. sions, tend considerably to refresh the Its population may amount to about country, of which the verdure in all but two hundred souls, and is composed low moist situations entirely disapof a small detachment of military, of pears. At this season the most uncultivators, and a few artificers, tra pleasant part of the day is the interval ders, publicans, and labourers.
which elapses between the cessation of SOCIETY.
the land breeze and the setting in of There are at present no public the sea. This happens generally beamusements in this colony. Many tween six and eight o'clock in the years since there was a theatre, and morning, when the thermometer is more latterly annual races; but it was upon an average at about 720. During found that the society was not suffi- . this interval the sea is as smooth as ciently mature for such establishments. glass, and not a zephyr is found to disDinner and supper parties are very port even among the topmost boughs of frequent in Sydney; aud it generally the loftiest trees. happens that a few subscription balls The three autumn months are March, take place in the course of the year. April, and May. The weather in March Upon the whole it may be safely as- is generally very unsettled. This month, serted, that the natural disposition of in fact, may be considered the rainy the people to sociality has not only been season, and has been more fertile in in no wise impaired by their change of floods than any other of the year. The scene, but that all classes of the colo- thermometer varies during the day nists are more hospitable than persons about 15°, being at day-light as low as of similar means in this country. from 550 to 600, and at noon as high CLIMATE.
as from 700 to 750. The sea and land The climate of the colony, particu- breezes at this time become very feeble, larly in the inland districts, is highly although they occasionally prevail dursalubrious, although the heats in sum- ing the whole year. The usual winds
the end of March to the beginning of and new-comers. In these it is gene. September, are from S, to W.
rally intimately connected with scurry, The three winter months are June, and in both cases it is for the most part July, and August. During this inter- greatly aggravated by the excessive use val the mornings and evenings are very of spirituous liquors, to which the mass chilly, and the nights excessively cold. of the colonists are unfortunately ad. Hoar frosts are frequent, and become dicted. more severe the further you advance There are no infantile diseases what. into the interior. Ice half an inch ever. The measles, hooping cough, thick is found at the distance of twenty and small pox, are entirely unknown. miles from the coast. Very little rain Some few years, indeed, before the falls at this season, but the dews are foundation of the colony, the small very heavy when it does not freeze, pox committed the most dreadful raand tend considerably to' preserve the vages among the aborigines. This exyoung crops from the effects of drought. terminating scourge is said to have Fogs too are frequent and dense in low been introduced by Captain Cook, and damp situations, and on the banks of many of the contemporaries of those the rivers. The mean temperature at who fell victims to it are still living; day-light is from 40° to 450, and at and the deep furrows which remain in noon from 550 to 600.
some of the countenances shew how The spring months are September, narrowly they escaped the same prema. October, and November. In the be- ture destiny. ginning of September the fogs still con
SOIL. tinue, the nights are cold, but the days. The colony of New South Wales posclear and pleasant. Towards the close sesses every variety of soil, from the of this month the cold begins very sandy heath and the cold hungry clay, sensibly to moderate. Light showers to the fertile loam and the deep vegetaoccasionally prevail, accompanied with ble mould. For the distance of five or thunder and lightning. The thermo- six miles from the coast the land is in meter at the beginning of the month is general extremely barren, being a poor seldom above 600 at noon, but towards hungry sand, thickly studded with the end frequently rises to 70°.
rocks. A few miserable stunted gums, Such is the temperature throughout and a dwarf underwood, are the richest the year at Port Jackson. In the in- productions of the best parts of it; land districts to the eastward of the whilst the rest never gires birth to a mountains, the thermometer is upon tree at all, and is only covered with an average 5° lower in the morning, low flowering shrubs, whose infinite and the same number of degrees higher diversity, however, and extraordinary at noon throughout the winter season, beauty render this wild heath the most but during the summer months it is interesting part of the country for the 5° higher at all hours of the day. On botanist, and make even the less scienthe mountains themselves, and in the tific beholder forget the nakedness and country to the westward of them, the sterility of the scene. climate, in consequence of their su- Beyond this barren waste, which perior elevation, is much more tem- thus forms a girdle to the coast, the perate. Heavy falls of snow take place country suddenly begins to improve. during the winter, and remain some. The soil changes to a thin layer of times for many days on the summits of vegetable mould, resting on a stratum the loftiest hills; but in the valleys the of yellow clay, which is again supsnow immediately dissolves. The frosts ported by a deep bed of schistus. The too are much more severe, and the win- trees of the forest are here of the most ters are of longer duration. All the stately dimensions. Full sized gums seasons indeed are more distinctly and iron barks, along side of which the marked to the westward of the moun. loftiest trees in this country would aptains, and bear a much stronger re- pear as pigmies, with the beefwood semblance to the corresponding ones in tree, or, as it is generally termed, the this country.
forest oak, which is of much humbler DISEASES.
growth, are the usual timber. The Abdominal and pulmonic complaints forest is extremely thick, but there is are the two prevalent diseases. The ab- little or no underwood. A poor sour dominal complaints are confined prin- grass, which is too effectually shaded cipally to dysentery. This disorder is from the rays of the sun to be possessed most common among the poorer classes of any nutritive and fattening proper
ties, shoots up in the intervals. This fit for any and every purpose : where description of country, with a few ex- fine wooled sheep may be increased to ceptions, however, which deserve not any extent, in a climate peculiarly to be particularly noticed, forms ano. congenial to them. Ere long you will .ther girdle of about ten miles in hear of a route being continued to the breadth : so that, generally speaking, southward as far as Twofold Bay, and the colony for about sixteen miles into soon further in succession through a the interior, may be said to possess a country as much superior to the cow soil, which has naturally no claim to pastures as that now enviable district is fertility, and will require all the skill to the land contiguous to Sydney; and and industry of its owners to render it where our herds, our flocks, and our even tolerably productive.
cultivation may unlimitedly increase COUNTRY WEST OF THE BLUE at an inconsiderable distance from the MOUNTAINS.
great and grand essential in a young The country to the westward of the colony-water carriage !" Blue Mountains ranks next in conti. The elevation of Mount York, the guity to Sydney, and claims pre-emi- highest of the mountains above the nence not so much from any superiority level of the sea, has been found to be of soil in those parts of it which have only 3200 feet, and I should imagine been explored, as from its amazing ex- that their general height cannot extent, and great diversity of climate. ceed 2000 feet. For the first ten or These mountains, where the road has twelve miles they are tolerably well been made over them, are fifty-eight clothed with timber, and produce ociniles in breadth; and as the distance casionally some middling pasture; but from Sydney to Emu Ford, at which beyond this they are excessively barren, place this road may be said to com- and are covered with a thick brush, mence, is about forty miles, the be interspersed here and there with a few ginning of the vast tract of country to miserable stunted gums. They bear, the westward of them, it will be seen, in fact, a striking similarity, in resis ninety-eight miles distant from thé pect both to their soil and productions, capital.
to the barren wastes on the coast of The road which thus traverses these Port Jackson. They are very rocky, mountains is by no means difficult for but they want granite, the distinguishwaggons, until you arrive at the passing characteristic of primitive mounwhich forms the descent into the low tains. Sandstone thickly studded with couutry. There it is excessively steep quartz and a little freestone, are the and dangerous; yet carts and waggons only varieties which they offer ; a cirgo up and down it continually: nor do cumstance the more singular, as the I believe that any serious accident has moment you descend into the low counyet occurred in performing this very try beyond them, granite is the only formidable undertaking.
sort of stone that is to be met with By the last advices from the colony, for upwards of 200 miles. which contain information up to the For the whole of this distance to the 13th of June, 1819, it appears that a westward of these mountains, the counbetter pass has at last been effected, try abounds with the richest herbage, and that a communication has been and is, upon the whole, tolerably well opened to the delightful country be supplied with running water. This yond the Blue Mountains, of easy ac- large and fertile tract of country is in cess, running through lands of the general perfectly free from underwood; very best description. The colonists and in many places is without any tim: are indebted for this acquisition to their ber at all. Bathurst Plains, for instance, resources to the exertions of Charles where there is a commandant, a miliThrosby, Esq. a large land and stock. tary depôt, and some few settlers esholder, many years resident in New tablished, have been found by actual South Wales. Mr. Throsby was on admeasurement, to contain upwards of the whole occupied fifteen days on the 60,000 acres, upon which there is expedition : his progress being retarded scarcely a tree. The whole of this from several of his party falling sick, western country, indeed, is much more and from the badness of the weather; open and free from timber than the but by the delay he had a better opporé best districts to the eastward of the tunity of examining the country on each Blue Mountains. side of his route, and in a letter to one
PROBABLE RIVER. of his friends, he says: “I have no The discovery of this vast and as yet hesitation in stating we have a country imperfectly kulown tract of country,